Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
|Illustrator||E. W. Kemble|
|Publisher||Chatto & Windus / Charles L. Webster And Company.|
|December 10, 1884 (UK and Canada)|
1885 (United States)
|Preceded by||The Adventures of Tom Sawyer|
|Followed by||Tom Sawyer Abroad|
|Text||Adventures of Huckleberry Finn at Wikisource|
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a novel by American author Mark Twain, which was first published in the United Kingdom in December 1884 and in the United States in February 1885.
Commonly named among the Great American Novels, the work is among the first in major American literature to be written throughout in vernacular English, characterized by local color regionalism. It is told in the first person by Huckleberry "Huck" Finn, the narrator of two other Twain novels (Tom Sawyer Abroad and Tom Sawyer, Detective) and a friend of Tom Sawyer. It is a direct sequel to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer.
The book is noted for "changing the course of children's literature" in the United States for the "deeply felt portrayal of boyhood".[better source needed] It is also known for its colorful description of people and places along the Mississippi River. Set in a Southern antebellum society that had ceased to exist over 20 years before the work was published, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is an often scathing satire on entrenched attitudes, particularly racism and freedom.
Perennially popular with readers, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has also been the continued object of study by literary critics since its publication. The book was widely criticized upon release because of its extensive use of coarse language and racial epithet. Throughout the 20th century, and despite arguments that the protagonist and the tenor of the book are anti-racist, criticism of the book continued due to both its perceived use of racial stereotypes and its frequent use of the racial slur "nigger".
In St. Petersburg, Missouri, on the shore of the Mississippi River, during the 1830s–1840s, Huckleberry "Huck" Finn has come into a considerable sum of money following The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and is placed under the strict guardianship of the Widow Douglas and her sister, Miss Watson. The women attempt to civilize him, but Huck prefers to have adventures with his friend Tom Sawyer. His father, "Pap", an abusive alcoholic, returns to town and tries to appropriate Huck's fortune. When this fails, Pap kidnaps Huck and imprisons him in a cabin in the woods.
To escape his father, Huck elaborately fakes his own murder and sets off downriver. He settles on Jackson's Island, where he reunites with Miss Watson's slave Jim, who ran away after overhearing she was planning to sell him. Huck decides to go downriver with Jim to Cairo, in the free state of Illinois. After heavy flooding, the two find a timber raft and an entire house floating down the river. Inside, Jim finds a body that has been shot to death but prevents Huck from viewing the corpse. Huck sneaks into town and discovers there is a reward out for Jim, who is suspected of killing Huck; the two flee on their raft.
Huck and Jim come across a grounded steamer, the Walter Scott, where two thieves are discussing murdering a third. Finding that their own raft has drifted away, Huck and Jim flee in the thieves' boat before being noticed. They find their own raft again and sink the thieves' boat, keeping their loot. Huck tricks a watchman into going to rescue the stranded thieves to assuage his conscience. Huck and Jim are separated in a fog, and when they reunite, Huck tricks Jim into thinking he dreamed the entire incident. Jim is disappointed when Huck admits the truth. Huck is surprised by Jim's strong feelings and apologizes.
Huck is conflicted about supporting a runaway slave, which he has been taught is a sin. He decides to turn Jim in, but when two white men seeking runaway slaves come upon the raft, he lies to them and they leave. Jim and Huck realize they have passed Cairo. With no way of getting back upriver, they decide to continue downriver. The raft is struck by a passing steamship, again separating the two.
On the riverbank, Huck meets the Grangerford family, who are engaged in a 30-year blood feud with the Shepherdson family, although no one remembers why the feud originally started. After a Grangerford daughter elopes with a Shepherdson boy, the feud boils over and all the Grangerford males are shot and killed in a Shepherdson ambush. Huck escapes and is reunited with Jim, who has recovered and repaired the raft.
