Adyghe grammar

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Adyghe displays ergative verb-final clause structure and rich verb morphology.

Contents

Noun[edit]

Noun cases[edit]

Plurality is indicated by the suffix '-хэ' /-xa/

  • кӏалэ [t͡ʃʼaːɮa] ('boy') becomes кӏалэхэ [t͡ʃʼaːɮaxa] ('boys').
  • шы [ʃə] ('horse') becomes шыхэ [ʃəxa] ('horses').

Adyghe also declines nouns into four different cases, each with corresponding suffixes: absolutive, ergative, instrumental, and Adverbial.

Case Suffix example
Cyrillic IPA
Absolutive р /r/ кӏалэр [t͡ʃʼaːlar] ('the boy')
Ergative м /m/ кӏалэм [t͡ʃʼaːlam] ('the boy's')
Instrumental (м)кӏэ /(m)t͡ʃʼa/ кӏалэмкӏэ [t͡ʃʼaːɮamt͡ʃʼa] ('using the boy')
Adverbial эу /aw/ кӏалэу [t͡ʃʼaɮaw] ('boy')

Absolutive case[edit]

Has the suffix - р /r/ (e.g. кӏалэр [t͡ʃʼaːɮar] 'the boy', кӏалэхэр [t͡ʃʼaːɮaxar] ('the boys'), шыр [ʃər] 'the horse'). This case has two main functions:

кӏалэр еджапӏэм мэкӏуагъэ
кӏалэ-р еджапӏэ-м мэ-кӏо-агъэ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar jad͡ʒaːpʼam makʷʼaːʁa]
the boy (abs.) the school (erg.) he went
"the boy went to the school"
бзылъфыгъэм джанэр егъэкъабзэ
бзылъфыгъэ-м джанэ-р егъэкъабзэ
[bzəɬfəʁam d͡ʒaːnar jaʁaqaːbza]
the woman (erg.) the shirt (abs.) (s)he cleans
"the woman cleans the shirt"

Ergative case[edit]

Has the suffix -м /-m/ (e.g. кӏалэм [t͡ʃʼaːɮam] 'the boy's', кӏалэхэмэ [t͡ʃʼaːɮaxama] 'the

boys'', шым [ʃəm] 'the horse's). When it's plural it has the suffix -мэ (-ma). This case has several functions:

  • Marking the subject of transitive verbs
бзылъфыгъэм джанэр егъэкъабзэ
бзылъфыгъэ-м джанэ-р егъэкъабзэ
[bzəɬfəʁam d͡ʒaːnar jaʁaqaːbza]
the woman (erg.) the shirt (abs.) (s)he cleans
"the woman cleans the shirt"
  • Marking the direct object of intransitive verbs
кӏалэр тхылъым еджэ
кӏалэ-р тхылъ-ым еджэ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar txəɬəm jad͡ʒa]
the boy (abs.) the book (erg.) (s)he reads
"the boy reads the book"
кӏалэр чъыгым еплъы
кӏалэ-р чъыгы-м еплъы
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar t͡ʂəɣəm japɬə]
the boy (abs.) the tree (erg.) (s)he looking at
"the boy looks at the tree"
  • Marking circumstance of action, e.g. feature of place, time of action
    • чылэ /t͡ʃəɮa/ village → чылэм /t͡ʃəɮam/ in the village
    • мэзахэ /mazaːxa/ dark → мэзахэм /mazaːxam/ in the dark
    • чэщы /t͡ʃəɕə/ night → чэщым /t͡ʃəɕəm/ in the night.
    • пчэдыжьы /pt͡ʃadəʑə/ morning → пчэдыжьым /pt͡ʃadəʑəm/ in the morning.
    • зэман /zamaːn/ distant past → зэманым /zamaːnəm/ in the distant past.
тыгъуасэ чылэм сэщыӏагъ
тыгъуасэ чылэ-м сэ-щыӏ-агъ
[təʁʷaːsa t͡ʃəɮam saɕəʔaːʁ]
yesterday the village (erg.) I was there
"Yesterday I was in the village"
лӏыр мэзым хэт
[ɬʼər mazəm xat]
the man (arg.) in the forest(erg.) (s)he is standing in
"The man is in the forest"

Instrumental-Directional case[edit]

Has the suffix -мкӏэ /mt͡ʃʼa/ or -кӏэ /t͡ʃʼa/ (e.g. кӏалэмкӏэ [t͡ʃʼaːɮamt͡ʃʼa] 'using the boy', кӏалэкӏэ [t͡ʃʼaːɮat͡ʃʼa] 'using a boy', кӏалэхэмкӏэ [t͡ʃaːɮaxamt͡ʃʼa] 'using the boys', кӏалэхэкӏэ [t͡ʃʼaːɮaxat͡ʃʼa] 'using boys', къэлэмымкӏэ [qalaməmt͡ʃʼa] 'using the pencil', къэлэмкӏэ [qalamt͡ʃʼa] 'using a pencil'); in the Shapsug dialect, it has the suffix -мгьэ /mɡʲa/ or - гьэ /ɡʲa/ and in the Bzedug dialect, it has the suffix -мджэ /md͡ʒa/ or -джэ /d͡ʒa/. This case has several functions:

  • Marking the instrument or tool of action:
    • къэлэм /qalam/ pencil → къэлэмкӏэ /qalamt͡ʃʼa/ using a pencil.
    • къэлэм /qalam/ pencil → къэлэмымкӏэ /qalaməmt͡ʃʼa/ using the pencil.
    • уатэ /waːta/ hammer → уатэкӏэ /waːtat͡ʃʼa/ using a hammer.
    • уатэ /waːta/ hammer → уатэмкӏэ /waːtamt͡ʃʼa/ using the hammer.
ыцӏэр къэлэмымкӏэ къитхэгъ
ы-цIэ-эр къэлэм-ымкIэ къи-тхы-эгъ
[ət͡sʼar qalaməmt͡ʃʼa qəjtxaʁ]
his name (abs.) pencil (ins.) he wrote
"he wrote his name with the pencil"
нэрыплъымкӏэ елъэгъу
нэрыплъ-ымкӏэ елъэгъу
[narəpɬəmt͡ʃʼa jaɬaʁʷə]
binocular (ins.) (s)he is seeing
"(s)he is seeing with (using) the binocular"
  • Marking the used language
    • адыгэбзэ /aːdəɣabza/ Adyghe language → адыгэбзэкӏэ /aːdəɣabzat͡ʃʼa/ using Adyghe language.
    • адыгэбзэ /aːdəɣabza/ Adyghe language → адыгэбзэмкӏэ /aːdəɣabzamt͡ʃʼa/ using the Adyghe language.
кӏалэр адыгэбзэкӏэ мэгущаӏэ
кӏалэ-р адыгэбзэ-кӏэ мэгущаӏэ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar aːdəɣabzat͡ʃʼa maɡʷəɕaːʔa]
boy (arg.) using Adyghe language (ins.) (s)he is speaking
"The boy is speaking (using) Adyghe language."
радиом къиӏохэрэр урысыбзэкӏ
радио-м къи-ӏо-хэ-рэ-р урысыбзэ-кӏ
[radʲɪom qəjʔʷaxarar wərəsəbzat͡ʃʼ]
the radio(arg.) the things (s)he/it says (abs.) Russian language (ins.)
"The things the radio is saying are in Russian language."
  • Marking the direction of action:
    • гъогу /ʁʷaɡʷ/ road → гъогумкӏэ /ʁʷaɡʷəmt͡ʃʼa/ from the road (direction).
    • унэ /wəna/ house → унэмкӏэ /wənamt͡ʃʼa/ from the house.
    • хы /xə/ sea → хымкӏэ /xəmt͡ʃʼa/ from the sea (direction).
    • Америкэ /aːmerika/ America → Америкэмкӏэ /aːmerikamt͡ʃʼa/ from America (direction).
хымкӏэ жьыбгъэр къэкӏы
хы-мкӏэ жьыбгъэ-р къэ-кӏы
[xəmt͡ʃʼa ʑəbʁar qat͡ʃʼə]
sea (ins.) the wind (abs.) come
"the wind comes from the sea."
унэмкӏэ кӏалэхэр макӏох
унэ-мкӏэ кӏалэ-хэ-р макӏо-х
[wənamt͡ʃa t͡ʃʼaːɮaxar maːkʷʼax]
house(ins.) the boys (abs.) they are going
"The boys are going toward the house's direction."

Adverbial[edit]

Has the suffix -эу /aw/ (e.g. кӏалэу [t͡ʃʼaːɮaw] 'boy'), шэу [ʃaw] 'horse'). In the Kfar Kama Shapsug dialect it has the suffix -ыу /əw/. This case has a number of functions:

  • Marking the reception of another quality by the subject:
лӏыр нахь баеу мэхъогъ
лӏы-р нахь бае-эу мэхъу-эгъ
[ɬʼər [naːħ baːjaw maχʷaʁ]
more rich (adv.) he became
"the man became richer"
пшъэшъэ ӏаер неущы дахэу мэхъощт
[pʂaʂa aːjar nawɕə daːxəw maχʷaɕt]
the ugly girl tomorrow pretty (adv.) (s)he will become
"Tomorrow the ugly girl will become to be pretty"
лавэр мэучъыӏымэ мыжъоу мэхъу
лавэ-р мэучъыӏы-мэ мыжъо-эу мэхъу
[laːvar mawt͡ʂəʔəma məʒʷaw maχʷə]
lava (abs.) when it's getting cold rock (adv.) (s)he/it becomes
"When the lava gets cold it becomes a rock."
  • Indicating people belonging to certain professions:
силӏ кӏэлэегъаджэу мэлажьэ
си-лӏы кӏэлэегъадж-эу мэлажьэ
[səjɬʼ t͡ʃʼaɮajaʁaːd͡ʒaw maɮaːʑa]
my husband teacher (adv.) he works
"my husband works as a teacher"

Lack of subject and object[edit]

Colloquially, the subject or object may both be dropped if clear from context.

  • Both subject and object are mentioned :
кӏалэм пшъашъэр елъэгъу
кӏалэ-м пшъашъэ-р елъэгъу
[t͡ʃʼaːɮam pʂaːʂar jaɬaʁʷə]
the boy (erg.) the girl (abs.) (s)he is seeing
"the boy is seeing the girl"
  • If the direct object is not mentioned :
кӏалэм елъэгъу
кӏалэ-м елъэгъу
[t͡ʃʼaːɮam jaɬaʁʷə]
the boy (erg.) (s)he is seeing
"the boy is seeing him/her/it"
  • If the subject is not mentioned :
пшъашъэр елъэгъу
пшъашъэ-р елъэгъу
[pʂaːʂar jaɬaʁʷə]
the girl (abs.) (s)he is seeing
"(s)he is seeing the girl"
  • If both subject and object are not mentioned :
елъэгъу
елъэгъу
[jaɬaʁʷə]
(s)he is seeing
"(s)he is seeing him/her/it"

Noun and adjective[edit]

In Adyghe, if a noun is accompanied by an adjective, the adjective always placed right after the noun

and also gets the suffixes that indicate the noun case.

  • Absolutive case
пшъэшъэ дахэр макӏо
[pʂaʂa daːxar maːkʷʼa]
girl the pretty (abs.) (s)he is going
"the pretty girl is going"
  • Ergative case
кӏалэ кӏыхьэм ешхы мыер
[t͡ʃʼaːɮa t͡ʃʼəħam jaʃxə məjar]
boy the long (erg.) he is eating a/the the apple (abs.)
"the long boy is eating the apple"
  • Instrumental case
къэлэм папцӏэмкӏэ сэтхэ
[qalam papt͡sʼamt͡ʃʼa satxa]
pencil sharp (ins.) I am writing
"I am writing with (using) the sharp pencil"
  • Adverbial case
пшъашъэр пшъэшъэ дахэу мэхъущт
[pʂaːʂar pʂaʂa daːxaw maχʷəɕt]
the girl (abs.) pretty girl (adv.) (s)he will turn
"the girl will become a pretty girl"

In case the whole sentence consists of only a noun and an adjective, the adjective can also be placed

before the noun. In this case the adjective does not get the suffix either when placed after the noun or

before it.

дахэ пшъашъэр
[daːxa pʂaːʂa]
pretty the girl (abs.)
"The girl is pretty"

Creating nouns from verbs[edit]

In Adyghe subjects that do a specific verb or objects that a specific verb is done to can be indicated by having the additional suffix -э (a) (for present tense -рэ (-ra)) to the specific verb.

  • макӏо /maːkʷ'a/ - (s)he is going → макӏорэ /maːkʷ'ara/ - the one that is going
  • ешхы /jaʃxə/ - (s)he is eating it → ишхырэ /jəʃxəra/ - the thing (s)he is eating.
  • машхэх /maːʃxax/ - they are eating → машхэхэрэ /maːʃxaxara/ - the one that are eating.
  • еплъы /japɬə/ - (s)he is looking at → еплъырэ /japɬəra/ - the one that (s)is looking.
  • еӏо /jaʔʷa/ (s)he says → иӏорэ /jəʔʷara/ the thing (s)he says.
  • егъакӏо /jaʁaːkʷʼa/ (s)he makes him go → игъакӏорэ /jəʁaːkʷʼara/ the one who have been made to go by him.
дыу кӏалэхэмкӏэ макӏорэм еплъ
дыу кӏалэ-хэ-мкӏэ макӏо-рэм еплъ
[dəw t͡ʃʼaːɮəxamt͡ʃʼa maːkʷʼaram japɬ]
that (over there) boys (ins.) the person that is going (erg.) look
"among those boys look at the boy that is going"
макӏорэр сишы
макӏо-рэр си-шы
[maːkʷʼarar səjʃ]
the person that is going (abs.) my brother
"the person that is going is my brother"
мэлажьэхэрэмэ къысаӏуагъ ар
мэлажьэ-хэ-рэ-мэ къы-са-Iуагъ ар
[maɮaːʑaxarama qəsaːʔʷaːʁ aːr]
the people that are working (erg.) they told me that
"the people that are working told me that"

Anonymous subject Зи-[edit]

To indicate the one (subject) who does a certain transitive verb has the prefix зи- (zəj-) and the suffix -э (a) (for present tense -рэ (-ra)). In some cases it also indicates the object.

  • яшхы /jaːʃxə/ - they are eating → зишхыхэрэ /zəjʃxəxara/ - the ones that are eating it.
  • еплъы /japɬə/ (s)he looks at → зеплъырэ /zepɬəra/ the thing (s)he is watching
  • еӏо /jaʔʷa/ (s)he says → зиӏорэр /zəjʔʷara/ the one who says
  • егъакӏо /jaʁaːkʷʼa/ (s)he makes him go → зигъакӏорэ /zəjʁaːkʷʼara/ the one who is making him go.

Examples when indicating the subject :

мыр зилагъэр къэкӏожьыщт
[mər zəjɮaːʁar qakʷʼaʑəɕt]
this the one who painted it (s)he will return
"The one who painted this will return."
цӏыфыр зиукӏыгъэр къаубытэгъ
[t͡sʼəfər zəjwt͡ʃʼəʁar qaːwbətaʁ]
the person (abs.) the one who killed (s)he had been caught
"The one who killed the person had been caught."

Examples when indicating the object :

кӏалэр пщынэ зеорэр
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar pɕəna zewarar]
the boy (abs.) accordion the thing (s)e is playing on
"The thing the boy is playing on is an accordion."
сыд фылым узеплъырэр?
[səd fələm wzepɬərar]
what film the thing/one you are watching
"What is the film you are watching?"

Anonymous object Зри[edit]

To indicate the object a certain verb was done with has the prefix зри- (zəj-) and the suffix -э (a) (for present tense -рэ (-ra)). In some cases it also used to indicate the object a transitive verb was done to.

  • рекӏо /rajkʷʼa/ (s)he is going on → зрикӏорэ /zrəjkʷʼara/ the thing he is going on.
  • решхэ /rajʃxa/ (s)he is eating with it → зришхэрэ /zrəjʃxara/ the thing he is eating with.
  • реплъы /rajpɬə/ (s)he looks with it → зриплъырэ /zepɬəra/ the thing (s)he is looking with.
  • реӏо /rajʔʷa/ (s)he tells him → зриӏорэ /zrəjʔʷara/ the one who is been told to
  • регъакӏо /rajʁaːkʷʼa/ (s)he makes him go on → зригъакӏорэ /zəjrəjʁaːkʷʼa/ the thing (s)he is making him go on.

Destination and location[edit]

To indicate the destination of a certain verb, the prefix зы- (zə-) and the suffix -э (a) (for present tense -рэ (-ra)). Usually this is used together with the positional conjugation prefixes.

  • ӏус /ʔʷəs/ he sits near → зӏусэ /zəʔʷəsa/ the spot he is sitting.
  • макӏо /maːkʷ'a/ - (s)he is going → зыкӏорэ /zəkʷʼara/ - the place (s)he is going to
  • макӏо /maːkʷʼa/ he goes → здакӏорэ /zdaːkʷʼa/ the direction he goes to
  • тахьэ /taːħa/ he goes on → зтахьэрэ /ztaːħara/ the place he goes up to.
  • дахьэ /daːħa/ he enters it → здахьэрэ /zdaːħara/ the area he enters.
  • пэхьэ /paħa/ it connects → зпыхьэрэ /zpəħara/ the spot it connects to.
  • мэзао /mazaːwa/ he fights → зщызаорэ /zɕəzaːwara/ the place he is fighting.
сыздакӏорэр сэшӏэ
[səzdaːkʷʼarar saʃʼa]
the place I am going to I know
"I know the place I am going to."
Тыдэ мыжъор здэбдзыгъэр?
[təda məʒʷar zdabd͡zəʁar]
where the rock (abs.) where you threw it
"Where you threw the rock?"

Anonymous ownership зи-[edit]

To indicate an ownership of some noun, the noun gets the prefix зи- (zəj-), for example :

  • икӏалэ /t͡ʃ'aːɮa/ - his/her boy → зикӏалэ /zəjt͡ʃʼaːɮa/ - the one the boy belongs to (father or mother).
  • иӏанэ /ʔaːna/ - his/her table → зиӏанэ /zəjʔaːna/ - the owner of the table.
  • ицӏэ /t͡sʼa/ - his/her name → зицӏэ /zəjt͡sʼa/ - the owner of the name (a person with the name)
хэт зицӏэр Том
[xat zəjt͡sʼar tom]
who the one who named Tom (name)
"Who is the one named Tom?"
мыр зимащинэм къысиӏуагъ шъунэмысынэу
[mər zəjmaːɕinam səjnaʔʷaːs səjnaʔʷaːs]
this the owner of the car (s)he told me don't touch it (said to plural)
"The owner of this car told me that you (plural) shouldn't touch it."
унэр зиер лӏы
[wənar zəjjar ɬʼə]
house (abs.) the owner of a man
"The owner of the house is a man."

Anonymous favourably Зф-[edit]

To indicate the object (usually people or animals) a certain verb was done for has the prefix зф- (zf-) and the suffix -э (a) (for present tense -рэ (-ra)). It can also be used to indicate the reason the subject does the verb, in this case it can be said in a sense that the verb was done for the reason.

  • макӏо /maːkʷ'a/ - (s)he is going → зфакӏорэ /zfaːkʷ'ara/ - the one (s)he is going for; the reason (s)he is going is.
  • ешхы /jaʃxə/ - (s)he is eating it → зфишхырэ /zfəjʃxəra/ - the one (s)he is eating for; the reason(s) he is eating is.
  • машхэх /maːʃxax/ - they are eating → зфашхэхэрэ /zfaːʃxaxara/ - the ones they are eating for; the reason they are eating is.
  • еплъы /japɬə/ - (s)he is looking at → зфеплъырэ /zfepɬəra/ - the one (s)he is watching for; the reason (s)he is watching is.
  • еӏо /jaʔʷa/ (s)he says → зфиӏорэ /zfəjʔʷara/ the one (s)he says it for; the reason (s)he says it is.
  • егъакӏо /jaʁaːkʷʼa/ (s)he makes him go → зфигъакӏорэ /zfəjʁaːkʷʼara/ the one (s)he is making him go for; the reason (s)he is making him go is.
зфэсӏуагъэр ар угурыӏон фэшӏ
зфэ-с-ӏуа-гъэ-р ар у-гурыӏо-н фэшӏ
[zfasʔəaːʁar aːr wəɡʷərəʔʷab faʃʼ]
the reason I said it that you (to) understand for it
"The reason I said that is for you to understand."
хэт кӏалэр зфакӏорэр?
[xat t͡ʃʼaːɮar zfaːkʷʼarar]
who the boy (abs.) the one he is going for
"Who is the one the boy is going for?"

Anonymous Sociative Зд--[edit]

To indicate the object (usually people or animals) a certain verb was done with has the prefix зд- (zd-) and the suffix -э (a) (for present tense -рэ (-ra)).

  • макӏо /maːkʷ'a/ - (s)he is going → здакӏорэ /zdaːkʷ'ara/ - the one (s)he is going with.
  • ешхы /jaʃxə/ - (s)he is eating it → здишхырэ /zdəjʃxəra/ - the one (s)he is eating with.
  • машхэх /maːʃxax/ - they are eating → здашхэхэрэ /zdaːʃxaxara/ - the ones they are eating with.
  • еплъы /japɬə/ - (s)he is looking at → здеплъырэ /zdepɬəra/ - the one (s)he is watching with.
  • еӏо /jaʔʷa/ (s)he says → здиӏорэ /zdəjʔʷara/ the one (s)he says it with.
  • егъакӏо /jaʁaːkʷʼa/ (s)he makes him go → здигъакӏорэ /zdəjʁaːkʷʼara/ the one (s)he is making him go with.
хэт кӏалэр здакӏорэр?
[xat t͡ʃʼaːɮar zdaːkʷʼarar]
who the boy (abs.) the one he is going with
"Who is the one the boy is going with?"

