|Education in the United States|
Advanced Placement (AP) is a program in the United States and Canada created by the College Board which offers college-level curricula and examinations to high school students. American colleges and universities may grant placement and course credit to students who obtain high scores on the examinations. The AP curriculum for each of the various subjects is created for the College Board by a panel of experts and college-level educators in that field of study. For a high school course to have the AP designation, the course must be audited by the College Board to ascertain that it satisfies the AP curriculum. If the course is approved, the school may use the AP designation and the course will be publicly listed on the AP Course Ledger.
- 1 History
- 2 Scoring
- 3 Score reporting
- 4 Exam subsidies
- 5 Advanced Placement courses
- 6 Upcoming exam changes
- 7 Recent exam information
- 8 Criticism
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
After the end of World War II, the Ford Foundation created a fund that supported committees studying education. The program, which was then referred to as the "Kenyon Plan", was founded and pioneered at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio by the then-college president Gordon Chalmers. The first study was conducted by three prep schools—the Lawrenceville School, Phillips Academy and Phillips Exeter Academy—and three universities—Harvard University, Princeton University and Yale University. In 1952 they issued the report General Education in School and College: A Committee Report which recommended allowing high school seniors to study college level material and to take achievement exams that allowed them to attain college credit for this work. The second committee, the Committee on Admission with Advanced Standing, developed and implemented the plan to choose a curriculum. A pilot program was run in 1952 which covered eleven disciplines.
The College Board, a non-profit organization based in New York City, has run the AP program since 1955. From 1965 to 1989, Harlan Hanson was the director of the Advanced Placement Program. It develops and maintains guidelines for the teaching of higher level courses in various subject areas. In addition, it supports teachers of AP courses and supports universities. These activities are funded through fees required to take the AP exams.
In 2006, over one million students took over two million Advanced Placement examinations. Many high schools in the United States offer AP courses, though the College Board allows any student to take any examination regardless of participation in its respective course. Therefore, home-schooled students and students from schools that do not offer AP courses have an equal opportunity to take AP exams.
As of the 2015 testing season, exams cost $91 each, though the cost may be subsidized by local or state programs. Financial aid is available for students who qualify for it; the exam reduction is $26 or $28 per exam from College Board plus an additional $8 rebate per fee-reduced exam from the school. There may be further reductions depending on the state. Out of the $91, $8 goes directly to the school to pay for the administration of the test, which some schools will reduce to lower the cost to the student.
On April 3, 2008, the College Board announced that four AP courses—French Literature, Latin Literature, Computer Science AB, and Italian Language and Culture—would be discontinued after the 2008–2009 school year due to lack of funding. However, the Italian Language and Culture test was again offered beginning in 2011.
Starting July 2013 AP allowed students for the first time to both view and send their scores online.
The number of AP exams administered each year has seen a steady increase over the past decade. In 2003, 175,860 English Language and Composition exams were administered. By 2013, this number had risen to 476,277, or an increase of 171%. Such an increase has occurred in nearly all AP exams offered, with the AP Psychology exam seeing a 281% increase over the past decade. In 2013, the most taken AP exam was English Language and Composition with 476,277 students and the least taken AP exam was Japanese Language and Culture with 1,169 students.
AP tests are scored on a 1 to 5 scale as follows:
- 5 – Extremely well qualified
- 4 – Well qualified
- 3 – Qualified
- 2 – Possibly qualified
- 1 – No recommendation
The multiple choice component of the exam is scored by computer, while the free response and essay portions are scored by trained Readers at the AP Reading each June. The scores on various components are weighted and combined into a raw Composite Score. The Chief Reader for each exam then decides on the grade cutoffs for that year's exam, which determine how the Composite Scores are converted into the final grades. During the process a number of reviews and statistical analyses are performed to ensure that the grading is reliable. The overall goal is for the grades to reflect an absolute scale of performance which can be compared from year to year.
Some colleges use AP test scores to exempt students from introductory coursework, others use them to place students in higher designated courses, and some do both. Each college's policy is different (see link below), but most require a minimum score of 3 or 4 to receive college credit. Typically, this appears as a "CR" grade on the college transcript, although some colleges and universities will award an A grade for a 5 score. Some countries, such as Germany, that do not offer general admission to their universities and colleges for holders of an American high school diploma without preparatory courses will directly admit students who have completed a specific set of AP tests, depending on the subject they wish to study there.