Downriver, Jim and Huck are joined by two confidence men claiming to be a King and a Duke. The swindlers rope Huck and Jim into playing along with a series of scams. In one town, the swindlers scam the townsfolk with a short and overpriced performance. On the third night, the grifters flee before the townsfolk can take revenge. In the next town, the swindlers impersonate brothers of recently-deceased Peter Wilks to steal his estate. Huck tries to retrieve the money for Wilks's orphaned nieces. Two men claiming to be Wilks' real brothers arrive, causing an uproar. Huck tries to flee in the confusion, but is caught by the grifters. Eventually he escapes, but finds that the swindlers have sold Jim to the Phelps family plantation. Huck vows to free Jim, despite believing he will go to hell as a consequence.
The Phelps family mistakes Huck for their nephew Tom, who is expected for a visit, and Huck plays along. It turns out their nephew is Tom Sawyer. When he arrives, he plays along with Huck's story and develops a theatrical plan to free Jim. During the escape, Tom is wounded. Jim tends to him instead of escaping, and is arrested and returned to the plantation. Tom's Aunt Polly arrives and reveals the boys' true identities. She explains that Miss Watson has died, freeing Jim in her will. Tom admits he knew this, but wanted to "rescue" Jim in style. Jim says that Huck's father was the dead man they found in the floating house, so Huck may return safely to St. Petersburg. Huck declares that he intends to flee west to Indian Territory to escape being adopted by the Phelps family.
In order of appearance:
- Tom Sawyer is Huck's best friend and peer, the main character of other Twain novels and the leader of the town boys in adventures. He is mischievous, good hearted, and "the best fighter and the smartest kid in town".
- Huckleberry Finn, "Huck" to his friends, is a boy about "thirteen or fourteen or along there" years old. (Chapter 17) He has been brought up by his father, the town drunk, and has a difficult time fitting into society. In the novel, Huck's good nature offers a contrast to the inadequacies and inequalities in society.
- Widow Douglas is the kind woman who takes Huck in after he helped save her from a violent home invasion. She tries her best to "sivilize" (civilize) Huck, believing it is her Christian duty to do so.
- Miss Watson is the widow's sister, a tough old spinster who also lives with them. She is fairly hard on Huck, causing him to resent her a good deal. Mark Twain may have drawn inspiration for this character from several people he knew in his life.
- Jim is Miss Watson's physically large but mild-mannered slave. Huck becomes very close to Jim when they reunite after Jim flees Miss Watson's household to seek refuge from slavery, and Huck and Jim become fellow travelers on the Mississippi River. Jim is shown to be honorable, perceptive, and intelligent, despite his lack of education and prejudice he faces.
- "Pap" Finn is Huck's father, a brutal alcoholic drifter. He resents Huck getting any kind of education. His only genuine interest in his son involves begging or extorting money to feed his alcohol addiction.
- Judith Loftus plays a small part in the novel — being the kind and perceptive woman whom Huck talks to in order to find out about the search for Jim — but many critics believe her to be the best drawn female character in the novel.
- The Grangerfords, an aristocratic Kentuckian family headed by the sexagenarian Colonel Saul Grangerford, take Huck in after he is separated from Jim on the Mississippi. Huck becomes close friends with the youngest male of the family, Buck Grangerford, who is Huck's age. By the time Huck meets them, the Grangerfords have been engaged in an age-old blood feud with another local family, the Shepherdsons.
- The Duke and the King are two otherwise unnamed con artists whom Huck and Jim take aboard their raft just before the start of their Arkansas adventures. They pose as the long-lost Duke of Bridgewater and the long-dead Louis XVII of France in an attempt to over-awe Huck and Jim, who quickly come to recognize them for what they are, but cynically pretend to accept their claims to avoid conflict.
- Doctor Robinson is the only man who recognizes that the King and Duke are phonies when they pretend to be British. He warns the townspeople, but they ignore him.
- Mary Jane, Joanna, and Susan Wilks are the three young nieces of their wealthy guardian, Peter Wilks, who has recently died. The Duke and the King try to steal their inheritance by posing as Peter's estranged brothers from England but are eventually thwarted.
- Aunt Sally and Uncle Silas Phelps buy Jim from the Duke and the King. She is a loving, high-strung "farmer's wife", and he a plodding old man, both a farmer and a preacher. Huck poses as their nephew, Tom Sawyer, after he parts from the conmen. His intention is to try and help Jim escape.
