Advanced Service Rating Score
The Advanced Service Rating Score was the system that the United States Army used at the end of World War II in Europe to determine which soldiers were eligible to be repatriated to the United States for discharge from military service as part of Operation Magic Carpet.
As the end of the war in Europe became a reality, the US War Department began planning for the redeployment of Army personnel following the end of hostilities. The Readjustment Regulations were first introduced on September 15, 1944, and revised February 15, 1945, and again on March 5, 1945.
The rules were simple in general principle: "those who had fought longest and hardest should be returned home for discharge first." The US Army divided units of the European Theater of Operations into four categories:
- Troops already designated as Occupation Forces (such as the Third and Seventh Army)
- Troops that had been overseas for less than one year, or those: a) to be redeployed directly to the Pacific; b) to be redeployed to the Pacific by way of the United States; c) to be redeployed to the US to be placed in strategic reserve.
- Troops or units to be organized (or re-organized) in the European Theater for roles as either Occupation Forces or as troops being redeployed to the Pacific Theater of Operations.
- Troops with long overseas service that were to remain in Europe only while needed, and then to be returned to the US for inactivation.
New replacement troops would replace the "veterans" returning home.
An enlisted man needed a score of 85 points to be considered for demobilization. The scores were determined as follows:
- Month in service = 1 pt
- Month in service overseas = 1 pt
- Combat awards (including campaign medals and battle stars) = 5 pts
- Dependent child under 18 = 12 pts
Time of service was calculated from September 16, 1940. The four criteria were the only ones from which points were calculated. No points were issued for age, marriage or dependents over the age of 18. Battles and awards were also only accepted from a predetermined list.
Before the surrender of Japan, officers who may have had to serve again in combat were assessed not only on their ASR score but also on their efficiency and military specialities. Most high-scoring officers could have expected an early discharge after VE Day. The qualifying score was revised down to 80 points after VJ Day. In the coming months it would be lowered again.
Scores varied before the end of May 1945 by varied department in the Medical Corps.
- Medical Administrative Corps (MAC) = 88 pts
- Medical Corps (MC) = 85 pts (plus specialty)
- Nurses Corps = 71 pts
- Physical Therapists = 65 pts
- Hygienists and Dietitians = 62 Points
The discharge program continued until the end July 1945 until the demand to ship personnel and equipment to the Pacific became so great that Medical units were prevented from shipping back to the United States for inactivation. However all transfers to the Pacific were abruptly halted with announcement of the Japanese surrender on August 14, 1945.
By September 1945, the War Department redesignated all units in Europe as either Occupation Forces (personnel with either the lowest scores or who were volunteers), Redeployment Forces (those with the highest score being sent back to the United States) or Liquidation Forces (troops with middle scores of 60–79 points) who were required to close down former front line facilities such as munition dumps or field hospitals.
Nevertheless, the ASR began to create problems for the US Army in post-war Germany as high-scoring personnel plus the attrition caused by sickness, compassionate leave and accidents meant continual loss of many experienced officers and NCOs.
By December 1, 1945, a new policy was started, which was based on a combination of ASR score and length of service. The points required were as follows:
- Officers (excluding Medical Department & WAC) = 70 pts + 4 years of military service
- Women's Army Corps officers = 37 pts
- Medical Department officers = 55 pts
- All enlisted men = 50 pts + 4 years of military service
- All enlisted women = 32 pts
All enlisted fathers with three or more children (under 18 years) were immediately eligible for discharge irrespective of their time in military service.
- End of World War II in Europe
- Allied-occupied Germany
- Post–World War II demobilization strikes
- Aftermath of World War II
- Demobilization of the British Armed Forces after World War II
- Demobilization of United States armed forces after World War II
- "Explanation of the ASR Points System from Stars and Stripes". Stars and Stripes. Archived from the original on 2011-06-17. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- "Points System". MILITARY OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALTY. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- "The Medical Administrative Corps". US Army Medical Department. Retrieved 2010-05-03.