In addition, completing AP courses help students qualify for various types of scholarships. According to the College Board, 31 percent of colleges and universities look at AP experience when making scholarship decisions.
Beginning with the May 2011 AP Exam administration, the College Board changed the scoring method of AP Exams. Total scores on the multiple-choice section are now based on the number of questions answered correctly. Points are no longer deducted for incorrect answers and, as was the case before, no points are awarded for unanswered questions. However, scoring requirements have also been increased.
Starting with the May 2013 AP Examination Administration, the College Board launched an Internet-based score reporting service. Students can use their 2013 AP Number or Student Number (if one was indicated) along with a College Board Account, to access current and previous years' exam scores. This system can also be used to send scores to colleges and universities for which a 4-digit institutional code is assigned.
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Recognizing that the cost could be an impediment to students of limited means, a number of states and municipalities independent of the College Board have partially or fully subsidized the cost. For example, the state of Florida reimburses schools districts for the exam costs of students enrolled in Advanced Placement courses. The Los Angeles Unified School District, the Montebello Unified School District, the Hawaii Department of Education, New York City Department of Education, and the state of Indiana subsidize all AP Examination fees in subjects of math and science, and the Edmonds School District in suburban Seattle currently subsidizes Advanced Placement fees of students who enroll in the free school lunch program. In addition, some school districts offer free tests to all students enrolled in any Advanced Placement class.
Advanced Placement courses
There are currently 37 courses and exams available through the AP Program. A complete list of courses can be found below:
Upcoming exam changes
- AP European History
- This exam will undergo the same changes as the United States History exam.
- The multiple choice section will be shortened to 55 multiple choice questions. The weighing of the section on the exam will also be reduced from 50% to 40%.
- The 115-minute writing period will be replaced with separate 60 and 35 minute writing periods for the document-based question and the remaining long essay question. These two essays will account for 40% of the exam total, or 25% and 15% for each question respectively.
- One long essay question will be replaced with 4 short-answer questions worth 20% of the total exam score.
- AP Art History
- The multiple choice portion of the exam will be significantly shortened, from 115 to 80 multiple choice questions.
- The number of short essay questions will be reduced from six to four.
- AP World History
- This exam will also undergo the same basic changes to the 2014-2015 United States History and 2015-2016 European History exams.
- Shortened multiple-choice question with 55 questions, accounting for 40% of the total exam score. These are reduced from 70 questions and 50% in previous years, respectively.
- Four short-answer questions in place of one of the long essays, accounting for 20% of the total exam score. These questions are given a 50-minute writing period.
- Document-based question (DBQ) and the remaining long essay now account for 25% and 15% of the exam score respectively. New writing periods of 55 minutes and 35 minutes respectively are given instead of the combined 120-minute writing period for all three essays in previous exams.
- This exam will also undergo the same basic changes to the 2014-2015 United States History and 2015-2016 European History exams.
- AP Calculus AB
- Time format changed
- Addition of L'Hôpital's rule
- AP Calculus BC
- Addition of limit comparison tests, absolute and conditional convergence, and the alternating series.
Recent exam information
Below are statistics from the 2014 year of exams.
|Exam||Number administered||% 3 or higher||Mean score|
|United States Government||271,043||50.7||2.62|
|Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism||20,765||70.8||3.51|
|Physics C: Mechanics||47,000||76.7||3.56|
|Studio Art: 2-D Design||26,811||78.5||3.33|
|Studio Art: 3-D Design||4,256||67.5||3.04|
|Studio Art: Drawing||16,928||77.5||3.27|
|United States History||462,766||52.4||2.76|
Passing scores and university credit
Faculty at a number of universities[who?] have expressed doubts about the value of a passing AP score. Students who receive scores of 3 or 4 are being given college credit at fewer universities.[when?] Academic departments also criticise the increasing proportion of students who take and pass AP courses but are not ready for college-level work.
Independent researchers in education have since 2010 studied the impact of the Advanced Placement program on students' academic achievement. An early study published in AP: A critical examination of the Advanced Placement program found that students who took AP courses in the sciences but failed the AP exam performed no better in college science courses than students without any AP course at all. Referring to students who complete the course but fail the exam, the head researcher, Phillip M. Sadler, stated in an interview that "research shows that they don’t appear to have learned anything during the year, so there is probably a better course for them".