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn explores themes of race and identity; what it means to be free and civilized; and the ideas of humanity and social responsibility in the changing landscape of America. A complexity exists concerning Jim's character. While some scholars point out that Jim is good-hearted and moral, and he is not unintelligent (in contrast to several of the more negatively depicted white characters), others have criticized the novel as racist, citing the use of the word "nigger" and emphasizing the stereotypically "comic" treatment of Jim's lack of education, superstition and ignorance. This argument is supported by incidents early in the novel where Huck deliberately "tricks" Jim, taking advantage of his gullibility and Jim still remains loyal to him.
But this novel is also Huck's 'coming of age' story where he overcomes his initial biases and forms a deeper bond with Jim. Throughout the story, Huck is in moral conflict with the received values of the society in which he lives. Huck is unable consciously to rebut those values even in his thoughts but he makes a moral choice based on his own valuation of Jim's friendship and human worth, a decision in direct opposition to the things he has been taught. Twain, in his lecture notes, proposes that "a sound heart is a surer guide than an ill-trained conscience" and goes on to describe the novel as "a book of mine where a sound heart and a deformed conscience come into collision and conscience suffers defeat".
To highlight the hypocrisy required to condone slavery within an ostensibly moral system, Twain has Huck's father enslave his son, isolate him and beat him. When Huck escapes, he immediately encounters Jim "illegally" doing the same thing. The treatments both of them receive are radically different, especially in an encounter with Mrs. Judith Loftus who takes pity on who she presumes to be a runaway apprentice, Huck, yet boasts about her husband sending the hounds after a runaway slave, Jim.
Some scholars discuss Huck's own character, and the novel itself, in the context of its relation to African-American culture as a whole. John Alberti quotes Shelley Fisher Fishkin, who writes in her 1990s book Was Huck Black?: Mark Twain and African-American Voices, "by limiting their field of inquiry to the periphery," white scholars "have missed the ways in which African-American voices shaped Twain's creative imagination at its core." It is suggested that the character of Huckleberry Finn illustrates the correlation, and even interrelatedness, between white and Black culture in the United States.
The original illustrations were done by E. W. Kemble, at the time a young artist working for Life magazine. Kemble was hand-picked by Twain, who admired his work. Hearn suggests that Twain and Kemble had a similar skill, writing that:
Whatever he may have lacked in technical grace ... Kemble shared with the greatest illustrators the ability to give even the minor individual in a text his own distinct visual personality; just as Twain so deftly defined a full-rounded character in a few phrases, so too did Kemble depict with a few strokes of his pen that same entire personage.
As Kemble could afford only one model, most of his illustrations produced for the book were done by guesswork. When the novel was published, the illustrations were praised even as the novel was harshly criticized. E.W. Kemble produced another set of illustrations for Harper's and the American Publishing Company in 1898 and 1899 after Twain lost the copyright.
Publication's effect on literary climate
Twain initially conceived of the work as a sequel to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer that would follow Huckleberry Finn through adulthood. Beginning with a few pages he had removed from the earlier novel, Twain began work on a manuscript he originally titled Huckleberry Finn's Autobiography. Twain worked on the manuscript off and on for the next several years, ultimately abandoning his original plan of following Huck's development into adulthood. He appeared to have lost interest in the manuscript while it was in progress, and set it aside for several years. After making a trip down the Hudson River, Twain returned to his work on the novel. Upon completion, the novel's title closely paralleled its predecessor's: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Tom Sawyer's Comrade).
Mark Twain composed the story in pen on notepaper between 1876 and 1883. Paul Needham, who supervised the authentication of the manuscript for Sotheby's books and manuscripts department in New York in 1991, stated, "What you see is [Clemens'] attempt to move away from pure literary writing to dialect writing". For example, Twain revised the opening line of Huck Finn three times. He initially wrote, "You will not know about me", which he changed to, "You do not know about me", before settling on the final version, "You don't know about me, without you have read a book by the name of 'The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'; but that ain't no matter." The revisions also show how Twain reworked his material to strengthen the characters of Huck and Jim, as well as his sensitivity to the then-current debate over literacy and voting.
A later version was the first typewritten manuscript delivered to a printer.
