Adventive species

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An adventive species is a species that has arrived in a new locality. It may have had help from humans as an introduced species or it may not.

The term is now used by some writers in a more restricted sense than its initial usage. The earliest and most widespread concept among biologists is that of a species that has arrived in a specific geographic area from a different region (without further caveats). This is the forerunner of the term 'non-indigenous species', although it lacks the frequently invoked basis of the word 'introduced', which means different things to different writers.[1][2][3][4] In this sense, the cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), which arrived in North America by natural range expansion, the black rat (Rattus rattus), which is believed to have arrived as a hitchhiker aboard ships, and the kudzu vine (Pueraria lobata), which was introduced deliberately by humans, are all adventive species and have established populations. Common adventive species include herbivorous insects.[5]

The later and more limited concept is that of a species that has arrived in a specific geographic area from a different region, but its population is not self-sustaining. Population numbers are only increased through re-introduction. After some time, an adventive species may become naturalized; or, some populations do not sustain themselves reproductively, but exist because of continued influx from elsewhere. Such a non-sustaining population, or the individuals within it, are said to be adventive.[6] Cultivated plants are a major source of adventive populations. It is estimated that 10-20% of adventive species used in biological control programs eventually become naturalized.[7]

We can readily see how this second (later) concept applies to cultivated plants. Those that grow within the confines of culture are ‘adventive’; those that grow outside those confines are ‘naturalized’. But the concept falls apart when applied to the far more numerous species of invertebrate animals and microorganisms: extremely few of these are cultured, and by the time they are detected in nature they tend to be established (‘naturalized’).

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Morse A.P. 1916. "A New England orthopteran adventive". Psyche 23: 178-179.
  2. ^ Townes H.K. 1947. "A Eumenes wasp and six adventive Ichneumonidae new to Hawaii (Hymenoptera)". Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 13: 105-105
  3. ^ Pemberton C.E. 1964. "Highlights in the history of entomology in Hawaii 1778-1963". Pacific Insects 6: 689-729
  4. ^ Frank J.H., McCoy E.D. 1995. "Introduction to insect behavioral ecology: The good, the bad, and the beautiful: Non-indigenous species in Florida. Invasive adventive insects and other organisms in Florida". Florida Entomologist 78: 1-15
  5. ^ Martin N.A., Paynter Q. 2013. Predicting risk from adventive herbivores to New Zealand indigenous plants. New Zealand Entomologist: 1-8. DOI:10.1080/00779962.2012.759308
  6. ^ Warren L. Wagner, Derral R. Herbst, and Sy H. Sohmer. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, Revised Edition, 1999. Bishop Museum Press: Honolulu
  7. ^ Stiling, P. 1993. Why do natural enemies fail in classical Biological Control Programs? American Entomologist. 39:31-39.