Two other studies compared non-AP students with AP students who had not taken their course's AP exam, had taken the AP exam but did not pass it, or had passed the AP exam. Like Sadler's study, both found that AP students who passed their exam scored highest in other measures of academic achievement. The largest study of this sort, with a sample size of over 90,000, replicated these results and also showed that non-AP students performed with equal levels of academic achievement as AP students who did not take their course's AP exam—even after controlling for over 70 intervening variables. This led the authors to state that AP participation "... is not beneficial to students who merely enroll in the courses ...":p. 414
Several states use Advanced Placement data for accountability purposes, and U.S. News and World Report use data on Advanced Placement course offerings and participation to rank high schools. However, studies of local school districts and the United States as a whole show that increasing AP participation does not increase the overall academic achievement or school quality at the group (e.g., high school, racial/ethnic group, nation) level. This led one researcher to state, "Clearly, offering AP alone will not magically turn a failing school into a successful one."
- Advanced Placement Awards
- GCE Advanced Level
- Education in Canada
- Education in the United States
- International Baccalaureate
- Glossary of biology
- Glossary of chemistry
- Glossary of economics
- Glossary of physics
- Glossary of probability and statistics
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- "A Brief History of the Advanced Placement Program" (PDF). College Board. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 5, 2009. Retrieved January 29, 2009.
- "Historical Markers: Kenyon College". Kenyon College. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
- Stanley N. Katz (March 10, 2006). "The Liberal Arts in School and College". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved January 21, 2011.
- About the College Board from collegeboard.com
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- Program Summary Report 2006 from collegeboard.com
- AP Fact Sheet from collegeboard.com
- AP: Frequently Asked Questions from collegeboard.com
- de Vise, Daniel (April 4, 2008). "AP Language, Computer Courses Cut". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2011-01-21.
- Important Announcement about AP Italian Language and Culture from collegeboard.com
- AP Online Scores
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- Understanding AP Exams Archived September 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. from PathAspire.com
- Multiple-Choice Scores from collegeboard.com
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- Finnegan, Leah (August 11, 2010). "AP Eliminates Guessing Penalty On Tests". Huffington Post.
- "Score Reporting Services". College Board. 2013. p. 1. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- "Create a CollegeBoard Account". College Board. 2013. p. 1. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- "List of 4-digit Institutional Codes, PDF" (PDF). Educational Testing Service. 2013. p. 1. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- "AP World History Revisions - Advances in AP - The College Board | Advances in AP". advancesinap.collegeboard.org. Retrieved 2015-06-03.
- Zimar, Heather (2005). "Universities Raise Standards for Earning Advanced Placement Credit". SEM Source: An Update on State of the Art Student Services. American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (January 2005). Retrieved November 7, 2012.
- Hood, Lucy; Sadler, Philip M. (2010). "Putting AP to the Test: New research assesses the Advanced Placement program". Harvard Education Letter. 26 (May/June 2010). Retrieved November 7, 2012.
- Ackerman, Phillip; Kanfer, Ruth; Calderwood, Charles (2013). "High school Advanced Placement and student performance in college: STEM majors, non-STEM majors, and gender differences". Teachers College Record. 115 (10): 1–43.
- Warne, Russell T.; Larsen, Ross; Anderson, Braydon; Odasso, Alyce J. (2015). "The impact of participation in the Advanced Placement program on students' college admissions test scores". The Journal of Educational Research. 108 (5): 400–416. doi:10.1080/00220671.2014.917253.
- Morse, Robert. "How U.S. News Calculated the 2015 Best High Schools Rankings". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- Lichten, William (2010). Whither Advanced Placement--now. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press. pp. 233–243.
- Warne, Russell; Anderson, Braydon. "The Advanced Placement program's impact on academic achievement" (PDF). New Educational Foundations (4): 32–54.
- Warne, Russell T. "Pushing students to take Advanced Placement courses does not help anyone". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- McCauley, David. 2007. The Impact of Advanced Placement and Dual Enrollment Program on College Graduation.
- Applied Research Project. Texas State University. http://ecommons.txstate.edu/arp/206/
- Schneider, Jack. 2008. Schools' Unrest Over the AP Test