Demand for the book spread outside of the United States. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was eventually published on December 10, 1884, in Canada and the United Kingdom, and on February 18, 1885, in the United States. The illustration on page 283 became a point of issue after an engraver, whose identity was never discovered, made a last-minute addition to the printing plate of Kemble's picture of old Silas Phelps, which drew attention to Phelps' groin. Thirty thousand copies of the book had been printed before the obscenity was discovered. A new plate was made to correct the illustration and repair the existing copies.
In 1885, the Buffalo Public Library's curator, James Fraser Gluck, approached Twain to donate the manuscript to the library. Twain did so. Later it was believed that half of the pages had been misplaced by the printer. In 1991, the missing first half turned up in a steamer trunk owned by descendants of Gluck's. The library successfully claimed possession and, in 1994, opened the Mark Twain Room to showcase the treasure.
In relation to the literary climate at the time of the book's publication in 1885, Henry Nash Smith describes the importance of Mark Twain's already established reputation as a "professional humorist", having already published over a dozen other works. Smith suggests that while the "dismantling of the decadent Romanticism of the later nineteenth century was a necessary operation," Adventures of Huckleberry Finn illustrated "previously inaccessible resources of imaginative power, but also made vernacular language, with its new sources of pleasure and new energy, available for American prose and poetry in the twentieth century."
Critical reception and banning
While it is clear that Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was controversial from the outset, Norman Mailer, writing in The New York Times in 1984, concluded that Twain's novel was not initially "too unpleasantly regarded." In fact, Mailer writes: "the critical climate could hardly anticipate T. S. Eliot and Ernest Hemingway's encomiums 50 years later," reviews that would remain longstanding in the American consciousness.
Alberti suggests that the academic establishment responded to the book's challenges both dismissively and with confusion. During Twain's time and today, defenders of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn "lump all nonacademic critics of the book together as extremists and 'censors', thus equating the complaints about the book's 'coarseness' from the genteel bourgeois trustees of the Concord Public Library in the 1880s with more recent objections based on race and civil rights."
Upon issue of the American edition in 1885, several libraries banned it from their shelves. The early criticism focused on what was perceived as the book's crudeness. One incident was recounted in the newspaper the Boston Transcript:
The Concord (Mass.) Public Library committee has decided to exclude Mark Twain's latest book from the library. One member of the committee says that, while he does not wish to call it immoral, he thinks it contains but little humor, and that of a very coarse type. He regards it as the veriest trash. The library and the other members of the committee entertain similar views, characterizing it as rough, coarse, and inelegant, dealing with a series of experiences not elevating, the whole book being more suited to the slums than to intelligent, respectable people.
Writer Louisa May Alcott criticized the book's publication as well, saying that if Twain "[could not] think of something better to tell our pure-minded lads and lasses he had best stop writing for them".
In 1905, New York's Brooklyn Public Library also banned the book due to "bad word choice" and Huck's having "not only itched but scratched" within the novel, which was considered obscene. When asked by a Brooklyn librarian about the situation, Twain sardonically replied:
I am greatly troubled by what you say. I wrote 'Tom Sawyer' & 'Huck Finn' for adults exclusively, & it always distressed me when I find that boys and girls have been allowed access to them. The mind that becomes soiled in youth can never again be washed clean. I know this by my own experience, & to this day I cherish an unappeased bitterness against the unfaithful guardians of my young life, who not only permitted but compelled me to read an unexpurgated Bible through before I was 15 years old. None can do that and ever draw a clean sweet breath again on this side of the grave.
Many subsequent critics, Ernest Hemingway among them, have deprecated the final chapters, claiming the book "devolves into little more than minstrel-show satire and broad comedy" after Jim is detained. Although Hemingway declared, "All modern American literature comes from" Huck Finn, and hailed it as "the best book we've had", he cautioned, "If you must read it you must stop where the Nigger Jim is stolen from the boys [sic]. That is the real end. The rest is just cheating." The African-American writer Ralph Ellison argued that "Hemingway missed completely the structural, symbolic and moral necessity for that part of the plot in which the boys rescue Jim. Yet it is precisely this part which gives the novel its significance." Pulitzer Prize winner Ron Powers states in his Twain biography (Mark Twain: A Life) that "Huckleberry Finn endures as a consensus masterpiece despite these final chapters", in which Tom Sawyer leads Huck through elaborate machinations to rescue Jim.