Creating nouns from adjective[edit]

In Adyghe someone (person) or something (animal, plant, object) that have a specific adjective can be

presented with the adjective word with the additional noun case suffix (absolutive, ergative, etc.) For

example:

  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дахэр /daːxar/ - the pretty person (absolutive case).
  • ашӏу /aːʃʷʼə/ - tasty → ашӏухэр /aːʃʷʼəxar/ - the tasty ones (absolutive case).
  • мэзахэ /mazaːxa/ - dark → мэзахэм /mazaːxam/ - in the dark (ergative case).
  • чъыӏэ /t͡ʂəʔa/ - cold → чъыӏэм /t͡ʂəʔam/ - in the cold (ergative case).
кӏуачӏэхэр тиунэ къэгъакӏох
кӏуачӏэ-хэ-р ти-унэ къэ-гъа-кӏо-х
[kʷʼaːt͡ʃʼaxar təjwna qaʁaːkʷʼax]
the strong ones (abs.) our house make them come
"bring the strong ones to our house"
унэм шъукъихьэжь чъыӏэм шъуигъэсмэджэщт
унэ-м шъу-къ-ихьэ-жь чъыӏэ-м шъуи-гъэ-смэджэ-щт
[wənam ʃʷəqiħaʑ t͡ʂəʔam ʃʷiʁasmad͡ʒat]
house (erg.) get inside (to plural) the cold (erg.) it will make you (plural) sick
"get inside the house, the cold will make you sick (said to plural)"
сымаджэхэмэ шъукъадж япэу
сымаджэ-хэ-мэ шъу-къадж япэ-эу
[səmaːd͡ʒaxama ʃʷəqaːd͡ʒ jaːpaw]
the sick ones (egs.) call them (said to plural) firstly
"First call the sick ones. (said to plural)"

In Adyghe any adjective that is measurable or comparable can be turned into a noun by adding the

suffix -агъэ /-aːʁa/, for example:

  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дахагъэ /daːxaːʁa/ - beauty.
  • кӏуачӏэ /kʷʼaːt͡ʃʼa/ - strong → кӏуачӏагъэ /kʷʼaːt͡ʃʼaːʁa/ - strength.
  • псао /psaːwa/ - whole, fine → псэуагъэ /psawaːʁa/ - health condition.
  • делэ /dajla/ - fool → делагъэ /dajlaːʁa/ - foolishness.
  • псынкӏэ /psənt͡ʃʼa/ - fast → псынкӏагъэ /psənt͡ʃʼaːʁa/ - speed.
  • ӏазэ /ʔaːza/ - skilled → ӏэзагъэ /ʔazaːʁa/ - skill.
Сянэ ипсэуагъэ сыфэгуаӏэ
С-янэ и-псэу-агъэ сы-фэ-гуаӏэ
[sijaːna jipsawaːʁa səfaɡʷaːʔa]
my mother his/her health condition I worry for him/her
"The worry for my mother's health condition"

Verbs[edit]

In Adyghe, like all Northwest Caucasian languages, the verb is the most inflected part of speech. Verbs are typically head final and are conjugated for tense, person, number, etc.

Transitivity[edit]

Verbs that can be performed by nouns in the absolutive case are usually intransitive verbs. With intransitive verbs in a sentence there is, usually, no direct object, and the real subject is usually expressed by a noun in the nominative case. For example:

Томэр машхэ тиунэкӏэ
Том-эр машхэ ти-унэ-кӏэ
[tomar maːʃxa tiwnat͡ʃʼa]
Tom (abs.) he is eating In our house (Ins.) / with our house (Ins.)
"Tom is eating in our house"
кӏалэр тиунэ къакӏо
кӏалэ-эр ти-унэ къа-кӏо
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar tiwna qaːkʷʼa]
the boy (abs.) our house (s)he is coming
"The boy is coming to our house"
пшъашъэр маплъэ тиунэ пакӏэ
пшъашъэ-эр маплъэ ти-унэ пакӏэ
[pʂaːʂar maːpɬa tiwna paːt͡ʃʼa]
the girl (abs.) (s)he is looking our house direction
"The girl is looking at our house direction"

Verbs that can be performed by ergative nouns are always transitive. Transitive verbs combine with nouns in the nominative grammatical case that play role of direct object in a sentence. In the sentences of this type the noun in the subject's position is in the ergative case:

Томэм ешхы мые
Том-эм ешхы мые
[tomam jaʃxə məja]
Tom (erg.) (s)he is eating a apple
"Tom is eating an apple"
Иусыфым пшъашъэр тиунэ егъакӏо
Иусыф-ым пшъашъэ-эр ти-унэ е-гъа-кӏо
[jəwsəfəm pʂaːʂar tiwna jaʁaːkʷʼa]
Joseph (erg.) the girl (abs.) our house (s)he is making him/her to go
"Joseph is making the girl to go to our house"
"Joseph is forcing the girl to go to our house"
кӏалэм еплъы пшъашъэр
кӏалэ-эр еплъы ти-унэ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮam japɬə pʂaːʂar]
the boy (erg.) (s)he is looking at the girl (abs.)
"The girl is looking at the boy"

Infinitives[edit]

Adyghe infinitives are created by suffixing -н to verbs. For example:

  • кӏо /kʷʼa/ "go" → кӏон /kʷʼan/ "to go"
  • ӏо /ʔʷa/ "say" → ӏон /ʔʷan/ "to say"

Along with roots, verbs already inflected can be conjugated, such as with person:

  • ошхэ /waʃxa/ "you are eating" → ушхэн /wəʃxan/ "(for) you (to) eat"

Also, due to the interchangeability of nouns and verbs, infinitives can be constructed from nouns, resulting in verbs that describe the state of being the suffixed word.

  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мэфэн /mafan/ - to be a day.
  • кӏалэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮa/ - boy → кӏэлэн /t͡ʃʼaɮan/ - to be a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дэхэн /daxan/ - (for) he/she/it (to) be pretty.
  • кӏэхьы /t͡ʃʼaħə/ - long → кӏэхьын /t͡ʃʼaħən/ - (for) he/she/it (to) be long.
цIыфым шъущхэн фай къушъуиIуагъ
[t͡sʼəfəm ʂʷəɕxan faːj qʷəʂʷiʔʷaːʁ]
the person (erg.) (you plural) to eat must he told you (plural)
"the person told you, you must eat"
лъэпкъэу узыхэсым ыбзэ пшIэн фае
[ɬapqʷəw wəzəxasəm əbza pʃʼan faːja]
People/Ethnic group (adv.) the people you live among (erg.) their language (you) to know

must

"You have to know the language of the people, among which you live"
пшъашъэр дэхэн фай
[pʂaːʂar daxan faːj]
the girl (abs.) to be pretty must/have to
"the girl must be pretty"
"the girl have to be pretty"
тиунэ укъихьэн фэшӀыкӀэ укӀэлэн фай
[tiwna wqiħan faʂʼət͡ʃʼa wt͡ʃʼalan faːj]
our house (to) you come in for him (ins.) you (to) be boy must/have to
"to come inside our house, you have to be a boy"
"to come inside our house, you must be a boy"

Future Tense Suffix -ну (-nəw):

сэ къосIонэу сыфай
[sa qəsʔʷanəw səfaːj]
i I (to) tell you I want
"I want to tell you"
цIыфым шъушхэнэу къушъуиIуагъ
[t͡sʼafəm ʂʷəʃxanəw qʷəʂʷiʔʷaːʁ]
the person (erg.) you (plural) (to) eat (adv.) he told you (plural)
"the person told you, to eat (plural)"

Positional conjugation[edit]

The positional conjugations in Adyghe.

Here is the positional conjugation of some verbs, showing how the root changes indicate position:

stands sits lies
Body position/Pose щыт (ɕət) щыс (ɕəs) щылъ (ɕəɬ)
On тет (tat) тес (tas) телъ (taɬ)
Under чӏэт (ʈ͡ʂʼat) чӏэс (ʈ͡ʂʼas) чӏэлъ (ʈ͡ʂʼaɬ)
Among хэт (xat) хэс (xas) хэлъ (xaɬ)
Within some area дэт (dat) дэс (das) дэлъ (daɬ)
Near or around ӏут (ʔʷət) ӏyc (ʔʷəs) ӏулъ (ʔʷəɬ)
Inside ит (jət) иc (jəs) илъ (jəɬ)
Hanged or attached пыт (pət) пыc (pəs) пылъ (pəɬ)
Merged гот (ɡʷat) гоc (ɡʷas) голъ (ɡʷaɬ)
Corner or behind къот (qʷat) къоc (qʷas) къолъ (qʷaɬ)
Side бгъодэт (bʁʷadat) бгъодэc (bʁʷadas) бгъодэлъ (bʁʷadaɬ)
In front of пэӏут (paʔʷət) пэӏуc (paʔʷəs) пэӏулъ (paʔʷəɬ)

Body position/Pose[edit]

  • щ(ы)~ /ɕə-/ designates abode/residence somewhere. For example :
Meaning Adyghe Notes
Cyrillic IPA
to throw щыдзын ɕəd͡zən to throw an object somewhere
to fit щыхьэн ɕəħan to fit clothes and foot-wears
to look щыплъэн ɕəpɬan to look somewhere
to fit щыфэн ɕəfan to fit clothes and foot-wears
to take off щыхын ɕəxəx to take off clothes and foot-wears
to wear off щыкӏын ɕət͡ʃʼən to wear off clothes or foot-wears
to stand in щыуцун ɕəwt͡sʷən to stand somewhere
to wear off щызын ɕəzən to wear off clothes or foot-wears
кӏалэр щыс егупшысэу
кӏалэ-р щыс егупшысэ-эу
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar ɕəs jaɡʷəpʃəsaw]
the boy (abs.) (s)he is sitting while (s)he is thinking
"the boy is sitting while thinking."
мы цуакъэхэр къэсщыфэхэрэп
мы цуакъэ-хэ-р къэ-с-щы-фэ-хэ-рэп
[mə t͡sʷaːqaxar qasɕəfaxarap]
this shoes (abs.) they are not fitting me
"these shoes are not fitting me."
моу мыжъохэр щымыдзых
моу мыжъо-хэ-р щы-мы-дзы-х
[maw məʒʷaxar ɕəməd͡zəx]
here rocks (abs.) don't throw them
"don't throw rocks here."

On[edit]

  • те~ /taj-/ designates location/being on something. For example :
Meaning Adyghe Notes
Cyrillic IPA
to throws at тедзэн tajd͡zan to throw an object on something
to go on техьэн tajħan to go on something, to assault somewhere
to look on теплъэн tajpɬan to look on something
to fit on
to hit on
тефэн tajfan to fit an object on something
an object to be hit above something
to take from техын tajxən to take an object from something
to go away from текӏын tajt͡ʃʼən to come down from something
to put on телъхьэн tajɬħan to put an object on something or someone
to stand on теуцон tajwt͡sʷan to stand on something
to fall from on тезын tajzən to fall from above something
кӏалэр унашъхьэм тет
кӏалэ-р унашъхьэ-м тет
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar wənaːʂħam tajt]
the boy (abs.) the roof (erg.) (s)he is on
"the boy is on the roof."
шхынэр ӏанэм бзылъфыгъэм трелъхьэ
шхынэ-р ӏанэ-м бзылъфыгъэ-м тре-лъхьэ
[ʃxənar ʔaːnam bzəɬfəʁam trajɬħa]
the fiid (abs.) the table (erg.) the woman (abs.) (s)he is putting it on
"the woman is putting the food on the table."
джыдэдэм ӏанэм къытекӏ
джыдэдэм ӏанэ-м къы-те-кӏ
[d͡ʒədadam ʔaːnam qətajt͡ʃʼ]
right now the table (erg.) go down from
"go down from the table right now"

Under[edit]

  • чӏэ~ /t͡ʂʼa-/ designates being under something. In the Shapsug dialect it is кӏэ~ /t͡ʃʼa-/ and in the Abzakh dialect it is ӏьэ~ /ʔʲa-/. For example :
Meaning Adyghe Notes
Cyrillic IPA
to throw under чӏэдзэн t͡ʂʼad͡zan to throw an object under something
to go under чӏэхьэн t͡ʂʼaħan to go under something
to look under чӏэплъэн t͡ʂʼapɬan to look under something
to fit under
to hit under
чӏэфэн t͡ʂʼafan to fit an object under something
an object to be hit under something
to take from чӏэхын t͡ʂʼaxən to take an object under something
to go away from чӏэкӏын t͡ʂʼat͡ʃʼən to come out under something
to put under чӏэлъхьэн t͡ʂʼaɬħan to put an object under something or someone
to stand under чӏэуцон t͡ʂʼawt͡sʷan to stand under something
to fall from under чӏэзын t͡ʂʼazən to fall from under something
кӏэлэцӏыкӏор ӏанэм чӏэс
кӏэлэцӏыкӏо-р ӏанэ-м чӏэс
[t͡ʃʼaɮat͡sʼəkʷʼar ʔaːnam t͡ʂʼas]
the little boy (abs.) the table (erg.) (s)he is sitting under
"the little boy is sitting under the table."
кӏалэр унэчӏэгъым чӏахьэ
кӏалэ-р унэчӏэгъ-ым чӏа-хьэ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar wənat͡ʂʼaʁəm t͡ʂʼaːħa]
the boy (abs.) under house (erg.) (s)he is entering under
"the boy is entering under the house."
сэ чъыгым тӏэкӏурэ сычӏэгъулъхьэщт
сэ чъыгы-м тӏэкӏу-рэ сы-чӏэ-гъулъхьэ-щт
[sa t͡ʂəɣəm tʼakʷʼəra sət͡ʂʼaʁʷəɬħaɕt]
I the table (erg.) for a little while I will lay under
"I will lay under the tree for a little while."

Among[edit]

  • хэ~ /xa-/ designates being among people, plants, animals or objects. For example :
Meaning Adyghe Notes
Cyrillic IPA
to throw among хэдзэн xad͡zan to throw an object among some objects or people
to go among хэхьэн xaħan to go to an area with a lot people or plants
to look among хэплъэн xapɬan to look among some people or objects
to fit among
to fall among
хэфэн xafan to fit among some people or objects
an object to fall among people or objectss
to take from хэхын xaxən to take an object among objects
to go away among хэкӏын xat͡ʃʼən to get away from people or objects
to put among хэлъхьэн xaɬħan to put an object among other objects
to stand among хэуцон xawt͡sʷan to stand among objects or other people
to fall among хэзын xazən to be dropped from a group of objects or people
кӏалэр цӏыфыхэмэ яхэт
кӏалэ-р цӏыфы-хэ-мэ я-хэт
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar t͡sʼəfəxama jaːxat]
the boy (abs.) the people (erg.) (s)he is standing among
"the boy is standing among the people."
лӏыр мэзым изакъоу хахьэ
[ɬʼər mazəm jəzaːqʷaw xaːħa]
the man (arg.) in the forest (erg.) lonely (s)he is entering
"the man is entering the forest alone."
джэгуалъэр адрэ джэгуалъэмэ яхалъхь
джэгуалъэ-р адрэ джэгуалъэ-мэ я-ха-лъхь
[d͡ʒaɡʷaːɬar aːdra d͡ʒaɡʷaːɬama jaːxaːɬħ]
the toy (abs.) other (abs.) toys (erg.) put it among
"put the toy among the other toys."
  • хэ~ /xa-/ also designates being in some mass like for example in a liquid, fire, solid, gas and etc. For example :
Meaning Adyghe Notes
Cyrillic IPA
to throw into хэдзэн xad͡zan to throw an object into some mass
to go into хэхьэн xaħan to enter an area with some mass
to look into хэплъэн xapɬan to look into an area with some mass
to fit into
to fall into
хэфэн xafan to fit inside an area with some mass
an object to fall to an area with some mass
to take from хэхын xaxən to take an object form an area with some mass
to get out from хэкӏын xat͡ʃʼən to get out from an area with some mass
to put into хэлъхьэн xaɬħan to put an object into an area with some mass
to stand in хэуцон xawt͡sʷan to stand in an area with some mass
to stand on a surface with some mass (like dirt or liquid)
to fall from хэзын xazən to fall from an area with some mass
машӏом пхъэхэ хамыдзэх
машӏо-м пхъэ-хэ ха-мы-дзэ-х
[maːʃʷʼam pχaxa xaːməd͡ʒax]
the fire (erg.) woods don't throw them into
"don't throw woods into the fire."
кӏалэм мыжъор хым къыхехыжьы
кӏалэ-м мыжъо-р хы-м къы-хе-хы-жьы
[t͡ʃʼaːɮam məʒʷar xəm qəxajxəʑə]
the boy (erg.) the rock (abs.) the sea (erg.) (s)he is taking it from
"the boy is taking the rock out of the sea."
мыджишыныр дэпкъым хэкӏышъущта?
мыджишыны-р дэпкъы-м хэ-кӏы-шъу-щт-а?
[mədʒɪʃənər dapqəːm xat͡ʃʼəʃʷəɕtaː]
magician (arg.) wall (erg.) can (s)he go through
"can the magician go through the wall?"

Within some area[edit]

  • дэ~ /da-/ designates being of an object on a definite territory. For example :
Meaning Adyghe Notes
Cyrillic IPA
to throw into дэдзэн dad͡zan to throw an object on a definite territory
to go into дэхьэн daħan to enter a definite territory
to look into дэплъэн dapɬan to look at a definite territory
to fit into
to fall into
дэфэн dafan to be fit is a definite territory
an object to fall into a definite territory
to take from дэхын daxən to take an object from a definite territory
to get out from дэкӏын dat͡ʃʼən to get our from a definite territory
to put inside дэлъхьэн daɬħan to put an object into a definite territory
to stand in дэуцон dawt͡sʷan to stand in a definite territory
to fall from дэзын dazən to fall from a definite territory
кӏалэр щагум дахьэ
кӏалэ-р щагу-м да-хьэ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar ɕaːɡʷəm daːħa]
the boy (abs.) the yard (erg.) (s)he is entering
"the boy is entering the yard."
кӏалэр чылэм дэсыгу
кӏалэ-р чылэ-м дэ-сы-гу
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar t͡ʃəlam dasəɡʷ]
the boy (abs.) the village (erg.) (s)he is sitting for now
"the boy is in the village for now."
шъуздэхьагъэм шъукъыдэкӏ псынкӏэу
шъу-з-дэ-хьа-гъэ-м шъу-къы-дэ-кӏ псынкӏэу
[ʃʷəzdaħaːʁam ʃʷəqədat͡ʃʼ psənt͡ʃʼaw]
the place you (plural) entered get out from the place (said to plural) quickly
"get away from the place you (plural) entered quickly."
  • дэ~ /da-/ also designates being of an object inside another object. For example :
Meaning Adyghe Notes
Cyrillic IPA
to throw into дэдзэн dad͡zan to throw an object inside another object
to go into дэхьэн daħan to enter inside another object
to look into дэплъэн dapɬan to look inside another object
to fit into
to fall into
дэфэн dafan to fit inside another object
an object to fall inside another object
to take from дэхын daxən to take an object from inside another object
to get out from дэкӏын dat͡ʃʼən to get our from inside another object
to put inside дэлъхьэн daɬħan to put an object inside another object
to stand on дэуцон dawt͡sʷan to stand inside another object
to fall from on дэзын dazən to fall from inside another object
джанэхэр дэлъыпӏэм дэлъых
джанэ-хэ-р дэлъыпӏэ-м дэ-лъы-х
[d͡ʒaːnaxar daɬəpʼam daɬəx]
the shirts (abs.) closet (erg.) they are laying inside
"the shirts are inside the closet."
компютэрым диск дэлъэп
компютэры-м диск дэ-лъэ-п
[kompjuːtarəm diːskʲ daɬap]
the computer (erg.) a disk not laying inside
"there is no disk inside the computer."
кӏалэм тхылъыпӏэр тхылъым дрелъхьэ
кӏалэ-м тхылъыпӏэ-р тхылъы-м дре-лъхьэ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮam txəɬəpʼar txəɬəm drajɬħa]
the boy (erg.) the paper (abs.) book (erg.) (s)he is putting it inside
"the boy is putting the paper inside the book."