In his introduction to The Annotated Huckleberry Finn, Michael Patrick Hearn writes that Twain "could be uninhibitedly vulgar", and quotes critic William Dean Howells, a Twain contemporary, who wrote that the author's "humor was not for most women". However, Hearn continues by explaining that "the reticent Howells found nothing in the proofs of Huckleberry Finn so offensive that it needed to be struck out".
Much of modern scholarship of Huckleberry Finn has focused on its treatment of race. Many Twain scholars have argued that the book, by humanizing Jim and exposing the fallacies of the racist assumptions of slavery, is an attack on racism. Others have argued that the book falls short on this score, especially in its depiction of Jim. According to Professor Stephen Railton of the University of Virginia, Twain was unable to fully rise above the stereotypes of Black people that White readers of his era expected and enjoyed, and, therefore, resorted to minstrel show-style comedy to provide humor at Jim's expense, and ended up confirming rather than challenging late-19th century racist stereotypes.
In one instance, the controversy caused a drastically altered interpretation of the text: in 1955, CBS tried to avoid controversial material in a televised version of the book, by deleting all mention of slavery and omitting the character of Jim entirely.
Use of the word "nigger"
Because of this controversy over whether Huckleberry Finn is racist or anti-racist, and because the word "nigger" is frequently used in the novel (a commonly used word in Twain's time that has since become vulgar and taboo), many have questioned the appropriateness of teaching the book in the U.S. public school system—this questioning of the word "nigger" is illustrated by a school administrator of Virginia in 1982 calling the novel the "most grotesque example of racism I've ever seen in my life". According to the American Library Association, Huckleberry Finn was the fifth most frequently challenged book in the United States during the 1990s.
There have been several more recent cases involving protests for the banning of the novel. In 2003, high school student Calista Phair and her grandmother, Beatrice Clark, in Renton, Washington, proposed banning the book from classroom learning in the Renton School District, though not from any public libraries, because of the word "nigger". The two curriculum committees that considered her request eventually decided to keep the novel on the 11th grade curriculum, though they suspended it until a panel had time to review the novel and set a specific teaching procedure for the novel's controversial topics.
In 2009, a white Washington state high school teacher, John Foley, called for replacing Adventures of Huckleberry Finn with a more modern novel. In an opinion column that Foley wrote in the Seattle Post Intelligencer, he states that all "novels that use the ‘N-word' repeatedly need to go." He states that teaching the novel is not only unnecessary, but difficult due to the offensive language within the novel with many students becoming uncomfortable at "just hear[ing] the N-word."
In 2016, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was removed from a public school district in Virginia, along with the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, due to their use of racial slurs.
Publishers have made their own attempts at easing the controversy by way of releasing editions of the book with the word "nigger" replaced by less controversial words. A 2011 edition of the book, published by NewSouth Books, employed the word "slave" (although the word is not properly applied to a freed man). Their argument for making the change was to offer the reader a choice of reading a "sanitized" version if they were not comfortable with the original. Mark Twain scholar Alan Gribben said he hoped the edition would be more friendly for use in classrooms, rather than have the work banned outright from classroom reading lists due to its language.
According to publisher Suzanne La Rosa, "At NewSouth, we saw the value in an edition that would help the works find new readers. If the publication sparks good debate about how language impacts learning or about the nature of censorship or the way in which racial slurs exercise their baneful influence, then our mission in publishing this new edition of Twain's works will be more emphatically fulfilled." Another scholar, Thomas Wortham, criticized the changes, saying the new edition "doesn't challenge children to ask, 'Why would a child like Huck use such reprehensible language?'"
- Huck and Tom (1918 silent) by Famous Players-Lasky; directed by William Desmond Taylor; starring Jack Pickford as Tom, Robert Gordon as Huck and Clara Horton as Becky
- Huckleberry Finn (1920 silent) by Famous Players-Lasky; directed by William Desmond Taylor; starring Lewis Sargent as Huck, Gordon Griffith as Tom and Thelma Salter as Becky
- Huckleberry Finn (1931) by Paramount Pictures; directed by Norman Taurog; starring Jackie Coogan as Tom, Junior Durkin as Huck, and Mitzi Green as Becky
- The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1939) by MGM; directed by Richard Thorpe; starring Mickey Rooney as Huck
- The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1955), starring Thomas Mitchell and John Carradine
- The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1960), directed by Michael Curtiz, starring Eddie Hodges and Archie Moore
- Hopelessly Lost (1973), a Soviet film
- Huckleberry Finn (1974), a musical film
- Huckleberry Finn (1975), an ABC movie of the week with Ron Howard as Huck Finn
- The Adventures of Con Sawyer and Hucklemary Finn (1985), an ABC movie of the week with Drew Barrymore as Con Sawyer
- The Adventures of Huck Finn (1993), starring Elijah Wood and Courtney B. Vance
- Tom and Huck (1995), starring Jonathan Taylor Thomas as Tom and Brad Renfro as Huck
- Tomato Sawyer and Huckleberry Larry's Big River Rescue (2008), a VeggieTales parody
- The Adventures of Huck Finn (2012), a German film starring Leon Seidel and directed by Hermine Huntgeburth
- Tom Sawyer & Huckleberry Finn (2014), starring Joel Courtney as Tom Sawyer, Jake T. Austin as Huckleberry Finn, Katherine McNamara as Becky Thatcher
- Huckleberry no Bōken, a 1976 Japanese anime with 26 episodes
- Huckleberry Finn and His Friends, a 1979 series starring Ian Tracey
- Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, a 1985 PBS TV adaptation directed by Peter H. Hunt, starring Patrick Day and Samm-Art Williams, with 4 one hour episodes(240 minutes)
- Huckleberry Finn Monogatari (ハックルベリー・フィン物語), a 1994 Japanese anime with 26 episodes, produced by NHK
- The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1973), by Robert James Dixson – a simplified version
- Big River: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, a 1985 Broadway musical with lyrics and music by Roger Miller
- Manga Classics: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn published by UDON Entertainment's Manga Classics imprint was released in November 2017.
- Finn: A Novel (2007), by Jon Clinch – a novel about Huck's father, Pap Finn (ISBN 0812977149)
- Huck Out West (2017), by Robert Coover – continues Huck's and Tom's adventures during the 1860s and 1870s (ISBN 0393608441)
- The Further Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1983) by Greg Matthews – continues Huck's and Jim's adventures as they "light out for the territory" and wind up in the throes of the California Gold Rush of 1849
- My Jim (2005), by Nancy Rawles – a novel narrated largely by Sadie, Jim's enslaved wife (ISBN 140005401X)
- Mississippi Suite (1926), by Ferde Grofe: the second movement is a lighthearted whimsical piece entitled "Huckleberry Finn"
- Huckleberry Finn EP (2009), comprising five songs from Kurt Weill's unfinished musical, by Duke Special
- The New Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, a 1968 children's series produced by Hanna-Barbera combining live-action and animation
- ^ Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Tom Sawyer's comrade)…. 1885.
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- ^ Jacob O'Leary, "Critical Annotation of "Minstrel Shackles and Nineteenth Century 'Liberality' in Huckleberry Finn" (Fredrick Woodard and Donnarae MacCann)," Wiki Service, University of Iowa, last modified February 11, 2012, accessed April 12, 2012 Archived March 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Ira Fistell (2012). Ira Fistell's Mark Twain: Three Encounters. Xlibris. ISBN 9781469178721 p. 94. "Huck and Jim's first adventure together—the House of Death incident which occupies Chapter 9. This sequence seems to me to be quite important both to the technical functioning of the plot and to the larger meaning of the novel. The House of Death is a two-story frame building that comes floating downstream, one paragraph after Huck and Jim catch their soon—to—be famous raft. While Twain never explicitly says so, his description of the house and its contents ..."
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- ^ Fredrick Woodard and Donnarae MacCann, "Minstrel Shackles and Nineteenth Century "Liberality" in Huckleberry Finn," in Satire or evasion?: Black perspectives on Huckleberry Finn, eds. James S. Leonard, Thomas A. Tenney, and Thadious M. Davis (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1992).