Near or around[edit]

  • ӏу~ /ʔʷə-/ designates drawing near, approaching somebody or something, being of an object around or near something or someone else. For example :
Meaning Adyghe Notes
Cyrillic IPA
to throw around ӏудзэн ʔʷəd͡zan to throw an object around or near something
to go around ӏухьэн ʔʷəħan to approach something or someone
to look around ӏуплъэн ʔʷəpɬan to look around or near something or someone
to fit around
to fall around
ӏуфэн ʔʷəfan to fit around or near something
an object to fall around or near something
to take from ӏухын ʔʷəxən to take an object from around something
to go away from ӏукӏын ʔʷət͡ʃʼən to get away from
to put around ӏулъхьэн ʔʷəɬħan to put an object around or near something
to stand near ӏууцон ʔʷəwt͡sʷan to stand near or around something
to fall from near ӏузын ʔʷəzən to fall from near or around something
кӏалэр тучаным ӏухьагъ
кӏалэ-р тучан-ым ӏу-хь-агъ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar təwt͡ʃaːnəm ʔʷəħaːʁ]
the boy (abs.) shop (erg.) (s)he is approaching
"the boy approached the shop."
ӏэгуаоу чъыгым ӏулъэр къэсфэхь
ӏэгуао-у чъыгы-м ӏу-лъ-эр къэ-с-фэ-хь
[ʔaɡʷaːwaw t͡ʂəɣəm ʔʷəɬar qasfaħ]
the ball (abs.) the tree (erg.) the thing near it (abs.) bring it for me
"bring me the ball near the tree."
мы джэгуалъэхэр ӏушъухыжьых
мы джэгуалъэ-хэ-р ӏушъухыжьых
[mə d͡ʒaɡʷaːɬaxar ʔʷəʃʷxəʑəx]
this toys (abs.) take these away (said to plural)
"take theses toys away (said to plural)"

Inside[edit]

  • и~ /jə-/ designates being inside/in something. For example :
Meaning Adyghe Notes
Cyrillic IPA
to throw inside идзэн jəd͡zan to throw an object inside something
to enter ихьэн jəħan to enter somewhere
to look inside иплъэн jəpɬan to look inside something
to fit inside
to fall inside
ифэн jəfan to fit inside something
an object to fall inside something
to take from ихын jəxən to take an object from inside something
to exit икӏын jət͡ʃʼən to exit from somewhere
to put inside илъхьэн jəɬħan to put an object inside something
to stand inside иуцон jəwt͡sʷan to stand inside something
to fall from inside изын jəzən to fall from inside something
ныор унэм ис
ныо-р унэ-м и-с
[nəwar wənam jəs]
the old woman (abs.) house (erg.) (s)he is sitting inside
"the old woman is sitting inside the house."
мыер матэм илъхь
мыер матэ-м и-лъхь
[məjar maːtəm jəɬħ]
the apple (abs.) basket (erg.) put it inside
"put the apple inside the basket."
мары, унэм сихьэни скъикӏыжьыщт
мары унэ-м с-и-хьэн-и с-къ-и-кӏы-жьы-щт
[maːrə wənam səjħanəj sqəjt͡ʃʼəʑəɕt]
a moment house (erg.) I will enter then I will exit
"A moment, I will enter the house and will exit it."
кӏалэм унэм ӏанэр рилъхьи пхъэнтӏэкӏор рихыжьэгъ
кӏалэ-м унэ-м ӏанэ-р ри-лъхь-и пхъэнтӏэкӏо-р ри-хы-жь-эгъ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮam wənam ʔaːnar rəjɬħəj pχantʼakʷʼar rəjxəʑaʁ]
the boy (erg.) house (erg.) table (abs.) (s)he put it inside chair (abs.) (s)he took it away from inside
"the boy placed the table inside the house and took the chair."

Hanged or attached[edit]

  • пы~ /pə-/ designates addition or joining, adherence, attached, hanged (like fruits on a tree or clothes on a hanger). For example :
Meaning Adyghe Notes
Cyrillic IPA
to throw at пыдзэн pəd͡zan to throw an object on a hanger
to attache to пыхьэн pəħan to attache to somewhere
to look at пыплъэн pəpɬan to look inside a tree
to fit at
to fall at
пыфэн pəfan to fit on a hanger
an object to fall on a tree
to take from пыхын pəxən to take an object from a hanger or tree
to unplug
to come down from пыкӏын pət͡ʃʼən to get off a hanger or tree
to pick a fruit from a tree
to separate from
to put at пылъхьэн pəɬħan to put an object on a hanger or tree
to stand on пыуцон pəwt͡sʷan to stand on a tree
to fall from пызын pəzən to fall from a hanger or tree
ныор джэнэпылъапӏ ис
ныо-р унэ-м и-с
[nəwar wənam jəs]
the old woman (abs.) house (erg.) (s)he is sitting inside
"the old woman is sitting inside the house."
сиджанэ джэнэпылъапӏэм пылъ
си-джанэ джэнэпылъапӏэ-м пы-лъ
[səjd͡ʒaːna d͡ʒanapəɬaːpʼam pəɬ]
my shirt clothes hanger (erg.) it is handing on
"my shirt is hanging on the clothes hanger."
тиӏэгуаор чъыгы лъагэм къыпыпхышъущта?
ти-ӏэгуао-р чъыгы лъагэ-м къы-пы-п-хы-шъу-щт-а?
[təjʔaɡʷaːwar t͡ʂəɣə ɬaːɣam qəpəpxəʃʷəɕtaː]
our ball (abs.) long tree (erg.) can you take it from
"can you take the ball from the tree?"
пхъэ унэ чъыгым пыфэщтэп
пхъэ унэ чъыгы-м пы-фэ-щт-эп
[pχa wəna t͡ʂəɣə pəfaɕtap]
a tree house tree (erg.) it won't fit on
"a tree house won't fit on the tree."

Marged[edit]

  • го~ /ɡʷa-/ designates process of joining or merging with an object (usually a body). for example :
Meaning Adyghe Notes
Cyrillic IPA
to throw at годзэн ɡʷad͡zan to throw an object on a steed or someone's neck
to merge to гохьэн ɡʷaħan to merge with an object
to look at гоплъэн ɡʷapɬan to look at a steed or someone's neck
to fit at
to fall at
гофэн ɡʷafan to fit on a steed or someone's neck
an object to fall on a steed or someone's neck
to take from гохын ɡʷaxən to take an object a steed or someone's neck
to come down from гокӏын ɡʷat͡ʃʼən to get off a steed or someone's neck
to put at голъхьэн ɡʷaɬħan to put an object on a steed or someone's neck
to stand on гоуцон ɡʷawt͡sʷan to beat up someone
to fall from гозын ɡʷazən to fall from the body of something or someone
цум бжъитӏу гот
цу-м бжъ-итӏу го-т
[t͡sʷəm bʐəjtʷʼ ɡʷat]
ox (erg.) two horns it have on his body
"the ox have two horns."
шыор шым гос
шыо-р шы-м го-с
[ʃəwar ʃəm ɡʷas]
the horseman (abs.) horse (erg.) (s)he is sitting on a body
"the horseman is sitting on the horse."
лӏыжъым зылъакъо готэп
лӏыжъы-м зы-лъакъо го-тэ-п
[ɬʼəʐəm zəɬaːqʷa ɡʷatap]
the old man (erg.) one leg (s)he doesn't have on his body
"the old man doesn't have one leg."
шым зеохьыжьым кӏалэу госэр гозэгъ
шы-м зеохьы-жь-ым кӏалэ-у го-сэ-р го-зэ-гъ
[ʃəm zajwaħəʑəm t͡ʃʼaːɮaw ɡʷasar ɡʷazaʁ]
house (erg.) to get out of control boy (adv.) the one on the body (s)he fell off the body
"when the horse got out of control the boy sitting on it fell."

Corner or behind[edit]

  • къо~ /qʷa-/ designates an object behind something or in the corner. it also designates motion directed to the back of something or someone.
Meaning Adyghe Notes
Cyrillic IPA
to throw to behind къодзэн qʷad͡zan to throw an object behind something or to the corner
to approach behind къохьэн qʷaħan to approach behind something or to the corner
to look behind a къоплъэн qʷapɬan to look behind something or to the corner
to fit behind
to fall behind
къофэн qʷafan to fit behind something or to the corner
an object to fall behind something or to the corner
to take from behind a къохын qʷaxən to take an object behind something or from the corner
to come out behind къокӏын qʷat͡ʃʼən to come out behind something or to get away from the corner
to put behind къолъхьэн qʷaɬħan to put an object behind something or to the corner
to stand behind къоуцон qʷawt͡sʷan to stand on behind something or to the corner
to fall from behind къозын qʷazən to fall from behind something or to the corner
тыгъэр къокӏы
тыгъэ-р къо-кӏы
[təʁar qʷat͡ʃʼə]
the sun (abs.) it is getting out
"the sun is getting out."
бзылъфыгъэм кӏалэр къурнэм къуигъэхьагъ
бзылъфыгъэ-м кӏалэ-р къурнэ-м къу-и-гъэ-хь-агъ
[bzəɬfəʁam t͡ʃʼaːɮar qʷərnam qʷəjʁaħaːʁ]
the woman (erg.) boy (abs.) corner (erg.) (s)he made him go to
"the woman made the boy go to the corner."
уцым кӏалэр къопкӏэгъ
уцы-м кӏалэ-р къо-пкӏэ-гъ
[wət͡səm t͡ʃʼaːɮar qʷapt͡ʃʼaʁ]
grass (erg.) the boy (abs.) (s)he jumped from behind
"the boy jumped from behind the bushes."
дыу ӏанэм къуаплъи си къэлэм ӏулъмэ еплъ
дыу ӏанэ-м къу-аплъ-и си къэлэ-м ӏу-лъ-мэ еплъ
[dəw ʔaːnam qʷaːpɬəj səj qalam ʔʷəɬəma japɬ]
that over there table (erg.) look behind it and my pencil if it is near it look
"look behind that table and see if my pencil is there."

Side[edit]

  • бгъодэ~ /bʁʷada-/ designates an action directed towards the side of something or someone. In the Chemguy dialect it is го~ /ɡʷa-/. Examples :
Meaning Adyghe Notes
Cyrillic IPA
to throw aside бгъодэдзэн bʁʷadad͡zan to throw an object on the side of something or someone
to approach aside бгъодэхьэн bʁʷadaħan to approach by the side of something or someone
to look aside бгъодэплъэн bʁʷadapɬan to look aside something or someone
to fit aside
to fall aside
бгъодэфэн bʁʷadafan to fit aside something or someone
an object to fall aside something or someone
to take from бгъодэхын bʁʷadaxən to take an object from aside something or someone
to move away бгъодэкӏын bʁʷadat͡ʃʼən to go away from aside something or someone
to put aside бгъодэлъхьэн bʁʷadaɬħan to put an object aside something or someone
to stand aside бгъодэуцон bʁʷadawt͡sʷan to stand aside someone or something
to fall aside бгъодэзын bʁʷadazən to fall aside someone or something
кӏалэр шым бгъодэт
кӏалэ-р шы-м бгъодэ-т
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar ʃəm bʁʷadat]
the boy (abs.) horse (erg.) (s)he is standing aside
"the boy is standing aside the horse."
кӏалэм бгъодэкӏ
кӏалэ-м бгъодэ-кӏ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮam bʁʷadat͡ʃʼ]
the boy (abs.) go away from
"go away from the boy."
  • къыбгъодэ~ /qəbʁʷada-/ designates an action directed from the side of something or someone. for example :
Meaning Adyghe Notes
Cyrillic IPA
to throw by the side къыбгъодэдзэн qəbʁʷadad͡zan to throw an object from the side of something or someone
to approach by the side къыбгъодэхьэн qəbʁʷadaħan to approach from the side of something or someone
to look by the side къыбгъодэплъэн qəbʁʷadapɬan to look from the side of something or someone
to fit by the side
to fall by the side
къыбгъодэфэн qəbʁʷadafan to fit from the side something or someone
an object to fall from the side something or someone
to take by the side къыбгъодэхын qəbʁʷadaxən to take an object from the side of something or someone
to get away from the side къыбгъодэкӏын qəbʁʷadat͡ʃʼən to go away from the side of something or someone
to put on the side къыбгъодэлъхьэн qəbʁʷadaɬħan to put an object to the side of something or someone
to stand by the side къыбгъодэуцон qəbʁʷadawt͡sʷan to stand on the side of something or someone
to fall by the side къыбгъодэзын qəbʁʷadazən to fall from the side of something or someone
мащинэм къыбгъодахь
мащинэ-м къыбгъода-хь
[maːɕinam qəbʁʷadaːħ]
car (erg.) enter by the side of
"enter by the side of the car."
кӏалэр шым къыбгъодэт
кӏалэ-р шы-м къыбгъодэ-т
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar ʃəm qəbʁʷadat]
the boy (abs.) horse (erg.) (s)he is standing by the side
"the boy is standing by the side of the horse."
мы гущыӏэм къыбгъодатх
мы гущыӏэ-м къыбгъода-тх
[mə ɡʷəɕəʔam qebʁʷadaːtx]
this letter (erg.) write aside a
"write aside this word."

In front of[edit]

  • пэӏу~ /paʔʷə-/ designates an action directed towards the front of someone or something. for example :
Meaning Adyghe Notes
Cyrillic IPA
to throw in front of пэӏудзэн paʔʷəd͡zan to throw an object in front of something or someone
to approach in front of пэӏухьэн paʔʷəħan to approach in front of something or someone
to look in front of пэӏуплъэн paʔʷəpɬan to look in front of something or someone
to fit in front of
to fall in front of
пэӏуфэн paʔʷəfan to fit in front of something or someone
an object to fall in front of something or someone
to take in front of пэӏухын paʔʷəxən to take an object from front of something or someone
to move away in front of пэӏукӏын paʔʷət͡ʃʼən to go away from from the front of something or someone
to put in front of пэӏулъхьэн paʔʷəɬħan to put an object in front of something or someone
to stand on пэӏууцон paʔʷəwt͡sʷan to stand against someone
to fall from on пэӏузын paʔʷəzən to fall in front of someone or something
тхьэлӏыкӏум пхъэхэр пэӏуалъхьагъэх бламыгъэкӏын фэшӏкӏэ
тхьэлӏыкӏу-м пхъэ-хэ-р пэӏуа-лъхь-агъ-эх бла-мы-гъэ-кӏын фэшӏкӏэ
[tħaɬʼəkʷʼəm pχaxar paʔʷaːɬħaːʁax bɮaːməʁat͡ʃʼən faʃʼt͡ʃʼa]
prophet (erg.) woods (abs.) they put in front of to not let someone pass for
"they put woods in front of the prophet to prevent him from passing."
кӏалэр къэспэӏууцуи сыблигъэкӏыгъэп
кӏалэр къэ-с-пэӏу-уцу-и сы-бли-гъэ-кӏы-гъэ-п
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar qaspaʔʷəwt͡sʷəj səbɮəjʁat͡ʃʼəʁap]
the boy (abs.) (s)he stood in front of me (s)he didn't let me pass
"the boy stood if front of me and didn't let me pass."

Tense[edit]

Past tense[edit]

Type 1 :

The past tense of verbs of type 1 are formed by adding -aгъ /-aːʁ/. It indicates that the action took place, but with no indication as to the duration, instant nor completeness of the action.

Examples :

  • кӏо /kʷʼa/ go → мэкӏуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ (s)he went
  • къакӏу /qaːkʷʼ/ come → къэкӏуагъ /qakʷʼaːʁ/ (s)he went
  • шхэ /ʃxa/ eat! → мэшхагъ /maʃxaːʁ/ (s)he ate
  • ӏо /ʔʷa/ say → иӏуагъ /jəʔʷaːʁ/ (s)he said
  • еплъ /japɬ/ look at → еплъэгъ /japɬaʁ/ (s)he looked at
  • шхы /ʃxə/ eat it → ишхэгъ /jəʃxaʁ/ (s)he ate it
Plurality Person Cyrillic IPA Meaning
Singular First-person скӏуагъ, седжагъ skʷʼaːʁ, sajd͡ʒaːʁ I went, I [have] read
Second-person укӏуагъ, уеджагъ wkʷʼaːʁ, wajd͡ʒaːʁ You went, You [have] read
Third-person мэкӏуагъ, еджагъ makʷʼaːʁ, jad͡ʒaːʁ He went, He [has] read
Plural First-person ткӏуагъ, теджагъ tkʷʼaːʁ, tajd͡ʒaːʁ We went, We [have] read
Second-person шъукӏуагъ, шъуеджагъ ʃʷkʷʼaːʁ, ʃʷajd͡ʒaːʁ You (pl.) went, You [have] read
Third-person мэкӏуагъэх, еджагъэх makʷʼaːʁax, jad͡ʒaːʁax They went, They [have] read
Сиунэ сшышхагъ
[siwna sʃəɕxaːʁ]
my house I ate (in)
"I ate in my house"
тыгъусэ мые сшэфэгъ
[təʁʷaːsa məja sʃafaʁ]
yesterday an apple I bought
"yesterday I bought an apple"

Type 2 :

This is the past perfect or past perfect continuous tense. It is formed with the additional suffix -эгъагъ /-aʁaːʁ/. It indicates that the action took place formerly at some certain time.

Examples :

  • кӏо /kʷʼa/ go → мэкӏогъагъ /makʷʼaʁaːʁ/ (s)he went once upon a time, or formerly
  • къакӏу /qaːkʷʼ/ come → къэкӏогъагъ /qakʷʼaʁaːʁ/ (s)he came
  • шхэ /ʃxa/ eat! → мэшхэгъагъ /maʃxaʁaːʁ/ (s)he ate
  • ӏо /ʔʷa/ say → иӏогъагъ /jəʔʷaʁaːʁ/ (s)he said
  • еплъ /japɬ/ look at → еплъыгъагъ /japɬəʁaːʁ/ (s)he looked at
  • шхы /ʃxə/ eat it → ишхыгъагъ /jəʃxəʁaːʁ/ (s)he ate it
Plurality Person Cyrillic IPA Meaning
Singular First-person скӏогъагъ, седжэгъагъ skʷʼaʁaːʁ, sajd͡ʒaʁaːʁ I went, I read
Second-person укӏогъагъ, уеджэгъагъ wkʷʼaʁaːʁ, wajd͡ʒaʁaːʁ You went, You read
Third-person мэкӏогъагъ, еджэгъагъ makʷʼaʁaːʁ, jad͡ʒaʁaːʁ He went, He read
Plural First-person ткӏогъагъ, теджэгъагъ tkʷʼaʁaːʁ, tajd͡ʒaʁaːʁ We went, We read
Second-person шъукӏогъагъ, шъуеджэгъагъ ʃʷkʷʼaʁaːʁ, ʃʷajd͡ʒaʁaːʁ You (pl.) went, You read
Third-person мэкӏогъагъэх, еджэгъагъэх makʷʼaʁaːʁax, jad͡ʒaʁaːʁax They went, They read
Сиунэ сшышхэгъагъ
[siwna sʃəɕxaʁaːʁ]
my house I had eaten (then) in
"I had eaten (then) in my house"
тыгъусэ мые сшэфгъагъ
[təʁʷaːsa məja sʃafʁaːʁ]
yesterday an apple I bought (then)
"yesterday I bought (then) an apple"

Present tense[edit]

Examples :

  • кӏо /kʷʼa/ go → макӏо /makʷʼa/ (s)he goes
  • къакӏу /qaːkʷʼ/ come → къакӏо /qakʷʼa/ (s)he comes
  • шхэ /ʃxa/ eat! → машхэ /maʃxaʁ/ (s)he eats
  • ӏо /ʔʷa/ say → еӏо /jəʔʷa/ (s)he says
  • еплъ /japɬ/ look at → еплъы /japɬə/ (s)he looks at
  • шхы /ʃxə/ eat it → ешхы /jəʃxə/ (s)he eats it
Plurality Person Cyrillic IPA Meaning
Singular First-person сэкӏо, седжэ sakʷʼa, sajd͡ʒa I go, I read
Second-person окӏо, уеджэ wakʷʼa, wajd͡ʒa You go, You read
Third-person макӏо, еджэ maːkʷʼa, jad͡ʒa He goes, He read
Plural First-person тэкӏо, теджэ takʷʼa, tajd͡ʒa We go, We read
Second-person шъокӏо, шъуеджэ ʃʷakʷʼa, ʃʷajd͡ʒa You (pl.) go, You read
Third-person макӏох, еджэх maːkʷʼax, jad͡ʒax They goes, They read
Сиунэ сшэшхэ
[siwna sʃaʃxa]
my house I eat in
"I eat in my house"
мые сэшэфы
[məja saʃafə]
an apple I am buying
"I am buying an apple"

Future tense[edit]

The future tense is normally indicated by the suffix ~(э)щт /(a)ɕt/ (close to future simple), reduced to ~т in some dialects, such as Bzhedug, Shapsug and Natukhai.

Examples :

  • кӏо /kʷʼa/ go → мэкӏощт /makʷʼaɕt/ (s)he will go
  • къакӏу /qaːkʷʼ/ come → къэкӏощт /qakʷʼaɕt/ (s)he will come
  • шхэ /ʃxa/ eat! → мэшхэщт /maʃxaɕt/ (s)he will eat
  • ӏо /ʔʷa/ say → иӏощт /jəʔʷaɕt/ (s)he will say
  • еплъ /japɬ/ look at → еплъыщт /japɬəɕt/ (s)he will look at
  • шхы /ʃxə/ eat it → ишхыщт /jəʃxəaɕt/ (s)he will eat it
Plurality Person Cyrillic IPA Meaning
Singular First-person скӏощт, седжэщт skʷʼaɕt, sajd͡ʒaɕt I will go, I will read
Second-person укӏощт, уеджэщт wkʷʼaɕt, wajd͡ʒaɕt You will go, You will read
Third-person мэкӏощт, еджэщт makʷʼaɕt, jad͡ʒaɕt He will go, He will read
Plural First-person ткӏощт, теджэщт tkʷʼaɕt, tajd͡ʒaɕt We will go, We will read
Second-person шъукӏощт, шъуеджэщт ʃʷkʷʼaɕt, ʃʷajd͡ʒaɕt You (pl.) will go, You will read
Third-person мэкӏощтых, еджэщтых makʷʼaɕtəx, jad͡ʒaɕtəx They will go, They will read
Сиунэ сшышхэщт
[siwna sʃəʃxaɕt]
my house I will eat in
"I will eat in my house"
мые сшэфыщт
[məja sʃafəɕt]
an apple I will buy
"I will buy an apple"

Future in the past[edit]

The future in the past tense is normally indicated by the suffix ~(э)щтыгъагъ /(a)ɕtəʁaːʁ/, reduced to ~тыгъагъ in some dialects, such as Bzhedug, Shapsug and Natukhai.