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If Mr. Clemens cannot think of something better to tell our pure-minded lads and lasses he had best stop writing for them.
- ^ "One Hundred Years Of Huck Finn – AMERICAN HERITAGE". www.americanheritage.com.
- ^ "Marjorie Kehe, "The 'n'-word Gone from Huck Finn – What Would Mark Twain Say? A New Expurgated Edition of 'Huckleberry Finn' Has Got Some Twain Scholars up in Arms," The Christian Science Monitor, last modified January 5, 2011, accessed April 12, 2012". Christian Science Monitor. January 5, 2011.
- ^ "Nick Gillespie, "Mark Twain vs. Tom Sawyer: The Bold Deconstruction of a National Icon," Reason, last modified February 2006, accessed April 12, 2012". February 2006.
- ^ Ernest Hemingway (1935). Green Hills of Africa. New York: Scribner. p. 22. ISBN 9780684717999.
- ^ Norman Mailer, "Huckleberry Finn, Alive at 100"
- ^ "Twentieth Century Fiction and the Mask of Humanity" in Shadow and Act
- ^ Ron Powers (2005). Mark Twain: A Life. New York: FreePress. pp. 476–77. ISBN 9780743248990.
- ^ Mark Twain and Michael Patrick Hearn, 8.
- ^ For example, Shelley Fisher Fishin, Lighting out for the Territory: Reflections on Mark Twain and American Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).
- ^ "Stephen Railton, "Jim and Mark Twain: What Do Dey Stan' For?," The Virginia Quarterly Review, last modified 1987, accessed April 12, 2012".
- ^ Alex Sharp, "Student Edition of Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer Is Censored by Editor"
- ^ Robert B. Brown, "One Hundred Years of Huck Finn"
- ^ "100 most frequently challenged books: 1990–1999". March 27, 2013.
- ^ "Gregory Roberts, "'Huck Finn' a Masterpiece -- or an Insult," Seattle Post-Intelligencer, last modified November 25, 2003, accessed April 12, 2012". November 26, 2003.
- ^ "Wash. teacher calls for 'Huck Finn' ban". UPI. January 19, 2009.
- ^ "John Foley, "Guest Columnist: Time to Update Schools' Reading Lists," Seattle Post-Intelligencer, last modified January 5, 2009, accessed April 13, 2012". January 6, 2009.
- ^ Allen, Nick (December 5, 2016). "To Kill a Mockingbird and Huckleberry Finn banned from schools in Virginia for racism". Telegraph. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
- ^ "Books suspended by Va. school for racial slurs". CBS News. December 1, 2016. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
- ^ ""Huckleberry Finn" and the N-word debate". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved August 6, 2021.
- ^ "New Edition Of 'Huckleberry Finn' Will Eliminate Offensive Words". NPR.org. January 4, 2011.
- ^ "A word about the NewSouth edition of Mark Twain's Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn – NewSouth Books".
- ^ ""New Editions of Mark Twain Novels to Remove Racial Slurs," Herald Sun, last modified January 4, 2011, accessed April 16, 2012". Archived from the original on April 21, 2016. Retrieved January 4, 2011.
- ^ Huck and Tom at the American Film Institute Catalog
- ^ "IMDB, Huckleberry Finn (1920)". IMDb.
- ^ a b wes-connors (February 29, 1920). "Huckleberry Finn (1920)". IMDb.
- ^ "IMDB, Huckleberry Finn (1931)". IMDb.