Examples :

  • кӏо /kʷʼa/ go → мэкӏощтыгъагъ /makʷʼaɕtəʁaːʁ/ (s)he was going to go
  • къакӏу /qaːkʷʼ/ come → къэкӏощтыгъагъ /qakʷʼaɕtəʁaːʁ/ (s)he was going to come
  • шхэ /ʃxa/ eat! → мэшхэщтыгъагъ /maʃxaɕtəʁaːʁ/ (s)he was going to eat
  • ӏо /ʔʷa/ say → иӏощтыгъагъ /jəʔʷaɕtəʁaːʁ/ (s)he was going to say
  • еплъ /japɬ/ look at → еплъыщтыгъагъ /japɬəɕtəʁaːʁ/ (s)he will was going to at
  • шхы /ʃxə/ eat it → ишхыщтыгъагъ /jəʃxəaɕtəʁaːʁ/ (s)he was going to eat it
Plurality Person Cyrillic IPA Meaning
Singular First-person скӏощтыгъагъ, седжэщтыгъагъ skʷʼaɕtəʁaːʁ, sajd͡ʒaɕtəʁaːʁ I was going to go, I was going to read
Second-person укӏощтыгъагъ, уеджэщтыгъагъ wkʷʼaɕtəʁaːʁ, wajd͡ʒaɕtəʁaːʁ You was going to go, You was going to read
Third-person мэкӏощтыгъагъ, еджэщтыгъагъ makʷʼaɕtəʁaːʁ, jad͡ʒaɕtəʁaːʁ He was going to go, He was going to read
Plural First-person ткӏощтыгъагъ, теджэщтыгъагъ tkʷʼaɕtəʁaːʁ, tajd͡ʒaɕtəʁaːʁ We was going to go, We was going to read
Second-person шъукӏощтыгъагъ, шъуеджэщтыгъагъ ʃʷkʷʼaɕtəʁaːʁ, ʃʷajd͡ʒaɕtəʁaːʁ You (pl.) was going to go, You was going to read
Third-person мэкӏощтыгъагъэх, еджэщтыгъагъэх makʷʼaɕtəʁaːʁax, jad͡ʒaɕtəʁaːʁax They was going to go, They was going to read
сыкӏощтыгъагъ еджапӏэм укъэмыкӏуагъэу
сы-кӏо-щтыгъагъ еджапӏэ-м у-къэ-мы-кӏу-агъ-эу
[səkʷʼaɕtəʁaːʁ jad͡ʒaːpʼam wqaməkʷʼaːʁae]
I was going to the school (erg.) before you came
"I was going to go to school before you came."
сеощтыгъагъэп ау сыгъэгуабжи сеожьгъэнахь
с-ео-щтыгъагъ-эп ау сы-гъэ-гуабж-и с-ео-жь-гъэ-нахь
[sajwaɕtəʁaːʁap aːw səʁaɡʷaːbʒəj sajwaʑʁanaːħ]
I wasn't going to hit him but because (s)he make me angry I actually hit him
"I wasn't going to hit him, but he made me angry and I actually hit him in the end."

Tense examples[edit]

Root Tense Forms
Negative Positive (want) Positive Negative (don't want) Possible (Capable) If Even if
мэкIуагъ Past мэкIуагъэп мэкIорэгъуагъ мэкIорэгъуагъэп мэкIошъутэгъ мэкIуагъэмэ мэкIуагъэми
макIо Present макIорэп мэкIорагъу мэкIорагъоп мэкIошъу макIомэ макIоми
мэкIощт Future мэкIощтэп мэкIорэгъощт мэкIорэгъощтэп мэкIошъущт мэкIощтьмэ мэкIощтми
мэкIогъагъ Past 2 мэкIогъагъэп мэкIорэгъуэгъагъ мэкIорэгъуэгъагъэп мэкIошъутыгъагъ мэкIогъагъэмэ мэкIогъагъэми

Dynamic and steady-state verbs[edit]

Dynamic verbs express (process of) actions that are taking place (natural role of verbs in English).

Dynamic verbs are usually transitive verbs or intransitive verbs :

  • Сэ сэчъэ /sa sat͡ʂa/ "I am running";
  • Сэ сэтIэ /sa satʼa/ "I am digging",
  • Сэ сэIо /sa saʔʷa/ "I am speaking".

Steady-state verbs express the condition, they express states or results of actions. Also past, future and

far past tense verbs are usually Steady-state verbs.

  • Сэ сыщыт /sa səɕət/ "I am standing",
  • Сэ сыщылъ /sa səɕəɬ/ "I am lying.",
  • Сэ сыпхъашI /sa səpχaːʃʼ/ "I am a carpenter",
  • Сэ сытракторист /sa sətraːktorict/ "I am a tractor-driver".

Verbal Affixes[edit]

Verbal Prefixes[edit]

Discrete and opposite къэ~ (qa~)[edit]

For dynamic verbs: къэ~ (qa~), and for steady-state verbs: къы~ (qə~).

The doscrete prefix indicates that a process is terminated or occurs only once.

  • еӏо /jaʔʷa/ "he talks" - къеӏо /qajʔʷa/
  • мэлажэ /maɬaːʒa/ "he works" - къэлажэ /qalaːʒa/
  • ишӏагъ /jəʃʼaːʁ/ "he done it" - къишӏагъ /qəjʃʼaːʁ/
  • етӏэрэхы /jatʼaraxən/ "(s)he/it falls down" - кетӏэрэхы /qajtʼaraxən/

This prefix is also used when the verb was done in an opposite way. for example :

  • кӏо /kʷ'a/ "go" - къакӏу /qaːkʷ'/ "come"
  • плъэ /pɬa/ "look" (over there) - къаплъ /qaːpɬ/ "look (over here)"
  • о /wa/ "hit" (that) - къау /qaːw/ "hit (me)"
  • Ӏух /ʔʷəx/ "open" (from outside) - къыӀух /qəʔʷəx/ "open (from inside)"
  • кӏых /t͡ʃəx/ "carry it up there" - къыкӏых /qəʔʷəx/ "carry it up here (mostly said by people that are in a

higher spot)"

  • хьы /ħə/ "take it" - къэхь /qaħ/ "bring it"

Other cases:

  • есаӀо /jasaːʔʷa/ "I am saying to him" - къысеӀо /qəsajʔʷa/ "he is saying to me"
  • теощт /tajwaɕt/ "we will hit him" - къытэощт /qətawaɕt/ "he will hit us"
  • талъежьэщт /taːɬajʑaɕt/ "we will chase them" - къэтлъежьэщтых /qatɬajʑatəɕx/ "they will chase us"
  • естыщт /jastəɕt/ "I will give him" - къыситыщт /qəsitəɕt/ "he will give me"
уиунэ тыкъакIо
[wiwna təqakʷʼa]
your house we are coming
"we are coming to your house"
кӏалэм сеплъэ ау ежь къысэплъыжьрэп
[t͡ʃaːlam sepɬə aːʷ jaʑ qəsapɬəʑrap]
the boy (erg.) I am looking at him but (s)he doesn't look at me back
"I look at the boy, but he doesn't look at me back."
кӏалэхэмэ тауагъэп анахь ежьхэрары къытэуагъэхэр
[t͡ʃaːlaxama taːwaːʁap aːnaːħ jaʑxaraːrə qətawaːʁaxar]
the boys (erg.) we didn't hit them rather they are indeed the ones that hit us
"We didn't hit the boys, rather they were the ones that hit us."
Personality[edit]

The personality prefix is posited before or after the Discrete prefix. It indicates the agreement of a verb

with more than one of its arguments. The personality prefix can occur in the past or future tenses..

Singular form:

Prefix Meaning Example
dynamic verbs steady-state verbs dynamic verbs steady-state verbs
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
1st person for intransitive verbs сэ- /sa-/ сы- /sə-/ "I" сэшхэ /saʃxa/ - i am eating, сэзао /sazaːwa/ - i am fighting, сэплъэ /sapɬa/ - i am looking сышхагъ /səʃxaːʁ/ - i ate, сызэот /səzawat/ - i will fight, сыплъэгъагъ /səpɬaʁaːʁ/ - i looked (then),

сыщыс /səɕəs/ – I sit

1st person for transitive verbs се- /saj-/ сы-, се- /sə-/, /saj-/ "I" сэшхы /saʃxə/ - i am eating it, сешхы /sajʃxə/ - he is eating me, сезао /sajzaːwa/ - i am fighting it,

сеплъы /sajpɬə/ - i am looking it

сыщхэгъ /səɕxaʁ/ - i ate it, сезэот /sajzawat/ - i will fight it, сеплъыгъагъ /sajpɬəʁaːʁ/ - i looked at it

(then)

2nd person for intransitive verbs о- /wa-/ уы- or п- /wə-/ or /p-/ "you" ошхэ /waʃxa/ - you are eating, озао /wazaːwa/ - you are fighting, оплъэ /wapɬa/ - you are looking уышхагъ /wəʃxaːʁ/ - you ate, уызэот /wəzawat/ - you will fight, уыплъэгъагъ /wəpɬaʁaːʁ/ - you looked

(then), уыщыс /wəɕəs/ – you sit

2nd person for transitive verbs уе- /waj-/ уы-, уе- /wə-/, /waj-/ "you" ошхы /waʃxə/ - you are eating it, уешхы /wajʃxə/ - he is eating you, уезао /wajzaːwa/ - you are fighting

it, уеплъы /wajpɬə/ - you are looking it

уышхэгъ /wəʃxaʁ/ - you ate it, уезэощт /wajzawaɕt/ - you will fight it, уеплъыгъагъ /wajpɬəʁaːʁ/ - you

looked at it (then)

3rd person for intransitive verbs ма- /maː-/ мэ- /ma-/ "he" машхэ /maːʃxa/ - he is eating, мэзао /mazaːwa/ - he is fighting, маплъэ /maːpɬa/ - he is looking мэшхагъ /maʃxaːʁ/ - he ate, мэзэощт /mazawaɕt/ - he will fight, мэплъэгъагъ /mapɬaʁaːʁ/ - he looked

(then), щыс /ɕəs/ – he sit

3rd person for transitive verbs э- or е- /a-/ or /ja-/ ы– or и- /ə-/ or /jə-/ "he" ешхы /jaʃxə/ - he is eating it, езао /jazaːwa/ - he is fighting it, езаох /jazaːwax/ - they are fighting it,

еплъы /japɬə/ - he is looking at it, еплъых /japɬəx/ - they are looking at them

ишхэгъ /jəʃxaʁ/ - he ate it, езэощт /jazawaɕt/ - he will fight it, еплъыгъагъ /japɬəʁaːʁ/ - he looked at it

(then)

сэ сэшхэ
[sa saʃxa]
I I eat
"I am eating."
кIалэр машхэ
[t͡ʃalar maːʃxa]
the boy (abs.) he eats
"the boy is eating."
сэ сэшхы хъуае
[sa saʃxə χʷaːja]
I I eat cheese
"I am eating cheese."
кIалэм ешхы хъуае
[t͡ʃalam jaʃxə χʷaːja]
the boy (erg.) he eats cheese
"the boy is eating a cheese."

Plural form:

Prefix Meaning Example
dynamic verbs steady-state verbs dynamic verbs steady-state verbs
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
1st person for intransitive verbs тэ- /ta-/ ты- /tə-/ "I" тэшхэ /taʃxa/ - we are eating, тэзао /tazaːwa/ - we are fighting, тэплъэ /tapɬa/ - we are looking тышхагъ /təʃxaːʁ/ - we ate, тызэот /təzawat/ - we will fight, тыплъэгъагъ /təpɬaʁaːʁ/ - we looked (then),

тыщыс /təɕəs/ – we sit

1st person for transitive verbs те- /taj-/ ты-, те- /tə-/, /taj-/ "we" тэшхы /taʃxə/ - we are eating it, тещхы /tajɕxə/ - he is eating us, тезао /tajzaːwa/ - we are fighting it,

теплъы /tajpɬə/ - we are looking it

тышхэгъ /təʃxaʁ/ - we ate it, тезэот /tajzawat/ - we will fight it, теплъэгъагъ /tajpɬaʁaːʁ/ - we looked at it

(then)

2nd person for intransitive verbs шъо- /ʂʷa-/ шъу- /ʂʷə-/ "you" (plural) шъошхэ /ʂʷaʃxa/ - you are eating, шъозао /ʂʷazaːwa/ - you are fighting, шъоплъэ /ʂʷapɬa/ - you are

looking

шъушхагъ /ʂʷəʃxaːʁ/ - you ate, шъузэот /ʂʷəzawat/ - you will fight, шъуплъэгъагъ /ʂʷəpɬaʁaːʁ/ - you

looked (then), шъущыс /ʂʷəɕəs/ – you sit

2nd person for transitive verbs шъуе- /ʂʷaj-/ шъу-, шъуе- /ʂʷə-/, /ʂʷaj-/ "you" (plural) шъошхы /ʂʷaʃxə/ - we are eating it, шъуешхы /ʂʷajʃxə/ - he is eating us, шъуезао /ʂʷajzaːwa/ - we are

fighting it, шъуеплъы /ʂʷajpɬə/ - we are looking it

шъушхэгъ /ʂʷəʃxaʁ/ - we ate it, шъуезэот /ʂʷajzawat/ - we will fight it, шъуеплъэгъагъ /ʂʷajpɬaʁaːʁ/ - we

looked at it (then)

3rd person for intransitive verbs ма- /maː-/ мэ- /ma-/ "they" машхэх /maːʃxax/ - they are eating, мэзаох /mazaːwax/ - they are fighting, маплъэх /maːpɬax/ - they are

looking

мэшхагъэх /maʃxaːʁax/ - they ate, мэзэощтых /mazawaɕtəx/ - they will fight, мэплъэгъагъэх

/mapɬaʁaːʁax/ - they looked (then), щысых /ɕəsəx/ – they sit

3rd person for transitive verbs а- or я- /aː-/ or /jaː-/ а- or я- /aː-/ or /jaː-/ "they" яшхы /jaːʃxə/ - they are eating it, язао /jaːzaːwa/ - he is fighting them, язаох /jaːzaːwax/ - they are

fighting them, яплъы /jaːpɬə/ - he is looking at them, яплъых /jaːpɬəx/ - they are looking at them,

яшхэгъ /jaːʃxaʁ/ - they ate it, язэощт /jaːzawaɕt/ - he will fight them, язэощтых /jaːzawaɕtəx/ - they will

fight them, яплъыгъагъ /jaːpɬəʁaːʁ/ - he looked at them (then), яплъыгъагъэх /jaːpɬəʁaːʁax/ - they

looked at them (then)

тэ тэшхэ
[ta taʃxa]
we we eat
"we are eating."
кIалэхэр машхэх
[t͡ʃʼalaxar maːʃxax]
the boys (abs.) they eats
"the boys are eating."
тэ тэшхы хъуайэ
[ta taʃxə χʷaːja]
we we eats cheese
"we are eating cheese."
кIалэхэмэ яшхы хъуайэ
[t͡ʃalaxama jaːʃxə χʷaːja]
the boys (erg.) they eats cheese
"the boys are eating cheese."
Verbs that consist two subjects[edit]

In Adyghe, the transitive verbs are usually consisted with two subjects. The two subjects are indicated with the personality prefixes.

Examples with the words еплъын /japɬən/ "to look at" and гъэкӏон /ʁakʷʼan/ "to make someone go" :

When a singular 1st person does the verb :

  • осэгъакӀо /wasaʁaːkʷʼa/ "I am making you go"; усэплъы /wəsapɬə/ "I am looking at you"
  • сэгъакӀо /saʁaːkʷʼa/ "I am making him go"; сеплъы /sepɬə/ "I am looking at him"
  • шъосэгъакӀо /ʃʷasaʁaːkʷʼa/ "I am making you go (pl.)"; шъусэплъы /ʃʷəsapɬə/ "I am looking at you (pl.)"
  • сэгъакӀох /saʁaːkʷʼax/ "I am making them go (pl.)"; саплъы /saːpɬə/ "I am looking at them"

When a singular 2st person does the verb :

  • сэбэгъакӀо /sabaʁaːkʷʼa/ "You are making me go"; къусэплъы /qʷəsapɬə/ "You are looking at me"
  • огъакӀо /waʁaːkʷʼa/ "You are making him go"; уеплъы /wepɬə/ "You are looking at him"
  • тэбэгъакӀо /tabaʁaːkʷʼa/ "You are making us go"; къутэплъы /qəʷtapɬə/ "You are looking at us"
  • огъакӀох /waʁaːkʷʼax/ "You are making them"; уаплъы /waːpɬə/ "You are looking at them"

When a singular 3st person does the verb :

  • сегъакӀо /seʁaːkʷʼa/ "He is making me go"; къысэплъы /qəsapɬə/ "He is looking at me"
  • уегъакӀо /weʁaːkʷʼa/ "He is making you go"; къыоплъы /qəwapɬə/ "He is looking at you"
  • тегъакӀо /teʁaːkʷʼa/ "He is making us go"; къытэплъы /qətapɬə/ "He is looking at us"
  • шъуегъакӀо /ʃʷeʁaːkʷʼa/ "He is making you go (pl.)"; къышъолъы /qəʃʷapɬə/ "He is looking at you (pl.)"
  • егъакӀо /jaʁaːkʷʼa/ "He is making him go"; еплъы /japɬə/ "He is looking at him"
  • егъакӀох /jaʁaːkʷʼax/ "He is making them go"; яплъы /jaːpɬə/ "He is looking at them "

When a plural 1st people does the verb :

  • отэгъакӀо /wataʁaːkʷʼa/ "we are making you go"; утэплъы /wətapɬə/ "We are looking at you"
  • тэгъакӀо /taʁaːkʷʼa/ "we are making him go"; теплъы /tepɬə/ "We are looking at him"
  • шъотэгъакӀо /ʃʷataʁaːkʷʼa/ "we are making you go (pl.)"; шъутэплъы /ʃʷətapɬə/ "We are looking at you (pl.)"
  • тэгъакӀох /taʁaːkʷʼax/ "we are making them go (pl.)"; таплъы /taːpɬə/ "We are looking at them"

When a plural 2st people does the verb :

  • сэшъогъакӀо /saʃʷaʁaːkʷʼa/ "You are making me go (pl.)"; шъукъысэплъы /ʃʷqəsapɬə/ "You are looking at me (pl.)"
  • шъогъакӀо /ʃʷaʁaːkʷʼa/ "You are making him go (pl.)"; шъуеплъы /ʃʷepɬə/ "You are looking at him (pl.)"
  • тэшъогъакӀо /taʃʷaʁaːkʷʼa/ "You are making us go (pl.)"; шъукъытэплъы /ʃʷqəʷtapɬə/ "You are looking at us (pl.)"
  • шъогъакӀох /ʃʷaʁaːkʷʼax/ "You are making them (pl.)"; шъуаплъы /ʃʷaːpɬə/ "You are looking at them (pl.)"