- ^ The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn at the American Film Institute Catalog
- ^ The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn at IMDb
- ^ The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn at the American Film Institute Catalog
- ^ Hopelessly Lost at AllMovie
- ^ Huckleberry Finn at the TCM Movie Database
- ^ Huckleberry Finn at IMDb
- ^ The Adventures of Con Sawyer and Hucklemary Finn at the TCM Movie Database
- ^ The Adventures of Huck Finn at AllMovie
- ^ Tom and Huck at AllMovie
- ^ Tomato Sawyer and Huckleberry Larry's Big River Rescue at IMDb
- ^ The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn at IMDb
- ^ Tom Sawyer & Huckleberry Finn at IMDb
- ^ Huckleberry no Bōken (anime) at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
- ^ Huckleberry Finn and His Friends at IMDb
- ^ Huckleberry Finn Monogatari (anime) at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
- ^ The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- ^ Big River at the Internet Broadway Database
- ^ Manga Classics: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (2017) UDON Entertainment ISBN 978-1772940176
- ^ Matthews, Greg (May 28, 1983). The Further Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Crown Publishers. ISBN 9780517550571 – via Google Books.
- ^ Leclair, Tom (September 25, 1983). "LeClair, Tom. "A Reconstruction and a Sequel." Sunday Book Review, The New York Times, September 25, 1983". The New York Times.
- ^ "Kirby, David. "Energetic Sequel to 'Huckleberry Finn' is Faithful to Original." The Christian Science Monitor, October 11, 1983". Christian Science Monitor. October 11, 1983.
- ^ "Kirkus Review: The Further Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Greg Matthews. Kirkus, September 9, 1983".
- ^ Ledin, Victor and Marina A. "GROFE: Grand Canyon Suite / Mississippi Suite / Niagara Falls". Naxos Records. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- ^ "Huckleberry Finn EP". Duke Special. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- ^ The New Adventures of Huckleberry Finn at IMDb
- Beaver, Harold, et al., eds. "The Role of Structure in Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn." Huckleberry Finn. Vol. 1. No. 8. (New York: Johns Hopkins Textual Studies, 1987) pp. 1–57.
- Brown, Clarence A. "Huckleberry Finn: A Study in Structure and Point of View." Mark Twain Journal 12.2 (1964): 10-15. Online
- Buchen, Callista. "Writing the Imperial Question at Home: Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer Among the Indians Revisited." Mark Twain Annual 9 (2011): 111-129. online
- Gribben, Alan. "Tom Sawyer, Tom Canty, and Huckleberry Finn: The Boy Book and Mark Twain." Mark Twain Journal 55.1/2 (2017): 127-144 online
- Levy, Andrew, Huck Finn's America: Mark Twain and the Era that Shaped His Masterpiece. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2015.
- Quirk, Tom. "The Flawed Greatness of Huckleberry Finn." American Literary Realism 45.1 (2012): 38-48.
- Saunders, George. "The United States of Huck: Introduction to Adventures of Huckleberry Finn." In Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Modern Library Classics, 2001) ISBN 978-0375757372, reprinted in Saunders, George, The Braindead Megaphone: Essays (New York: Riverhead Books, 2007) ISBN 978-1-59448-256-4
- Smiley, Jane (January 1996). "Say It Ain't So, Huck: Second thoughts on Mark Twain's "masterpiece"" (PDF). Harper's Magazine. 292 (1748): 61–.
- Tibbetts, John C., And James M, Welsh, eds. The Encyclopedia of Novels Into Film (2005) pp 1–3.
Study and teaching tools
- "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn". SparkNotes. Archived from the original on September 19, 2007. Retrieved September 21, 2007.
- "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Study Guide and Lesson Plan". GradeSaver. Archived from the original on March 31, 2008. Retrieved April 9, 2008.
- "Huckleberry Finn". CliffsNotes. Retrieved September 21, 2007.
- "Huck Finn in Context:A Teaching Guide". PBS.org. Archived from the original on September 14, 2007. Retrieved September 21, 2007.
- Adventures of Huckleberry Finn at Standard Ebooks
- Adventures of Huckleberry Finn at Project Gutenberg
- Adventures of Huckleberry Finn public domain audiobook at LibriVox
- Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, with all the original illustrations – Free Online – Mark Twain Project (printed 2003 University of California Press, online 2009 MTPO) Rich editorial material accompanies text, including detailed historical notes, glossaries, maps, and documentary appendixes, which record the author's revisions as well as unauthorized textual variations.
- Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Digitized copy of the first American edition from Internet Archive (1885).
- "Special Collections: Mark Twain Room (Houses original manuscript of Huckleberry Finn)". Libraries of Buffalo & Erie County. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved September 21, 2007.
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