When a plural 3st people does the verb :

  • сагъакӀо /saːʁaːkʷʼa/ "They are making me go"; къысэплъых /qəsapɬəx/ "They are looking at me"
  • уагъакӀо /waːʁaːkʷʼa/ "They are making you go"; къыоплъых /qəwapɬəx/ "They are looking at you"
  • тагъакӀо /taːʁaːkʷʼa/ "They are making us go"; къытэплъых /qətapɬəx/ "They are looking at us"
  • шъуагъакӀо /ʃʷaːʁaːkʷʼa/ "They are making you go (pl.)"; къышъолъых /qəʃʷapɬəx/ "They are looking at you (pl.)"
  • ягъакӀо /jaːʁaːkʷʼa/ "They are making him go"; еплъых /japɬəx/ "They are looking at him"
  • ягъакӀох /jaːʁaːkʷʼax/ "They are making them go"; яплъых /jaːpɬəx/ "They are looking at them "
Verbs that consist three subjects[edit]

In Adyghe, some transitive verbs can consist three subjects. For example :

  • уесэты /wesatə/ "I am giving you to him".
  • уесэгъэлъэгъу /wesaʁaɬaʁʷə/ "I am making him see you".
Verbs that consist four subjects[edit]

In Adyghe, some transitive verbs can consist four subjects. For example :

  • уресэгъэты /wresaʁatə/ "I am making him to take you to him/her/it".
Causative[edit]

The causative form is indicated by the prefix гъа- (ʁaː-), which is shortened for non-presen tenses to гъэ- (ʁa-). Intransitive verbs can be turned into transitive with -гъэ- (meaning "to force, to make, to allow").Template:What type For example:

Examples :

  • кӏо! /kʷʼa/ go! → гъакӏу /ʁaːkʷʼ/ make him go!
  • макӏо! /maːkʷʼa/ he is going → егъакӏо /jaʁaːkʷʼa/ he is making him go.
  • къакӏу /qaːkʷʼ/ come! → къэгъакӏу /qaʁaːkʷʼ/ make him come back!
  • ӏо /ʔʷa/ say! → гъаӏу /ʁaːʔʷ/ make him say!
  • шхэ /ʃxa/ eat! → гъашх /ʁaːʃx/ make him eat! or feed him!
  • машхэ /maːʃxa/ he is eating → егъашхэ /jaʁaːʃxa/ he is making him eat or he is feeding him.
кIалэм иянэ къугъом къуигъэуцуагъ
кIалэ-эм и-янэ къугъэ-эм къу-и-гъэ-уцу-агъ
[t͡ʃaːlam jəjaːna qʷəʁʷam qʷiʁawt͡sʷaːʁ]
the boy (erg.) his mother the corner (erg.) he made him put it in the corner
"the boy's mother made him to stand in the corner"
"the boy's mother allowed him to stand in the corner"
"the boy's mother forced him to stand in the corner"
кIалэм иятэ дучанэм игъэкIот
[t͡ʃaːlam jəjaːta dukaːnam jəʁakʷʼat]
the boy (erg.) his father shop (erg.) he will make him walk
"the boy's father will make him go to the shop"
"the boy's father will allow him to go to the shop"
"the boy's father will force him to go to the shop"
Ныо цIыкIум игъэшхагъ пшъашъэ цIыкIор
[nəwa t͡sʼəkʷʼəm jəʁaʃxaːʁ pʂaːʂa t͡sʼəkʷʼar]
old woman the little (erg.) made to eat (past tense) girl the little (abs.)
"the old woman fed the little girl"
"the old woman allowed the little girl to eat"
"the old woman made the little girl eat"
"the old woman forced the little girl to eat"
кIалэм лӀыжъэр егъэкӀошъут
[t͡ʃaːlam jəjaːta jaʁakʷʼaʂʷət]
the boy (erg.) the old man (abs) he is capable to make him go
"the boy can make the old man go."

By adding prefix гъэ- (ʁa-), it is possible to create transitive verbs from nouns, adjectives, adverb and intransitive verbs.

Examples :

  • фабэ /faːba/ hot → гъэфаб /ʁafaːb/ make it hot or heat it
  • дахэ /daːxa/ pretty → гъэдах /ʁadaːx/ make him/it pretty
  • плъыжьы /pɬəʑə/ red → гъэплъыжь /ʁapɬəʑ/ make him/it red
  • дышъэ /dəʂa/ golden → гъэдышъ /ʁadəʂ/ make him/it gold
  • тэкӏу /takʷʼ/ few → гъэтэкӏу /ʁatekʷʼ/ make it few
санэ псым хапкӀэмэ егъэплъыжьыщт
[saːna psəm xaːpt͡ʃama jaʁapɬəʑəɕt]
grape water (erg.) if you pour it he will make it red
"If you spill grape on water it will make it red"
Time З- (z-)[edit]

To indicate the time a certain verb was done has the prefix з- (z-) and the suffix -гъэ (-ʁa). To indicate the time the verb gonna happen it has the prefix prefix з- (z-) and the suffix -щтэ (-ɕta). For example :

  • яукӏэгъ /jaːwt͡ʃʼaʁ/ they killed him → заукӏэгъэр /zaːwt͡ʃʼaʁ/ the time they killed him is
  • ишхэгъ /jəʃxaʁ/ (s)he ate it → зишхыгъэр /zəjʃxəʁar/ the time (s)he ate it is
  • еплъэгъ /japɬaʁ/ (s)he watched it → зеплъыгъэр /zepɬəʁar/ the time he watched it is
  • еплъыщт /japɬəɕt/ (s)he gonna watch it → зеплъыщтэр /zepɬəɕtar/ the time he gonna watch it is
  • мэкӏуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ (s)he went → зыкӏуагъэр /zəkʷʼaːʁar/ the time he went is
  • мэкӏощт /makʷʼaɕt/ (s)he gonna watch it → зыкӏощтэр /zəkʷʼaɕtar/ the time he gonna go is
кӏалэр чэщыр залъэгъугъэр
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar t͡ʃaɕər zaːɬaʁʷəʁar]
the boy (abs.) the night (abs.) the time they saw him
"The time they saw the boy was the night."
Time and result[edit]

To indicate an event that happened after a certain verb on a certain time was done the prefix з- (z-) and suffix -эм (-am) are added. For example :

  • яукӏэгъ /jaːwt͡ʃʼaʁ/ they killed him → заукӏым /zaːwt͡ʃʼəm/ when they killed him.
  • ишхэгъ /jəʃxaʁ/ (s)he ate it → зешхым /zeʃxəm/ when he ate it.
  • еплъэгъ /japɬaʁ/ (s)he looked at it → зеплъым /zepɬəm/ when he looked at it.
  • мэкӏуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ (s)he went → зэкӏом /zakʷʼam/ when he went.
кӏалэр тучаным зэкӏом силъэгъогъ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar pɕəna zewarar səjɬaʁʷaʁ]
the boy (abs.) to the shop (erg.) when (s)he went (s)he saw me
"When the boy went to the shop he saw me."
кӏалэр зэгуабжым къэтлъежагъ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar zaɡʷaːbʒəm qatɬeʒaːʁ]
the boy (abs.) when (s)he got angry (s)he chased after us
"When the boy got angry he chased after us."

To indicate an event that will happen after a certain verb will be done the prefix з- (z-) and the instrumental case suffix -кӏэ (-t͡ʃʼa) (-гьэ in Shapsug dialect and -джэ in Bzhedugh dialect) are added. For example :

банкэр затыгъукӏэ пулисым феу
[baːnkar zaːtəʁt͡ʃʼa pulisəm few]
the bank (abs.) when they steal it from the police (erg.) call him
"When they rob the bank call the police."
уиянэ зыгорэ къузиӏокӏэ уедэӏун фай
[wijaːna zəɡʷara qəzəjʔʷat͡ʃʼa wajdaʔʷən] faːj]
your mother something when (s)he tells you you (to) listen need
"When your mother tells you something you need to listen to her."
кӏалэр къызаубытыкӏэ шӏуеджэж
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar qəzaːwbətət͡ʃʼa ʃʷʼed͡ʒaʒ]
the boy (abs.) when they catch him run away from him
"When they catch the boy run away from him."
Motion (directed) inside[edit]

The prefix кӏоцӏы~ (kʷʼat͡sʼə) designates motion (directed) inside, or from within (something.), through (something.); for example :

It also designates location of somebody., something., somewhere.; or inside something., or extraction of somebody., something. from somewhere., or from inside something.; for example :

сабыим пӏэтехъор кӏоцӏылъхьэн
[saːbəjəm pʼateχʷar kʷʼat͡sʼəɬħan]
the child (erg.) blanket to put on
"to wrap up the child in the blanket"
зыгъэ-[edit]

A verb that one does to himself has the prefix зыгъэ- /zəʁa-/

Examples :

  • фабэ /faːba/ hot → зыгъэфаб /zəʁafaːb/ heat yourself
  • дахэ /daːxa/ pretty → зыгъэдах /zəʁadaːx/ make yourself pretty (usually by clothing)
  • кIо! /kʷʼa/ go! → зыгъакIу /zəʁaːkʷʼ/ make yourself go!
  • макIо /maːkʷʼa/ he is going → зегъакIо /zeʁaːkʷʼa/ he is making himself go.
  • шхэ /ʃxa/ eat! → зыгъашх /zəʁaːʃx/ make yourself eat! or feed yourself!
  • машхэх /maːʃxa/ they are eating → загъашхэх /zaːʁaːʃxax/ they are making themselves eat, they are feeding themselves.
кукунэгъэбылъымкӏэ кӏэлэцыкӏухэмэ загъэбылъы
[kʷəkʷnaʁabəɬəmt͡ʃʼa zajʁadaːxa d͡ʒaːnaxamt͡ʃa]
hide and seek (ins.) the little boys (erg.) they are hiding them self
"In hide and seek, the little boys are hiding them self."
кIалэм зегъэдахэ джанэхэмкӀэ
[t͡ʃaːlam zajʁadaːxa d͡ʒaːnaxamt͡ʃa]
the boy (erg.) he is making himself pretty with (using) the clothes (ins.)
"the boy is making himself look pretty using the clothes"
Sociative suffix -дэ (-da)[edit]

To indicate a verb that was done by someone with someone else has the prefix -дэ (-da). The prefix

designates action performed jointly with somebody, or stay/sojourn with somebody.

  • машхэ /maːʃxa/ - (s)he is eating → дашхэ /daːʃxa/ - he is eating with him/her
  • макӏо /maːkʷʼa/ - (s)he is going → дакӏо /daːkʷʼa/ - he is going with him/her
  • тэкӏо /takʷʼa/ - we are going → къэтдакӏо /qatdaːkʷʼa/ - (s)he is going with us
  • тэкӏо /takʷʼa/ - we are going → тыдакӏо /tədaːkʷʼa/ - we are going with him/her
  • сеплъы /sajpɬə/ - i am looking at it → къэсдеплъы /qasdajpɬə/ - (s)he is looking at it with me
  • сеплъы /sajpɬə/ - i am looking at it → сыдеплъы /qasdajpɬə/ - i am looking at it with him/her
  • реӏо /rajʔʷa/ - (s)he is telling him/her → деӏо /dajʔʷa/ - (s)he is telling him/her with him/her
кӏалэр пшъашъэм дакӏо
кӏалэ-р пшъашъэ-м д-макӏо
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar pʂaːʂam daːkʷʼa]
the boy (abs.) the girl (erg.) he is going with
"the boy is going with the girl"
шхынэр къэсдэшх
шхын-эр къэ-с-дэ-шх
[ʃxənar qasdaʃx
the food (abs.) eat it with me
"eat the food with me"
кӏалэр лӏыхэмэ ядэлажьэ яӏофкӏэ
кӏалэ-р лӏы-хэ-мэ я-дэ-лажьэ я-ӏоф-кӏэ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar ɬʼəxama jaːdaɮaːʑa jaːʔʷaft͡ʃʼa]
the boy (abs.) the old men (erg.) he is working with them with their works (ins.)
"the boy is working with the old men with their work."
Favourably фэ- (fa-)[edit]

Cannot be used simultaneously with both the sufix -ф (-f) and suffix (-дэ) (-da). When a certain verb is done by someone for someone else, the suffix -фэ (-fa) is added.

Verbs that are done by absolutive nouns for ergative nouns[edit]

A verb that was done for a single absolutive noun has the prefix (фэ-) (fa-) for past and future tense, and

for present tense (фа-) (faː-).

  • мэкӀуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went, фэкӀуагъ /fakʷʼaːʁ/ - he went for him.
  • сакӀо /saːkʷʼa/ - I am going, сыфакӀо /səfaːkʷʼa/ - I go for him.
  • тыкӀощт /təkʷʼaɕt/ - we will go, тыфэкӀощт /təfakʷʼaɕt/ - we will go for him.

A verb that was done for a plural absolutive nouns has the prefix (яфэ-) (jaːfa-) for past and future tense,

and for present tense (яфа-) (jaːfaː-).

  • мэкӀуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went, яфэкӀуагъ /jaːfakʷʼaːʁ/ - he went for them.
  • сакӀо /saːkʷʼa/ - I am going, сафакӀо /saːfaːkʷʼa/ - I go for them.
  • тыкӀощт /təkʷʼaɕt/ - we will go, тафэкӀощт /taːfakʷʼaɕt/ - we will go for them.
кIалэр бзылъфыгъэхэмэ дуканэм яфакӏо
[t͡ʃaːlar bzəɬfəʁaxama dukaːnam jaːfaːkʷʼa]
the boy (abs.) the women (erg.) the shop (erg.) he is going for them
"the boy is going to the shop for the women"
кIалэр томым фэлажэ
[t͡ʃalar toməm falaːʒa]
boy (Abs.) Tom (Erg.) he works for him
"the boy is working for Tom."
Verbs that are done by ergative nouns for ergative nouns[edit]

A verb that was done for a single ergative noun by a single has the prefix (фи-) (fi-) for past and future

tense and (фе-) (fe-) for present tense.

  • ешхы /jaʃxə/ - he is eating it → фешхы /feʃxə/ - he is eating for him.
  • илъэгъогъ /jəɬaʁʷaʁ/ - he saw it → филъэгъогъ /fiɬaʁʷaʁ/ - he saw it for him.
  • итхыщт /jətxəɕt/ - he will write it → фитхыщт /fitxəɕt/ - he will write it for him.

A verb that was done for a single ergative noun by a plural has the prefix (фа-) (faː-).

  • яшхы /jaːʃxə/ - they are eating it → фашхы /faːʃxə/ - they are eating for him.
  • ялъэгъогъ /jaːɬaʁʷaʁ/ - they saw it → фалъэгъогъ /faːɬaʁʷaʁ/ - they saw it for him.
  • ятхышт /jaːtxəʃt/ - they will write it → фатхышт /faːtxəʃt/ - they will write it for him.

A verb that was done for a plural ergative nouns by a single has the prefix (яфи-) (jaːfi-) for past and

future tense and (яфе-) (jaːfe-) for present tense.

  • ешхы /jaʃxə/ - he is eating it → яфешхы /jaːfeʃxə/ - he is eating for them.
  • илъэгъогъ /jəɬaʁʷaʁ/ - he saw it → яфилъэгъогъ /jaːfiɬaʁʷaʁ/ - he saw it for them.
  • итхыщт /jətxəɕt/ - he will write it → яфитхыщт /jaːfitxəɕt/ - he will write it for them.

A verb that was done for a plural Ergative nouns by a plural has the prefix (яфа-) (jaːfaː-).

  • яшхы /jaːʃxə/ - he is eating it → яфашхы /jaːfaːʃxə/ - they are eating for them.
  • ялъэгъогъ /jaːɬaʁʷaʁ/ - they saw it → яфалъэгъогъ /jaːfaːɬaʁʷaʁ/ - they saw it for them.
  • ятхыщт /jaːtxəɕt/ - they will write it → яфатхыщт /jaːfaːtxəɕt/ - they will write it for them.
кIалэм фещхы бэнанэр пшъашъэм
[t͡ʃaːlam feɕxə banaːbar pʂaːʂam]
the boy (erg.) he eats for him a/the the banana (abs.) the girl (erg.)
"the boy is eating the banana for the girl"
бэнанэр сэ къэсфешхы
бэнанэр сэ къэс-фе-шхы
[banaːbar sa qasfeʃxə]
banana (abs.) I he eats it for me
"he is eating the banana for me"
Root Tense Forms
Negative Positive (want) Can If Even if Because
фишхэгъ Past фишхэгъэп фишхырэгъуагъ фишхышъутэгъ фишхыгъэмэ фишхыгъэми фишхыгъи
фешхы Present фешхырэп фешхырагъу фешхышъу фешхымэ фешхыми фешхи
фишхыщт Future фишхыщтэп фишхырэгъощт фишхышъущт фишхыщтмэ фишхыщтми фишхыщти
фишхыгъагъ Past 2 фишхыгъагъэп фишхырэгъуэгъагъ фишхышъутыгъагъ фишхыгъагъэмэ фишхыгъагъэми фишхыгъагъи
Against (шӏо-) (ʃʷʼ-)[edit]

To indicate a verb that was done against someone else's will, the prefix (шӏо-) (ʃʷʼa-) is added. The verb can also indicate that the subject took something (like an object or opportunity) from the object. For example in the word къэсшӏуишхэгъ /qasʃʷʼəjʃxaʁ/ "(s)he ate it against me" will mean that the subject "(s)he" ate it to take away my opportunity to ate it myself.

A verb that was done against a single ergative noun by a single has the prefix (шӏуи-) (ʃʷʼi-) for past and future tense and (шӏуе-) (ʃʷʼe-) for present tense.

  • ешхы /jaʃxə/ - he is eating it → шӏуешхы /ʃʷʼeʃxə/ - he is eating instead of him.
  • итхыщт /jətxəɕt/ - he will write it → шӏуитхыщт /ʃʷʼitxəɕt/ - he will write it instead of him.
  • еджэжы /jad͡ʒaʒən/ - he is running away → шӏуеджэжы /ʃʷʼed͡ʒaʒən/ - he is running away from.

A verb that was done against a single ergative noun by a plural has the prefix (шӏуа-) (ʃʷʼaː-).

  • яшхы /jaːʃxə/ - they are eating it → шӏуашхы /ʃʷʼaːʃxə/ - they are eating instead of him.
  • ятхышт /jaːtxəʃt/ - they will write it → шӏуатхышт /ʃʷʼaːtxəʃt/ - they will write it instead of him.

A verb that was done against a plural ergative nouns by a single has the prefix (яшӏуи-) (jaːʃʷʼi-) for past and future tense and (яшӏуе-) (jaːʃʷʼe-) for present tense.

  • ешхы /jaʃxə/ - he is eating it → яшӏуешхы /ʃʷʼaːfeʃxə/ - he is eating instead of them.
  • итхыщт /jətxəɕt/ - he will write it → яшӏуитхыщт /ʃʷʼaːfitxəɕt/ - he will write it instead of them.

A verb that was done against a plural Ergative nouns by a plural has the prefix (яшӏуа-) (jaːʃʷʼaː-).

  • яшхы /jaːʃxə/ - he is eating it → яшӏуашхы /ʃʷʼaːfaːʃxə/ - they are eating instead of them.
  • ятхыщт /jaːtxəɕt/ - they will write it → яшӏуатхыщт /ʃʷʼaːfaːtxəɕt/ - they will write it instead of them.
сишхын къэсшӏобэшхыжьы
си-шхын къэ-с-шӏо-бэ-шхы-жьы
[siʃxən qasʃʷʼabaʃxəɕə]
my food you are eating it instead of me
"You are eating my food!"
Видео джэгумкӏэ сицӏыф кӏалэм къэсшӏуиукӏэгъ
Видео джэгу-мкӏэ си-цӏыф кӏалэ-м къэ-с-шӏуи-укӏэ-гъ
[vɪdioʊ d͡ʒaɡʷəmt͡ʃʼa səjt͡sʼəf t͡ʃʼaːɮam qasʃʷʼəjwt͡ʃʼaʁ]
with the video game (ins.) my human the boy (erg.) (s)he killed it against me
"(S)he killed my human in the video game."
мыеу чъыгым къыпызгъэтэкъухэрэр къэсшӏобэщтэжьых
мые-у чъыгы-м къы-пы-з-гъэ-тэкъу-хэ-рэ-р къэ-с-шӏо-бэ-щтэ-жьы-х
[məjaw t͡ʂəɣəm qəpəzʁataqʷxarar qasʃʷʼabaɕtaʑəx]
apple (adv.) the tree (erg.) the ones that I drop from (hanging) you are taking them from me
"You are taking the apples I drop from the tree from me"
(ре-) (raj-)[edit]

To describe a verb that was done using something, the prefix (ре-) (raj-) is added for present tense and

the prefix (ри-) (ri-) is added for past and future tense.

  • макӀо /maːkʷʼa/ - he is going (makʷʼa), рекӀо /rajkʷʼa/ - he is going on it or he is going with it
  • машхэ /maːʃxa/ - he is eating, решхэ /rajʃxa/ - he is eating with it
  • сэлажэ /salaːʒa/ - i am working, срелажэ /srajlaːʒa/ - i am working with it
къэлэмым шъуретхэ
[qalaməm ʂʷəretxa]
the pencil (erg.) you (plural) writing with it
"you (plural) are writing with a pencil"
къалэм срикӀорагъу
[qaːlam srikʷʼaraːʁʷ]
the wall (erg.) i want to go on it
"i want to go on the wall"
Root Tense Forms
Negative Positive (want) With For Possible (Capable) If Even if Infinitive
рикIуагъ Past рикIуагъэп рикIорэгъуагъ дрикIуагъ фрикIуагъ рикIошъутэгъ рикIуагъэмэ рикIуагъэми рикIогъэн
ремакIо Present рекIорэп рекIорагъу дрекIо фрекIо рекIошъу рекIомэ рекIоми рикIон
рикIощт Future рикIощтэп рикIорэгъощт дрикIощт фрикIощт рикIошъущт рикIощтмэ рикIощтми  ?
рикIогъагъ Past 2 рикIогъагъэп рикIорэгъуэгъагъ дрикIогъагъ фрикIогъагъ рикIошъутыгъагъ рикIогъагъэмэ рикIогъагъэми рикIогъагъэн
After лъ-[edit]

To indicate a verb that was done after someone has the prefix лъ- (ɬ-), for example :

  • макӏо /maːkʷʼa/ (s)he is going → лъэкӏо /ɬakʷʼa/ (s)he is going after; (s)he is following.
  • мачъэ /maːt͡ʂa/ (s)he is running → лъэчъэ /ɬat͡ʂa/ (s)he is running after.
  • мэкуо /makʷəwa/ (s)he is shouting → лъэкуо /ɬakʷəwa/ (s)he is shouting toward.
  • маплъэ /mapɬə/ (s)he is looking → лъэплъэ /ɬapɬa/ (s)he is looking after.
  • ео /jawa/ (s)he is hitting → лъэо /ɬawa/ (s)he is hitting toward.
  • едзы /jad͡zə/ (s)he is throwing → лъедзы /ɬajd͡zə/ (s)he is throwing toward.
  • ехьэ /jaħa/ (s)he is entering → лъехьэ /ɬajħa/ (s)he is entering after.
  • ӏэбэн /ʔaban/ (s)he is trying to reach → лъыӏэбэн /ɬəʔaban/ (s)he is trying to reach toward.
шъо кӏалэхэмкӏэ шъукъэслъыкӏу
шъо кӏалэхэ-мкӏэ шъу-къэ-с-лъы-кӏу
[ʃʷa t͡ʃʼaːɮaxamt͡ʃʼa ʃʷəqasɬəkʷʼ]
you (plural) from the boys (ins.) follow me (said to plural).
"You boys follow me (said to plural)."
кӏалэр мыжъокӏэ къэслъэгъуе
[t͡ʃʼaːɮam məʒʷat͡ʃʼa qasɬaʁʷəja]
the boy (abs.) using a rock (ins.) (s)he is throwing at me
"The boy is throwing at me rocks."
Directed at жьэ- (жьэхэ-) (ʑaxa-)[edit]

Designates action directed at something. for example.: жьэхэплъэн /ʑaxapɬan/: to look steadily (at), to

stare (at); жьэхэуэн /ʑaaxwan: to shove, to hit/strike somebody or something; to collide (with).

Toward the mouth жьэдэ- (ʑada-)[edit]

Designates action performed in or towards the mouth, for example : жьэдэдзэн /ʑadad͡zan: to throw

something in the mouth of someone else; жьэдэплъэн /ʑadapɬan/ : to look into somebody else' mouth.

Reflexive зэ- (za-)[edit]

To indicate a verb the subject does to himself has the suffix зэ- (za-). It can also be used to indicate a verb that a group does to themselves.

  • мэзао /mazaːwa/ - he fights → зэзао /zazaːwa/ - he fights himself.
  • мэзаох /mazaːwax/ - they fight → зэзаох /zazaːwax/ - they fight themselves.
  • маплъэ /maːpɬa/ - He looks → зэплъыжьы /zapɬəʑə/ - He looks at himself.
  • уемыплъ /wajməpɬ/ - don't look at → узэмыплъ /wəzaməpɬ/ - don't look at yourself.
  • къэгъэтэдж /qaʁatad͡ʒ/ - make him stand → зыкъэгъэтэдж /zəqaʁatad͡ʒ/ - make yourself stand.
  • егъэдахэ /ʁadaːxa/ - make him look pretty → зегъэдахэ /zajʁadaːxa/ - (s)he make himself look pretty
  • сэукӏы /sawt͡ʃʼə/ - I am killing → /zasawt͡ʃʼəʑə/ - зэсэукӏыжьы /zasawt͡ʃʼəʑə/ - I am killing myself.
Шъузэзэонэу шъуфаемэ мэу шъузэмызау
[ʃʷəzazawanaw ʃʷəfaːjama maw ʃʷəzaməzaːʷ]
You (plural) (to) fight each other if you (plural) want here don't fight each other (said to plural)
"If you wanna fight each other, don't fight here"
Сыкъызэгъэлъэгъу уиджанэ кӏэхэ къупшыгъоу
[seqəzaʁaɬaʁʷ wəjd͡ʒaːna t͡ʃʼaxa qʷəpʃəʁaw]
Let me see you Your shirt news while you are wearing them
"Let me see you wearing your new shirts."
зэдэ- (zada-)[edit]

To indicate a verb that is done by some subjects (more than one) together, the suffix зэдэ- (zada-) is added.

  • мэзаон /mazaːwan/ - to fight → зэдэзэон /zadazawan/ - to fight together.
  • мэкӏон /makʷʼan/ - to walk → зэдэкӏон /zadaakʷʼan/ - to walk together.
  • еон /jawan/ - to hit → зэдэон /zadawan/ - to strike together.
  • плъэн /pɬan/ - to look → зэдэплъэн /zadapɬan/ - to look together.
Сиунэ тыкӏони анэм тызэдэшхэщт
[siwna təkʷʼani aːnam təzadaʃxaɕt]
my house we will go (in order something to happen) table (erg.) we will eat together
"We will go to my house and we will eat together on the table."
Томымрэ Джекобрэ тестэр зэдашӏы
[toməmra d͡ʒekobra testar zadaːʃʼə]
Tom and Jacob the test (arg.) they are doing it together
"Tom and Jacob are doing the test together."
Absolute negation[edit]

~хэ (verbal suffix) designates absolute negation; for example :

  • сымыкӏохэн : I will definitely not go.

Verbal Infixes[edit]

Negative Prefix (мы~) (mə~)[edit]

It is posited most often before root of verb, after all other prefixes.

  • кIо /kʷʼa/ "go" → уымыкIу /wəməkʷʼ/ "don't go"
  • Iо (Iуэ) /ʔʷa/ "say" → уымыIу /wəməʔʷ/ "don't say"
  • шъушх /ʂʷʃx/ "eat (plural)" → шъумышх /ʂʷəməʃx/ "don't eat (plural)"

When to use this Prefix :

  • In Imperative case (To order someone to do a certain verb) - умыкӀу /wəməkʷʼ/ "don't go".
  • In case to use together with the suffixes -ми (-mi), -эм (-am), -мэ (-ma), -ыу (-əw) and -и (-i) -

умыкӀомэ /wəmkʷʼama/ "if you don't go", умыкӀорагъоми /wəmkʷʼaraːʁʷami/ "even if you don't want to

go", мамкӀуу /maːmkʷʼəw/ "while he didn't want to go".

  • In Infinitive suffix - мэмкӀон /wamkʷʼan/ "to not go".
Ащтыу умышI!
[aːɕtu wməʂʼ]
like that don't do it
"Do not do this"
ау шъумыкӏу!
[aːw ʂʷəɕəmət]
there don't go (plural)
"Don't go there (Said to several people)"
зыгори ащ ешъумыӏу
[zəɡʷari aːɕ jaʂʷəməʔʷ]
something him/that don't tell him (plural)
"Do not tell him anything"

Cannot be used simultaneously with both the negative prefix (мы~) (mə~) and the negative suffix (-п)

(-p).

Root Tense Forms
If Even if
мэкIуагъ Past мэмкIуагъэмэ мэмкIуагъэми
макIо Present мамкIомэ мамкIоми
мэкIощт Future мэмкIощтмэ мэмкIощтми
мэкIогъагъ Past 2 мэмкIогъагъэмэ мэмкIогъагъэми

Verbal Suffixes[edit]

Imperative mood[edit]

The imperative mood of the second person singular has no additional affixes:

  • штэ /ʃta/ "take"
  • кӏо /kʷʼa/ "go"
  • тхы /txə/ "write"
  • шхэ /ʃxa/ "eat"

When addressing to several people, The prefix шъу- /ʃʷə-/ is added:

  • шъушт /ʃʷəʃt/ "take (said to plural)"
  • шъукӀу /ʃʷəkʷʼ/ "go (said to plural)"
  • шъутх /ʃʷətx/ "write (said to plural)"
  • шъушх /ʃʷəʃx/ "eat (said to plural)"
Optative mood[edit]

Optative mood is expressed with the complex suffix -гъо-т: у-кIуа-гъо-т "would you go", п-тхы-гъа-

гъо-т "would you write".

Adverbial participle[edit]

Adverbial participles are formed from verbs with the suffixes -зэ (-za), -эу (aw): еджэ-зэ́ "reading",

щыт-э́у "standing", гущыIэ-зэ́ "speaking". Adverbial participles have different forms for different person:

  • сыгущыIэзэ́ - сы-гущыIэ-зэ́ "I, speaking (to you, felt uncomfortable)",
  • угущыIэзэ́ - у-гущыIэ-зэ́ "You, speaking ...",
  • гущыIэзэ - гущыIэ-зэ "He, speaking ...".
Frequentative ~жь (~ʑ)[edit]

The frequentative is used to describe a verb that will happen again or repeated times, the suffix ~жь

(~ʑ) is added. It designates recurrence/repetition of the verb. It can also be used to indicate that someone that was doing a certain verb before, is now

continuing it or will continue it.

Examples :

  • кIо! /kʷʼa/ go! → кIожь /kʷʼaʑ/ go back!
  • къакIу /qaːkʷʼ/ come! → къакIожь /qaːkʷʼaʑ/ come back!
  • Ӏо /ʔʷa/ say! → Ӏожь /ʔʷaʑ/ say again!
  • шхэ /ʃxa/ eat! → шхэжь /ʃxaʑ/ eat again!
  • шхы /ʃxə/ eat it! → шхыжь /ʃxəʑ/ eat it again! or continue eating it!
  • In case the verb is being continued :
уиунэ кIожьи уиIанэ лэжь
[wiwna kʷʼaʑi wiʔana laʑ]
your house go back (In order something to happen) your table color it again or continue

coloring it

"go back to your house and continue coloring your table"
  • In case the verb is being repeated :
къысапIорэ лIымэ яIожь
[qəsaːpʔʷara ɬʼəma jaːʔʷaʑ]
what you are telling me the men tell them again
"'tell the men what are you telling me"
Root Meaning Tense
Past tense Present tense Future tense Past 2 tense
макIо he is going мэкIожьэгъ мэкIожьы мэкIожьыщт мэкIожьгъагъ
сэкIо I am going скIожьэгъ сэкIожьы скIожьыщт скIожьгъагъ
еӀо he is saying иӀожьэгъ еӀожьы иӀожьыщт иӀожьгъагъ
Root Tense Forms
Negative Positive (want) Positive Negative (don't want) Possible (Capable) If Even if
мэкIожьэгъ Past мэкIожьгъэп мэкIожьрэгъуагъ мэкIожьрэгъуагъэп мэкIожьышъутэгъ мэкIожьмэ мэкIожьми
мэкIожьы Present мэкIожьрэп мэкIожьрагъу мэкIожьрагъоп мэкIожьшъу мэкIожьмэ мэкIожьми
мэкIожьыщт Future мэкIожьыщтэп мэкIожьырэгъощт мэкIожьырэгъощтэп мэкIожьышъущт мэкIожьыщтмэ мэкIожьыщтми
мэкIожьгъагъ Past 2 мэкIожьгъагъэп мэкIожьрэгъуэгъагъ мэкIожьрэгъуэгъагъэп мэкIожьшъутыгъагъ мэкIожьгъагъэмэ мэкIожьгъагъэми
Action process time connection -эу (-aw)[edit]

To indicate an event that is happening while a certain verb is done, the suffix -эу (-aw) or -ыу (-əw) is

added.

Examples:

  • сэкӏо /sakʷʼa/ I am going → сыкӏоу /səkʷʼaw/ while I am going
  • сэкIуагъ /sakʷʼaːʁ/ I was going → сыкIуагъэу /səkʷʼaːʁaw/ while I was going
  • тэлажьэ /talaːʑa/ we are working → тылажьэу /talaːʑaw/ while we were working
  • мэшхэ /maʃxa/ he is eating → мэшхэу /maʃxaw/ while he was eating
сыкӏоу кӏалэр слъэгъогъ
[səkʷʼaw t͡ʃʼaːɮar sɬaʁʷaʁ]
while I am going the boy (erg.) I saw
"while (during the time) I am going I saw the boy"
седжэу къэлэмыр къэсыштагъэх
[sed͡ʒaw qalamər qasəʃtaːʁax]
while I am studying the pencil (abs.) I picked them up
"while (during the time) I was studying I picked the pencil up"
After the action connection suffix -эм (-am)[edit]

To indicate an event that happened after a certain verb was done, the Suffix -эм (-am) is added.

  • сэкӏо /sakʷʼa/ - I am going → сэкӏом /sakʷʼam/ - when i went.
  • тэшхэ /taʃxa/ - we are eating → тэшхэм /taʃxam/ - when we ate.
  • еплъых /japɬəx/ - they are looking at it → еплъыхэм /japɬəxam/ - when they looked at it.
  • шъолажьэ /ʃʷaɮaːʑa/ - you (plural) are working → шъолажьэм /ʃʷaɮaːʑam/ - when you (plural)

worked

сэкӏом сшы къэслъэгъогъ
сэкӏо-м с-шы къэ-с-лъэгъу-эгъ
[sakʷʼam sʃə qasɬaʁʷaʁ]
when i went my brother i saw
"when i went i saw my brother"
пшъашъэр унэм ехьэм янэ IукIагъэ
пшъашъэ-р унэ-м ехьэ-м янэ IукIагъэ
[pʂaːʂar [wənam jaħam jaːna ʔʷət͡ʃʼaːʁa]
the girl (abs.) the house (erg.) when s(he) enter it his/her mother (s)he met him/her/it
"when the girl entered the house she met her mother"
лӏым едж къысеӏом седжагъ
лӏы-м едж къы-с-еӏо-м с-еджэ-агъ
[ɬʼəm jad͡ʒ qəsajʔʷam sajd͡ʒaːʁ]
man (erg.) study! when (s)he told me I studied
"when the man told me to study, I studied"
Until suffix -фэ (-fa)[edit]
  • макӏо /maːkʷʼa/ - He is going → мэкӏофэ /makʷʼafa/ - until he goes.
  • мэкӏуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӏуагъэфэ /makʷʼaːʁafa/ - until he went.
  • сэкӏо /sakʷʼa/ - I am going → сыкӏофэ /səkʷʼafa/ - until I go.
Къэкӏожьыфэ шхэ
Къэ-кӏо-жьы-фэ шхэ
[qakʷʼaʑəfa ʃxa]
Until he is coming back eat
"Eat until he is coming back"
Сышхэфэ къэспаплъ
Сы-шхэ-фэ къэ-с-паплъ
[səʃxafa qaspaːpɬ]
Until I done eating wait for me
"Wait for me until I done eating."
Often -расэ (-raːsa)[edit]

To indicate a noun that is being used usually or often, has the suffix -расэ (-raːsa). One condition is that the indicated noun has to be created from a verb.

  • Example of going to the same place : тызкӏорэр /təzkʷʼarar/ - the place we go → тызкӏорасэрэр /təzkʷʼaraːsarar/ - the place we often go.
непчыхьэ тызкӏорасэрэм тышъугъакӏу
не-пчыхьэ ты-з-кӏо-расэ-рэ-м ты-шъу-гъа-кӏу
[najpt͡ʃəħa təzkʷʼaraːsaram təʃʷʁaːkʷʼ]
tonight the place we often go (erg.) let/allow us to go (said to plural)
"Let us go to the place we usually go"
  • Example of eating the same thing in the past : ишхыгъэр /jəʃxəʁar/ - the thing he ate → ишхырэсагъэр /jəʃxərasaːʁar/ - the thing he used to eat often.
кӏалэм шоколадэхэр ишхырэсагъэх бэрэ
кӏалэ-м шоколад-эх-эр и-шхы-рэс-агъ-эх бэрэ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮam ʃokolaːdaxar jəʃxərasaːʁax bara]
the boy (erg.) chocolates (abs.) he used to eat them often a lot
"The boy used to eat chocolates a lot"
  • Example of writing with the same pencil : зритхырэр /zrəjtxərar/ - the thing he write with → зритхырасэрэр /zrəjtxəraːsarar/ - the thing he usually write with
сэ къэлэмэу сызритхырасэр плъыжьы
сэ къэлэм-эу сы-з-ри-тхы-расэ-р плъыжьы
[sa qalamaw səzrəjtxəraːsar pɬəʑə]
I pencil (adv.) the thing I often write with (abs.) red
"The pencil I usually write with is red"

It is also possible to indicate a verb that is done often by adding the suffix -рас (-raːs).

  • Example of not eating often : сышхырэп /səʃxərap/ - I don't eat → сышхырасэрэп /səʃxəraːsarap/ - I don't eat often.
сэ лимон сышхырасэрэп
сэ лимон сы-шхы-расэ-рэп
[sa limom səʃxəraːsarap]
I a lemon I don't eat it often
"I don't eat lemon often"
  • Example of writing often with : ретхэ /rajtxa/ - he writes with → ритхэрас /rəjtxaraːs/ - he often writes with.
кӏалэр къэлэм плъыжьым ритхэрас
кӏалэ-р къэлэм плъыжьы-м ри-тхэ-рас
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar qalam pɬəʑəm rəjtxaraːs]
the boy (abs.) red pebcil (erg.) he often writes with
"The boy often writes with the red pencil"
About to -пэ- (-pa)[edit]

To indicate a verb the subject is about to do, the suffix -пэт- (-pat) is added. To indicate a verb that the subject just done, the suffix -гъап- (-ʁaːp) is added.

  • макӏо /maːkʷʼa/ - he goes → мэкӏогъап /makʷʼaʁaːp/ - he just went.
  • сашхэ /saːʃxa/ - I eats → сышхэгъап /səʃxaʁaːp/ - I just ate.
  • маплъэ /maːpɬa/ - he looks → мэплъэгъап /mapɬaʁaːp/ - he just looked.
  • макӏо /maːkʷʼa/ - he goes → мэкӏопэт /makʷʼapat/ - he is about to go.
  • сашхэ /saːʃxa/ - I eats → сышхэпэт /səʃxapat/ - I am about to eat.
  • маплъэ /maːpɬa/ - he looks → мэплъэпэт /mapɬapat/ - he is about to look.
сыдэмыкӏыгъапэу къэгъэухьэзыр сишхын
сы-дэ-мы-кӏы-гъап-эу къэ-гъэ-у-хьэзыр си-шхын
[sədamt͡ʃʼəʁaːpaw qaʁawħazər səʃxən]
before I go out prepare / make it ready my food
"Before I go out prepare my food."
кӏэлэцӏыкӏор ӏанэм къепкӏэпэт
кӏэлэцӏыкӏо-р ӏанэ-м къе-пкӏэ-пэт
[t͡ʃʼaɮat͡sʼəkʷʼar ʔaːnam qet͡ʃʼapat]
the little boy (abs.) the table (erg.) (s)he is about to jump from
"The little boy is about to jump from the table."
Almost -пэт (-pat)[edit]

To indicate a verb that almost happened, the suffix -пэты (-patə) is added for present tense, -пэтыгъ (-patəʁ) for recent past tense, -пэтыгъагъ (-patəʁaːʁ) for far past tense and -пэтыщт (-patəɕt) for future tense.

  • макӏо /maːkʷʼa/ - (s)he goes → мэкӏопэты /makʷʼaʁaːp/ - (s)he almost going.
  • сашхэ /saːʃxa/ - I eats → сышхэпэты /səʃxaʁaːp/ - I almost eating.
  • маплъэ /maːpɬa/ - (s)he looks → мэплъэпэты /mapɬaʁaːp/ - (s)he almost looking.
  • макӏо /maːkʷʼa/ - (s)he goes → макӏопэтыгъ /makʷʼapat/ - (s)he almost went.
  • сашхэ /saːʃxa/ - I eats → сэшхэпэтыгъ /səʃxapat/ - I almost ate.
  • маплъэ /maːpɬa/ - (s)he looks → маплъэпэтыгъ /mapɬapat/ - (s)he almost looked.
сыкъаубытыпэтыгъ кӏалэхэмэ
сы-къа-убыты-пэтыгъ кӏалэхэмэ
[səqaːwbətəpatəʁ t͡ʃʼaːɮaxama]
they almost caught me the boys (erg.)
"The boys almost caught me."
псым уицуакъэкӏэ ухауцопэтыгъ
псы-м уи-цуакъэ-кӏэ у-ха-уцо-пэтыгъ
[psəm wəjt͡sʷaːqat͡ʃʼa wəxaːwt͡sʷapatəʁ]
water (erg.) using your shoes (ins.) you almost stepped into it
"You almost stepped into the water with your shoes."
сэ себэджыпэтыгъэп
сэ се-бэджы-пэтыгъ-эп
[sa sajbad͡ʒəpatəʁap]
I didn't almost fell on the ground
"I didn't almost fell on the ground."
Just recently -гъакӏ (-ʁaːt͡ʃʼ)[edit]

To indicate a verb that happened just recently, the suffix -гъакӏ (-ʁaːt͡ʃʼ) is added.

  • мэкӏуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӏогъакӏ /makʷʼaːʁaːt͡ʃʼ/ - I just went recently.
  • сышхагъ /səʃχaːʁ/ - I ate → сышхэгъакӏ /səʃxaʁaːt͡ʃʼ/ - I just ate recently.
ушхэгъакӏ нэӏэ ушхэжьырагъуа?
у-шхэ-гъакӏ нэӏэ у-шхэ-жьы-рагъу-а?
[wəʃxaʁaːt͡ʃʼ naʔa wəʃxaʑəraːʁʷaː]
you just ate recently only do you want to eat again
"You just ate recently, you wanna eat again?"
класым иджы скъихьэгъакӏ
класы-м иджы с-къи-хьэ-гъакӏ
[klaːsəm jəd͡ʒə sqəjħaʁaːt͡ʃʼ]
class (erg.) now I just came in
"I just came into the class right now."

When speaking on the past, to indicate a verb that happened just recently at that time, the suffix -гъэкӏагъ (-ʁat͡ʃʼaːʁ) is added.

  • мэкӏуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӏогъэкӏагъ /makʷʼaːʁat͡ʃʼaːʁ/ - I just went recently.
  • сышхагъ /səʃχaːʁ/ - I ate → сышхэгъэкӏагъ /səʃxaʁat͡ʃʼaːʁ/ - I just ate recently.
класым тыгъуасэ сихьэгъэкӏагъ тестэр къызеублэм
класы-м тыгъуасэ си-хьэ-гъэкӏагъ тестэ-р къы-зе-ублэ-м
[klaːsəm təʁʷaːsa səjħaʁat͡ʃʼaːʁ] testar qəzajwbɮam
class (erg.) yesterday I just entered recently (in the past) test (arg.) the time it started
"Yesterday after recently entering the class the test began."
Should have -пхъагъ (-pχaːʁ)[edit]

To indicate an event that the subject should have done and haven't, the suffix -пхъагъ (-pχaːʁ) is added

to the verb. This suffix can only be added to verbs in the past tense.

  • мэкӀуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӀопхъагъ /makʷʼapχaːʁ/ - he should have gone so.
  • сыкӀуагъ /səːkʷʼaːʁ/ - I went → сыкӀопхъагъ /səkʷʼapχaːʁ/ - I should have gone so.
  • тышхагъ /təʃxaːʁ/ - we ata → тышхэпхъагъ /təʃxapχaːʁ/ - we should have eaten.
  • уӏуагъ /wʔʷaːʁ/ - you said → уӏопхъагъ /wʔʷapχaːʁ/ - you should have said so.
сиунэ укъакӏом сидиск къэпхьыпхъагъ
[siwna wqaːkʷʼam sidisk qaphəpχaːʁ]
my house when you came my disk you should have brought it.
"When you came to my house, you should have brought my disk with you"
къэпӏопхъагъ зэрэуимӏэ гущыӏалъэ
[qapʔʷapχaːʁ zarawimʔa ɡʷəɕəʔaːɬa]
you should have said so that you don't have it a dictionary
"You should have said that you don't have a dictionary."

Affixes[edit]

In Adyghe suffixes and prefixes can be add to verbs, nouns and adjectives to describe them for different cases.

Prefixes[edit]

Opinion Prefix (шӏо-) (ʃʷʼa-)[edit]

To indicate an opinion of someone the prefix (шӏо-) (ʃʷʼa-) is added to the adjective. This is used very rarely on nouns and are not used on adverbs at all.

Examples:

  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → шӏодах /ʃʷʼadaːx/ - it's pretty for him.
  • дэхагъ /daxaːʁ/ - was pretty → шӏодэхагъ /ʃʷʼadaxaːʁ/ - it was pretty for him.
  • дэхэт /daxat/ - will be pretty → шӏодэхэт /ʃʷʼadaxat/ - it will be pretty for him.
  • ӏэшӏу /ʔaːʃʷʼə/ - tasty → cшӏоӏэшӀу /səʃʷʼaʔaːʃʷʼ/ - it's tasty for me.
  • дэгъу /daʁʷə/ - good → яшӏодэгъу /jaːʃʷʼadaʁʷ/ - it's good for them.
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → шӏомаф /ʃʷʼamaːfa/ - it's day for him.
  • плъыжьы /pɬəʑə/ - red → шӏоплъыжьы /ʃʷʼapɬəʑə/ - it's red for him.
пшъашъэм кӏалэр шӏодах
пшъашъэ-м кӏалэ-р шӏо-дах
[pʂaːʂam t͡ʃʼaːlar ʂʷadaːx]
the girl (erg.) the boy (abs.) it's pretty for him/her
"the boy is pretty for the girl."
кӏалэхэмэ яшъодахэп сиджанэ
кӏалэ-хэ-мэ я-шъо-дахэ-п си-джанэ
[t͡ʃaːlaxama jaːʃʷadaːxap sid͡ʒaːna]
the boys (erg.) it was not pretty for them my shirt
"my shirt was not beautiful for the boys."
мы бэнанэм иуасэ пшӏолъапӏа?
мы бэнанэ-эм и-уасэ п-шӏо-лъапӏэ-а?
[mə banaːnam jəwaːsa pʃʷaɬaːpʼaː]
this banana (erg.) its cost is it expensive for you?
"Is this banana expensive for you?"
мы мыер сышӏоӏашӏоп
мы мые -эр сы-шӏо-ӏашӏо-эп
[mə məjar səʃʷaʔaːʃʷap]
this apple (arg.) Is not tasty for me
"This apple is not testy for me."

зэрэ- (zara-)[edit]

When used on nouns and adjectives the prefix зэрэ- (zara-) is added. when used on verbs the prefix зэрэ- (zara-) and suffix -рэ /-ra/ is added

  • макӏо /maːkʷa/ - he walks → зэрэмакӏорэ /zaramaːkʷara/ - how he walks / the way he walks
  • фабэ /faːba/ - hot → зэрэфабэу /zarafaːba/ - how it is hot / the way it is hot
  • шъуцӏэ /ʃʷʼət͡sʼa/ - black → зэрэшъуцӏэ /zaraʃʷʼət͡sʼa/ - how it is black / the way it's black
  • мэлажьэ /maɮaːʑa/ - he is working → зэрэмэлажьэрэ /zaramaɮaːʑara/ - how he works / the way he works
  • еплъы /japɬə/ - he looks at → зэрэеплъырэ /zarajapɬəra/ - the way he looks at
кӏалэр псынкӏэу зэрэмачъэрэ олъэгъуа?
кӏалэ-р псынкӏэ-у зэрэ-мачъэ-рэ о-лъэгъу-а?
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar psənt͡ʃʼaw zaramaːt͡ʂara waɬaʁʷaː]
the boy (abs.) quickly the way (s)he runs do you see it?
"do you see the way the boy runs fast?"
нечэпэ зэрэчъыӏэр, сэкъы
нечэпэ зэрэ-чъыӏэ-р, сэ-къы
[net͡ʃapa zarat͡ʂəʔar saqə]
tonight the way it's cold i am freezing
"how it's cold tonight, i am freezing."
унэшӏуа? ор зэрэплъыжьэ улъэгъурэба?
у-нэшӏу-а? ор зэрэ-плъыжьэ у-лъэгъу-рэ-ба?
[wənaʃʷʼaː war zarapɬəʑa wəɬaʁʷərabaː]
are you blind? that (arg.) the way it's red don't you see it?
"are you blind? don't you see that it's red"

зэрэ- (zara-) and -эу (-aw)[edit]

To indicate an event that happened instantly at the beginning of a certain verb, the prefix зэрэ- (zara-) and the suffix -эу/-ыу (-aw/-əw) is added. Can only be used on verbs and nouns.

  • макӏо /maːkʷa/ - he walks → зэрэмакӏоу /zaramaːkʷaw/ - once he started walking
  • мэлажьэ /maɮaːʑa/ - he is working → зэрэмэлажьэу /zaramaɮaːʑaw/ - the moment he began working
  • еплъы /japɬə/ - he looks at → зэреплъэу /zarajapɬaw/ - once he started looking at
  • къэушӏуцӏэгъ /qawʃʷʼət͡sʼaʁ/ - it became black → зэрэкъэушӏуцӏэгъэу /zaraqawʃʷʼət͡sʼaʁ/ - once it became black
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → зэрэмафэу /zaramaːfaw/ - once it was day
  • фабэ /faːba/ - hot → зэрэфабэу /zarafaːbaw/ - once it was hot
кӏалэр псы зэрешъоу сыкъэсэгъ
кӏалэ-р псы зэрэ-ешъо-у сы-къэсы-эгъ
[t͡ʃaːlar psə zarajaʃʷaw səqasaʁ]
the boy (abs.) water once he started drinking I got here
"once the boy start drinking water I got here"
кӏалэр еджапӏэм зэрежьэу къещхэу къиублагъ
кӏалэ-р еджапӏэ-м зэрэ-ежь-эу къещхы-эу къеублэ-агъ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar jad͡ʒaːpʼam zarajaʑaw qajɕxaw qəjwbɮaːʁ]
the boy (abs.) the school (erg.) once he started while it was raining (s)he/it started
"the moment the boy started to go to school, it started to rain."

Suffixes[edit]

Plural -хэ (-xa)[edit]

In addition to distinguishing between singular and plural nouns by marking the latter with the suffix '-хэ' /-xa/.

  • кӏалэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮa/ - boy → кӏалэхэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮaxa/ - boys.
  • шхын /ʃxən/ - food → шхынхэ /ʃxənxa/ - foods.
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафэхэ /maːfaxa/ - days.
  • мэкӏуагъэ /makʷʼaːʁa/ - the one that went → мэкӏуагъэхэ /makʷʼaːʁaxa/ - the ones that went.
  • макӏорэ /maːkʷʼara/ - the one that is going → макӏохэрэ /maːkʷʼaxara/ - the ones that are going.
  • мэкӏотэ /makʷʼata/ - the one that will go → мэкӏотхэ /makʷʼatxa/ - the ones that will go.
  • еджэрэ /jad͡ʒa/ - he one that is reading → еджэхэрэ /jad͡ʒa/ - he ones that are reading
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дахэхэ /daːxəxa/ - the pretty ones.
  • кӏэхьы /t͡ʃʼaħə/ - long → кӏэхьыхэ /t͡ʃʼaħəxa/ - the long ones.
у мэлажьэхэрэр сишых
у мэлажьэ-хэ-рэ-р си-шы-х
[wə maɮaːʑaxarar səjʃəx]
those the ones that are working (abs.) they are my brothers
"Those guys that are working are my brothers"

To indicate a plural verb (verb that was done by more than one thing) also has the additional suffix '-хэ' /-xa/.

илъэсхэр псынкӏэу блэкӏых
илъэсхэ-р псынкӏэ-у блэкӏ-ых
[jəɬasxar psənt͡ʃʼaw bɮat͡ʃʼəx]
the years (abs.) fast (adv.) they are passing
"the years are passing fast"

The negative (~эп) (~ap)[edit]

The Negation suffix is ~п (~p) and it's ~рэп (~rap) when the verb is

in present tense:

  • мэкӀуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӀуагъэп /makʷʼaːʁap/ - "he did not go".
  • окIо /wakʷʼa/ "you are going" → уыкIорэп /wəkʷʼarap/ "you are not going"
  • тыкӀощт /təkʷʼaɕt/ - we will go → тыкӀощтэп /təkʷʼaɕtap/ - "we will not go".
  • сэIо /saʔʷa/ "I am saying" → сыIорэп /səʔʷarap/ "I am not saying"
  • шъушхагъ /ʂʷəʃxaːʁ/ "you (plural) ate" → шъушхагъэп /ʂʷəʃxaːʁap/ "you (plural) didn't ate"
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафэп /maːfap/ - it's not a day.
  • кӀалэ /t͡ʃaːla/ - boy → кӀалэп /t͡ʃaːlap/ - it's not a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дахэп /daːxap/ - he/she/it is not pretty.
  • кӀэхьы /t͡ʃaħə/ - long → кӀэхьэп /t͡ʃaħai/ - he/she/it is not long.
Ахэр къэкIуагъэхэп!
Ахэ-эр къэ-кӀо-агъ-эх-эп!
[aːxar qakʷʼaːʁaxap]
the those (erg.) they didn't come
"they didn't come"
Кӏалэр иныбджэгъумэ ядэджэгурэп
[t͡ʃʼaːlar jənəbd͡ʒaʁʷəma jaːdad͡ʒaɡʷərap]
the boy (arg.) his friends (erg.) he doesn't play with them
"the boy doesn't play with his friends"
Пепэ чъыӏэп фабэнахь
[najpa t͡ʂəʔap faːbanaːħ]
today it is not cold it is actually hot
"Today is not cold, it's actually hot."

Cannot be used simultaneously with both the infinitive suffix -н (-n) and the negative suffix (-эп) (-ap).

Cannot be used simultaneously with both the negative suffix (-эп) and (-мэ) (-ми) (-и) suffixes.

Root Tense Forms
With Positive (want) For Possible (Capable)
мэкIуагъэп Past дэкIуагъэп мэкIорэгъуагъэп фэкIуагъэп мэкIошъутыгъэп
макIорэп Present дакIорэп мэкIорагъоп факIорэп мэкIошъурэп
мэкIощтэп Future дэкIощтэп мэкIорэгъощт фэкIощтэп мэкIошъущтэп
мэкIогъагъэп Past 2 дэкIогъагъэп мэкIорэгъуэгъагъэп фэкIогъагъэп мэкIошъутыгъагъэп

Desirement (~рагъу) (raːʁʷ)[edit]

To indicate something desired, the suffix (~рагъу) (~raːʁʷ) is added For example:

  • сэкIо /sakʷʼa/ "I am going" → сыкIорагъу /səkʷʼaraːʁʷ/ "I want to go/.
  • ущхагъ /wəɕxaːʁ/ "you ate" → ущхарэгъуагъ /wəɕxaraʁʷaːʁ/ "you wanted to eat".
  • мэплъэт /mapɬat/ "he will look" → мэплъэрэгъот /mapɬaraʁʷat/ "he will want to look".
  • плъыжьы /pɬəʑə/ - red → плъыжьырагъу /pɬəʑəraːʁʷ/ - he/she/it want to be red.
  • кӀалэ /t͡ʃaːla/ - boy → кӀэлэрагъу /t͡ʃalaraːʁʷ/ - he/she/it want to be a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дэхэрагъу /daxaraːʁʷ/ - he/she/it want to be pretty.
  • кӀэхьы /t͡ʃaħə/ - long → кӀэхьырагъу /t͡ʃaħəraːʁʷ/ - he/she/it want to be long.
кӀалэр пшъашъэм иунэ мэкӀорагъоп
кӀалэ-эр пшъашъэ-эм и-унэ мэ-кӀо-рагъу-эп
[t͡ʃʼaːlar pʂaːʂam jəwna makʷʼaraːʁʷap]
the boy (abs.) the girl (erg.) his house he don't want to go
"the boy don't want to go to the girl's house"
дышъэм фэдыу пшъашъэр дэхэрагъу
[dəʂam fadəw pʂaːʂar daxaraːʁʷ]
the gold (erg.) like him the girl (abs.) he wants to be pretty
"the girl wants to be pretty like a gold"
лӀым фэдыу скIочIэрэгъуагъ
[ɬʼəm fadəw səkʷʼat͡ʃʼaraʁʷaːʁ]
the man (erg.) like him I wanted to be strong
"I wanted to be strong like the man"
Root Tense Forms
With For Negative Possible (Capable) If Even if
мэкIорэгъуагъ Past дэкIорэгъуагъ фэкIорэгъуагъ мэкIорэгъуагъэп мэкIорэгъошъутэгъ мэкIорэгъуагъэмэ мэкIорэгъуагъэми
мэкIорагъу Present дэкIорагъу фэкIорагъу мэкIорагъоп мэкIорэгъошъу мэкIорэгъомэ мэкIорэгъоми
мэкIорэгъот Future дэкIорэгъот фэкIорэгъот мэкIорэгъотэп мэкIорэгъошъут мэкIорэгъотмэ мэкIорэгъотми
мэкIорэгъуэгъагъ Past 2 дэкIорэгъогъагъ фэкIорэгъогъагъ мэкIорэгъуэгъагъэп мэкIорэгъошъутыгъагъ мэкIорэгъогъагъэмэ мэкIорэгъогъагъэми

Completion -гъах (-ʁaːx)[edit]

To indicate a completed verb, the suffix -гъах (-ʁaːx) is used. It designates absolute accomplishment/realization of the action.

  • сэкӏо /sakʷʼa/ "I am going" → сыкӏогъах /səkʷʼaʁaːx/ "I already went.
  • ощхэ /waɕxa/ "you are eating" → ущхэгъах /wəɕxaʁaːx/ "you already ate".
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мэфэгъах /mafaʁaːx/ - it was already day.
  • кӏалэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮa/ - boy → кӏэлэгъах /t͡ʃʼaɮaʁaːx/ - he was already a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дэхэгъах /daxaʁaːx/ - he/she/it was already pretty.
  • кӏэхьы /t͡ʃʼaħə/ - long → кӏэхьыгъах /t͡ʃʼaħəʁaːx/ - he was already long.
кӏалэр мэкӏогъах
[t͡ʃaːɮar makʷʼaʁaːx]
the boy (abs.) he already went
"the boy already went"
"the boy done going"
тэ теджэгъах иунэкӏэ
[ta ted͡ʒaʁaːx jəwnat͡ʃa]
we we already studied with his house
"we already studied in his house"
"we done studding in his house"

To indicate an event that is happening while someone is finishing of doing a certain verb, the suffixes -

гъах (-ʁaːx) and -эу (-aw) are used together. For example:

  • сэкӏо /sakʷʼa/ "I am going" → сыкӏогъахэу /səkʷʼaʁaːxaw/ "While I done going.
  • ощхэ /waɕxa/ "you are eating" → ущхэгъахэу /wəɕxaʁaːxaw/ "While you done eating".
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мэфэгъахэу /mafaʁaːxaw/ - While it was day.
  • кӏалэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮa/ - boy → кӏэлэгъахэу /t͡ʃʼaɮaʁaːxaw/ - While it was a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дэхэгъахэу /daxaʁaːxaw/ - While he/she/it was pretty.
  • кӏэхьы /t͡ʃʼaħə/ - long → кӏэхьыгъахэу /t͡ʃʼaħəʁaːxaw/ - While he/she/it was long.
сымышхэгъахэу лаж къысэмыӀу
сы-мы-шхэ-гъах-эу лаж къы-сэ-мы-Ӏо
[səməʃxaʁaːxaw laːʒ qəsaməʔʷ]
While I am not done eating Work! (Imperative mood) Don't tell me
"While I haven't done eating don't tell me to work"
скӀогъахэу къысаӀуагъ
[skʷʼaʁaːxaw qəsaːʔʷaːʁ]
i already done going i saw
"they told me after I already went"

To indicate an event that happened after a completion of a specific verb, it has the suffix -гъах (-ʁaːx)

and -эм (-am). For example:

  • сэкӏо /sakʷʼa/ "I am going" → сыкӏогъахэм /səkʷʼaʁaːxam/ "When I already done going.
  • ошхэ /waʃxa/ "you are eating" → ущхэгъахэм /wəɕxaʁaːxam/ "When you already done eating".
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мэфэгъахэм /mafaʁaːxam/ - When it was already a day.
  • кӏалэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮa/ - boy → кӏэлэгъахэм /t͡ʃʼaɮaʁaːxam/ - When it was already a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дэхэгъахэм /daxaʁaːxam/ - When he/she/it was already pretty.
  • кӏэхьы /t͡ʃʼaħə/ - long → кӏэхьыгъахэм /t͡ʃʼaħəʁaːxam/ - When he/she/it was already long.
сылэжэгъахэм сылъэгъогъ кIалэр
сы-лажэ-гъах-эм сы-лъэгъу-эгъ кIалэр
[slaʒaʁaːxam sɬaʁʷaʁ t͡ʃaːlar]
when i done working I saw the boy (abs.)
"When i done working I saw the boy"

To indicate a verb that still wasn't completed, it has the Suffix -гъах (-ʁaːx) and the Negative Suffix (~эп)

(~ap) together.

  • сэкIо /sakʷʼa/ "I am going" → сыкIогъахэп /səkʷʼaʁaːxap/ "I still haven't done going.
  • ошхэ /waʃxa/ "you are eating" → ущхэгъахэп /wəɕxaʁaːxap/ "You still haven't done eating".
кIалэр мэкӀогъахэп
[t͡ʃaːlar makʷʼaʁaːxap]
the boy (abs.) he didn't done going
"the boy haven't done going"
сышхэгъахэп дэхьэ
[səʃxaʁaxap daħa]
I haven't done eating Still
"I still haven't done eating"

Capability -шъу (-ʃʷə)[edit]

To indicate the ability or capability to perform a certain verb, has the Suffix

-шъогъ (-ʃʷaʁ) for past tense, the Suffix -шъу (-ʃʷə) for present tense, the Suffix -шъущт (-ʃʷəɕt) for future

tense and the Suffix -шъугъагъ (-ʃʷtəʁaːʁ) for the Past 2 tense. The Suffix -шъутэгъ (-ʃʷtaʁ) is added in

case someone was capable of doing a certain verb but haven't done it.

  • мэкӏуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӏошъогъ /makʷʼaʃʷaʁ/ - he could go.
  • мэкӏуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӏошъутэгъ /makʷʼaʃʷtaʁ/ - he could have gone.
  • макӏо /maːkʷʼa/ - he is going → мэкӏошъу /makʷʼaʃʷə/ - he is capable of going.
  • тыкӏощт /təkʷʼat/ - we will go → тыкӏошъущт /təkʷʼaʃʷət/ - we will be capable of going.
  • мафэщт /maːfaɕt/ - it will be day → мэфэшъущт /mafaʃʷət/ - it can be a day.
  • кӏалэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮa/- boy → кӏэлэшъут /t͡ʃʼaɮaʃʷət/ - he can be a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дэхэшъут /daxaʃʷət/ - it can be pretty.
  • кӏэхьы /t͡ʃaħə/ - long → кӏэхьышъут /t͡ʃʼaħəʃʷət/ - it can be long.
лӏыжъэр ныбжьыкӏэм мэкӏошъогъ тэрэзэу
лӏыжъ-эр ныбжьыкӏ-эм мэкӏо-шъу-эгъ тэрэз-эу
[ɬʼəʐar nəbʑət͡ʃʼam makʷʼaʂʷaʁ tarazaw]
old man (abs.) when he was young (s)he could go/walk correctly
"When the old man was young he could go correctly"
унэм уехьэмэ псы къэсфэпхьышъута?
унэ-эм у-ехьэ-эм псы къэ-с-фэ-п-хьы-шъу-т-а
[wənam wajħam psə qasfapħəʃʷtaː]
house (erg.) when you enter the house a water could you bring it for me
"when you enter the house could you bring me a water."
кӏалэр мэджэгушъутыгъи мэджэгогъ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar mad͡ʒaɡʷəʃʷtəʁi mad͡ʒaɡʷaʁ]
the boy (abs.) because he was capable of playing he played
"because the boy was capable of playing he played"
кӏалэм бэнанэр къыфэшхышъурэп
кӏалэ-эм бэнанэ-эр къы-фэ-шхы-шъу-рэп
[t͡ʃʼaːɮam banaːnar qəfaʃxəʂʷrap]
the boy (erg.) the banana (abs.) he is not capable of eating it anymore
"the boy is not capable of eating the banana anymore"
пшъашъэм зэпсэо къыщытхъушъутых дахэу мэзакӏомэ
пшъашъэ-эм зэпсэо къы-щытхъу-шъут-ых дахэ-эу мэзакӏо-мэ
[pʂaːʂam zapsawa qəɕətχʷəʂʷtəx daːxaw mazaːkʷʼama]
the girl (erg.) everybody/all they can be amazed from him/her beautifully/kindly If (s)he

behave

"Everybody could be amazed if the girl behave kindly"
Root Tense Forms
Negative Positive (want) With For If Even if
мэкIошъутэгъ Past мэкIошъутыгъэп мэкIошъутэгъэрэгъуагъ дэкIошъутэгъ фэкIошъутэгъ мэкIошъутыгъэмэ мэкIошъутыгъэми
мэкIошъу Present мэкIошъурэп мэкIошъурэгъу дэкIошъу фэкIошъу мэкIошъумэ мэкIошъуми
мэкIошъут Future мэкIошъутэп - дэкIошъут фэкIошъут мэкIошъутымэ мэкIошъутыми
мэкIошъутыгъагъ Past 2 мэкIошъутыгъагъэп мэкIошъутырэгъуэгъагъ дэкIошъутыгъагъ фэкIошъутыгъагъ мэкIошъутыгъагъэмэ мэкIошъутыгъагъэми

Concessive mood -ми (-məj)[edit]

To indicate an event that will happen even if something/someone does a specific verb, has the Suffix -ми

(-məj).

  • мэкIуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкIуагъэми /makʷʼaːʁaməj/ - even if he went.
  • сэкIо /saːkʷʼa/ - I am going → сыкIоми /səkʷʼaməj/ - even if I am going.
  • тыкIощт /təkʷʼaɕt/ - we will go → тыкIощтми /təkʷʼaɕtməj/ - even if we will go.
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафэми /maːfaməj/ - even if it's a day.
  • кIалэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮa/ - boy → кIалэми /t͡ʃʼaːɮaməj/ - even if it's a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дахэми /daːxaməj/ - even if he/she/it is pretty.
  • кӏэхьы /t͡ʃʼaħə/ - long → кӏэхьыми /t͡ʃʼaħəməj/ - even if he/she/it is long.
кӏалэм епӏуагъэми къодэӏутэп
кӏалэ-м епӏо-агъэ-ми къодэӏу-т-эп
[t͡ʃʼaːɮam japʔʷaːʁaməj qʷadaʔʷtap]
the boy (erg.) even if you told him he will not listen to you
"even if you told the boy he will still not listen to you"
кӏалэр мэкӏошъутыми нэхьышӏу мамыкӏомэ
кӏалэ-р мэ-кӏо-шъу-ты-ми нэхьышӏу ма-мы-кӏо-мэ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar makʷʼaʂʷtəməj nahəʃʷʼə maːməkʷʼama]
the boy (abs.) even if he can go (capable of going) it's better if he don't go
"even if the boy is capable can go it's better if he don't go"
улажьэми ахъщэ къотыщтэп
у-лажьэ-ми ахъщэ къоты-щт-эп
[wəɮaːʑaməj aːχɕa qʷatətaɕp]
even if you work money they will not give it to you
"even if you work they will not give you money"
Root Tense Forms
Negative (мы) Positive (want) With For Possible (Capable)
мэкIуагъэми Past мэмкIуагъэми мэкIорэгъуагъэми дэкIуагъэми фэкIуагъэми мэкIошъутыгъэми
макIоми Present мамкIоми мэкIорагъоми дакIоми факIоми мэкIошъуми
мэкIощтми Future мэмкIощтми мэкIорэгъощтми дэкIощтми фэкIощтми мэкIошъутми
мэкIогъагъэми Past 2 мэмкIогъагъэми мэкIорэгъуэгъагъэми дэкIогъагъэми фэкIогъагъэми мэкIошъутыгъагъэми

Cannot be used simultaneously with both the infinitive suffix - н(-n) and the suffix -ми (-mi). Cannot be used simultaneously with both the suffix -мэ (-ma) and the suffix -ми (-mi).

Conditional mood -мэ (-ma)[edit]

To indicate a result of a certain verb that if someone/something done, doing or will do, has the Suffix

-мэ (-ma).

  • мэкӏуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӏуагъэмэ /makʷʼaːʁama/ - if he went.
  • сэкӏо /sakʷʼa/ - I am going → сыкӏомэ /səkʷʼama/ - if I go.
  • тыкӏощт /təkʷʼaɕt/ - we will go → тыкӏощтмэ /təkʷʼaɕtma/ - if we will go.
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафэмэ /maːfama/ - if it's a day.
  • кӏалэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮa/ - boy → кӏалэмэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮama/ - if it's a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дахэмэ /daːxama/ - if he/she/it is pretty.
  • кӏэхьы /t͡ʃʼaħə/ - long → кӏэхьымэ /t͡ʃʼaħəma/ - if he/she/it is long.
кӏалэр мэлажьэмэ ахъщэ къыратыщт
кӏалэ-р мэлажьэ-мэ ахъщэ къыраты-щт
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar maɮaːʑama aːχɕa qəraːtəɕt]
the boy (abs.) if he work money they will give him
"if the boy work they will give him money"
усымаджэу удэкӏымэ нахьиу усымэджэщт
у-сымаджэ-у у-дэкӏы-мэ нахьиу у-сымэджэ-щт
[wəsəmaːd͡ʒaw wədat͡ʃʼəma naːħjəw wəsəmad͡ʒaɕt]
while you are sick if you go out even more you will get sick
"if you go out while you are sick, you will get even more sick"
учъэрагъомэ унэм икӏи чъэ
у-чъэ-рагъо-мэ унэ-м икӏый чъэ
[wət͡ʂaraːʁʷama wənam jət͡ʃʼəj t͡ʂa]
if you want to run the house (erg.) get out (in order for something to happen) run!
"if you want to go, get out from the house and go"
Root Tense Forms
Negative (мы) Positive (want) With For Possible (Capable)
мэкIуагъэмэ Past мэмкIуагъэмэ мэкIорэгъуагъэмэ дэкIуагъэмэ фэкIуагъэмэ мэкIошъутыгъэмэ
макIомэ Present мамкIомэ мэкIорагъомэ дакIомэ факIомэ мэкIошъумэ
мэкIощтмэ Future мэмкIощтмэ мэкIорэгъощтмэ дэкIощтмэ фэкIощтмэ мэкIошъущтмэ
мэкIогъагъэмэ Past 2 мэмкIогъагъэмэ мэкIорэгъуэгъагъэмэ дэкIогъагъэмэ фэкIогъагъэмэ мэкIошъутыгъагъэмэ

Can not be used simultaneously both the suffix -мэ (-ma) and the suffix -ми (-mi).

Completion and its results -и (-əj)[edit]

To indicate an event that is occurring or will occur or occurred because of a certain verb, has the suffix

-и (-əj). In this case the verb is also the reason why the event occurred. When used in Imperative mood

(form of a command or request) it is to describe an event that will happen when the listener will do the

command or request.

  • мэкӏуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӏуагъи /makʷʼaːʁəj/ - because he went.
  • сэкӏо /saʷʼa/ - I am going → сыкӏуи /səkʷʼəj/ - because I am going.
  • тыкӏощт /təkʷʼaɕt/ - we will go → тыкӏощти /təkʷʼaɕtəj/ - because we will go.
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафи /maːfəj/ - because it's a day.
  • кӏалэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮa/ - boy → кӏали /t͡ʃʼaːɮəj/ - because it's a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дахи /daːxəj/ - because he/she/it is pretty.
  • кӏэхьы /t͡ʃʼaħə/ - long → кӏэхьи /t͡ʃʼaħəj/ - because he/she/it is long.

Imperative case examples :

кӏуи кӏалэр улъэгъущт
кӏо-и кӏалэ-р у-лъэгъу-щт
[kʷʼəj t͡ʃʼaːɮar wɬaʁʷəɕt]
go (in order for the event to occur) the boy (abs.) you will see it
"go and you will see the boy"
лажьи ахъщэ къуатыщт
лажь-и ахъщэ къуаты-щт
[ɮaːʑəj aːχt͡ʃa qʷaːtəɕt]
work (in order for the event to occur) money they will give you money
"work and they will give you money"

Other examples :

кӏалэр мэкӏощти цуакъэхэр щилъагъэх
кӏалэ-р мэкӏо-щти цуакъэ-хэ-р щылъ-агъ-эх
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar makʷʼaɕtəj t͡sʷaːqaxar t͡ʃaːlar]
the boy (abs.) because (s)he's going to go the shoes (abs.) (s)he wear them
"the boy put the shoes because he was going to go"
пшъашъэр дахи кӏалэхэр къеплъых
пшъашъэ-р дахэ-и кӏалэ-хэ-р къе-плъы-х
[pʂaːʂar daːxəj t͡ʃʼaːɮaxar qajpɬəx]
the girl (abs.) because he/she is pretty the boys (abs.) they are looking at it
"because the girl is pretty, the boys looking at her"
кӏалэр мэкӏожьи мые къэсфихьэгъ
кӏалэ-р мэкӏожь-и мые къэ-с-ф-ихь-эгъ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar makʷʼaʑəj məja qasfəjħaʁ]
the boy (abs.) go back (in order for something to happen) an apple bring it for me
"the boy went back and brought me an apple"
кӏалэр макӏуи пшъашъэр илъэгъогъ
кӏалэ-р макӏо-и пшъашъэ-р и-лъэгъу-огъ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar makʷʼəj pʂaːʂar jəɬaʁʷaʁʷ]
the boy (abs.) (s)he went and the girl (abs.) (s)he saw it
"The boy went and (then) saw the girl"
Root Tense Forms
Negative (мы) Positive (want) With For Possible (Capable)
мэкIуагъи Past мэмкIуагъи мэкIорэгъуагъи дэкIуагъи фэкIуагъи мэкIошъутыгъи
макIоми Present мамкIоми мэкIорагъоми дакIоми факIоми мэкIошъуми
мэкIощтми Future мэмкIощтми мэкIорэгъощтми дэкIощтми фэкIощтми мэкIошъущтми
мэкIогъагъэми Past 2 мэмкIогъагъэми мэкIорэгъуэгъагъэми дэкIогъагъэми фэкIогъагъэми мэкIошъутыгъагъэми

Actually -нахь (-naːħ)[edit]

To point out something that is unknown to the listener(s), the suffix -нэхь (-naħ) is added to a word. It can

also be used to indicate the opposite of what had earlier been assumed.

  • мэкӏуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӏуагъэнахь /makʷʼaːʁanaːħ/ - actually he went.
  • сэкӏо /sakʷʼa/ - I am going →, сэкӏонахь /saːkʷʼnaːħ/ - actually I am going.
  • тыкӀощт /təkʷʼaɕt/ - we will go → тыкӏощтнахь /təkʷʼaɕtnaːħ/ - actually we will go.
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафэнахь /maːfanaːħ/ - actually it's a day.
  • кӏалэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮa/ - boy → кӏалэнахь /t͡ʃʼaːɮanaːħ/ - actually it's a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дахэнахь /daːxanaːħ/ - actually he/she/it is pretty.
  • кӏэхьы /t͡ʃʼaħə/ - long → кӏэхьнахь /t͡ʃʼaħanaːħ/ - actually he/she/it is long.
  • In a case the listener(s) don't know it's a day now
мафэнахь джы
мафэ-нахь джы
[maːfanaːħ d͡ʒə]
it's day now
"it's actually a day now"
  • In a case the listener(s) don't know if the boy capable to run
кӏалэр мэчъэшъутынахь
кӏалэ-р мэчъэ-шъу-т-нахь
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar mat͡ʂaʃʷtənaːħ]
the boy (abs.) he is capable to run
"the boy actually can run"
  • In a case the listener(s) don't think the girl is pretty
пшъашъэр дахэнахь
пшъашъэ-р дахэ-нахь
pʂaːʂar] daːxanaːħ]
girl (abs.) it's actually pretty
"that girl is actually pretty"

Until -нэс (-nas)[edit]

Verbs:

  • мэкӏуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went, мэкӏуагъэнэс /makʷʼaːʁanas/ - until he went.
  • сэкӏо /sakʷʼa/ - I am going, сыкӏонэс /səkʷʼnas/ - until I go.

Note that there is no future tense for this suffix.

Nouns and adjectives:

  • кӏалэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮa/ - boy → кӏалэнэс /t͡ʃʼaːɮanas/ - until it is a boy
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафэнэс /maːfanas/ - until it is a day
  • фабэ /faːba/ - hot → фабэнэс /faːbanas/ - until it is hot
  • шъуцӏэ /ʃʷət͡sʼa/ - black → шъуцӏэнэс /ʃʷət͡sʼanas/ - until it is black
  • сыкӏуачӏэ /səkʷʼaːt͡ʃʼa/ - I am strong → сыкӏуачӏэнэс /səkʷʼaːt͡ʃʼanas/ - until I am strong
  • чэщы /t͡ʃaɕə/ - night → чэщынэс /t͡ʃaɕənas/ - until it's night.
кӏалэр макӏонэс паплъ
кӏалэ-р макӏо-нэс паплъ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar maːkʷʼanas paːpɬ]
the boy (abs.) until (s)he go wait
"wait until the boy goes"
кӏалэр къэсынэс зыб ригъэхьыра?
кӏалэ-р къэсы-нэс зыб ригъэхьыра?
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar qasənas zəb riʁaħraː]
boy (abs.) until (s)he arrive so much he is taking (time)
"it's taking so much time until the boy arrives"
чэщынэс лажьэгу
чэщы-нэс лажьэ-гу
[t͡ʃaɕənas ɮaːʑaɡʷ]
until it's night work for now
"work until it's night"

For a while (-гу) (-ɡʷ)[edit]

To indicate a verb that was done in some period of time has the suffix (-эгъагъэгу) (-aʁaːʁaɡʷ) for Past 2 tense, the suffix (-агъэгу) (-aːʁaɡʷ) for past tense, the suffix (-го) (-ɡʷa) for present tense and the

suffix (-тыг) (-təɡʷ) for future tense.

Example :

  • кӏо /kʷʼa/ - go! (kʷʼa) → кӏогу /kʷʼaɡʷ/ - go for a while / go for now
  • шхэ /ʃxa/ - eat! → шхэгу /ʃxaɡʷ/ - eat for a while / eat for now
  • макӏо /maːkʷʼa/ - he is going → макӏого /maːkʷʼaɡʷa/ - he is going for a while / he is going for now
  • мэкӏуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӏуагъэгу /makʷʼaːʁaɡʷ/ - he went for a while / he went for now
  • мэкӏогъагъ /makʷʼaʁaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӏогъагъэгу /makʷʼaʁaːʁaɡʷ/ - he went for a while / he went for

now

  • мэкӏощт /makʷʼaɕt/ - he will go → мэкӏощтыгу /makʷʼaɕtəɡʷ/ - he will go for a while / he will go for

now

This also can be add to noun and adjective :

  • кӏалэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮa/ - boy (kʷʼa) → кӏалэгу /t͡ʃʼaːɮaɡʷ/ - it is a boy for now
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафэгу /maːfaɡʷ/ - it is day for now
  • фабэ /faːba/ - hot → фабэгу /faːbaɡʷ/ - it is hot for now
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дахэгу /daːxaɡʷ/ - (s)he is pretty for now
  • дэхагъ /daxaːʁ/ -(s)he was pretty → дэхагъэгу /daxaɡʷ/ - (s)he was pretty for a while
  • дэхэщт /daːxaɕt/ -(s)he will be pretty → дэхэщтыгу /daxaɕtəɡʷ/ - (s)he will be pretty for a while
кӏалэр тучанэм мэкӏуагъэгу
кӏалэ-р тучанэ-м мэкӏо-агъэгу
[t͡ʃʼɮar təwt͡ʃaːnam makʷʼaːʁaɡʷ]
the boy (abs.) the shop (erg.) he went for a while
"the boy went to the shop for now"
Томэр еджэго къэджэгушъущтэп
Том-эр еджэ-го къэ-джэгу-шъу-щт-эп
[tomar jad͡ʒaɡʷa qad͡ʒaɡʷəʃʷəɕtap]
Tom (abs.) (s)he is studying for now (s)he can't play
"Tom is studying for now he can't play"
паркэм къэсыкӏохьыщтыгу
паркэ-м къэ-сы-кӏохьы-щтыгу
[paːrkar qasəkʷʼaħəɕtəɡʷ]
in the park (erg.) I will go around for a while
"I will go around for a while in the park."
джэгуалъэм сыриджэгурагъогу
джэгуалъэ-м сы-риджэгу-рагъо-гу
[d͡ʒaɡʷaːɬam sərəjd͡ʒaɡʷəraːʁʷaɡʷ]
the toy (erg.) I want to play it for now
"I want to play the toy for now"

All (-купэ) (-kʷəpa)[edit]

Can only be used on nouns and adjectives:

  • кӏалэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮa/ - boy → кӏалэкупэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮakʷəpa/ - all the boys
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафэкупэ /maːfakʷəpa/ - all the days
  • фабэ /faːba/ - hot → фабэкупэ /faːbakʼəpa/ - all the heat
  • кӏуачӏэ /kʷʼaːt͡ʃʼa/ - strong → кӏуачӏэкупэ /kʷʼaːt͡ʃʼakʷəpa/ - all the strong people
мыекупэр шхы
[məjakʷəpar ʃxə]
all the apples (abs.) eat
"eat all the apples"
пшъашъэкупэм еӏо ар
[pʂaːʂakʷəpam jaʔʷa ʔaːr]
all the girls (erg.) he is saying that
"all the girls are saying that"

Measurement -гъакӏэ (-ʁaːt͡ʃʼa)[edit]

To indicate a measure of a certain adjective, it has the suffix -гъакӏэ (-ʁaːt͡ʃʼa). In the Shapsug dialect it has the suffix -гъакӏьэ (-ʁaːkʲʼa). Usually it's used for measurable adjectives like length, height, weight, size, strength and speed but it can be used on any adjective.

  • кӏэхьы /t͡ʃʼaħə/ - high → кӏэхьыгъакӏэ /t͡ʃʼaħəʁaːt͡ʃʼa/ - length.
  • нэфы /nafə/ - light → нэфыгъакӏэ /nafəʁaːt͡ʃʼa/ - brightness.
  • псынкӏэ /psənt͡ʃʼa/ - fast → псынкӏэгъакӏэ /psənt͡ʃʼaʁaːt͡ʃʼa/ - speed.
  • фабэ /faːba/ - hot → фэбэгъакӏэ /fabaʁaːt͡ʃʼa/ - heat.
  • кӏуачӏэ /kʷʼaːt͡ʃʼa/ - strong → кӏочӏэгъакӏэ /kʷʼat͡ʃʼaʁaːt͡ʃʼa/ - strength.
  • ӏужъу /ʔʷəʒʷə/ - wide → ӏужъугъакӏэ /ʔʷəʒʷəʁaːt͡ʃʼa/ - width.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - beautiful → дэхэгъакӏэ /daxaʁaːt͡ʃʼa/ - beauty.
пхъэм иӏужъугъакӏэ 65 сантиметр
[pχam jəʔʷəʒʷəʁaːt͡ʃʼa 65 saːntimetr]
the wood (erg.) its width 65 centimeters
"The wood's width is 65 centimeters"
кӏалэм кӏочӏэгъакӏэ хэлъ
[t͡ʃʼaːɮam kʷʼat͡ʃʼaʁaːt͡ʃʼa xaɬ]
the boy (erg.) strength he is laying among / has in him
"The boy has strength in him."

Surprise -уи (-wəːj)[edit]

To indicate a surprise because of a certain noun, adjective or verb has the suffix -уи (-wəːj).

  • кӏалэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮa/ - boy → кӏалэуи /t͡ʃʼaːɮawəj/ - is it really a boy?
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафэуи /maːfawəːj/ - is it really a day?
  • фабэ /faːba/ - hot → фабэуи /faːbawəːj/ - is it really hot?
  • кӏуачӏэ /kʷʼaːt͡ʃʼa/ - strong → кӏуачӏэуи /kʷʼaːt͡ʃʼawəːj/ - is (s)he is really strong?
  • мэкӏошъу /makʷʼaʃʷə/ - (s)he is capable of going → мэкӏошъууи /makʷʼaʃʷəwəːj/ - is (s)he really capable of going?
  • усмэджагъ /wəsmad͡ʒaːʁ/ - you got sick → усмэджагъуи /wəsmad͡ʒaːʁwəj/ - you to become sick?
мы унэр зишӏыгъэр шъузуи?
[mə wənar zəjʃʼəʁar ʃʷəzwəj]
this house (abs.) the one who made it is a woman?
"The one who made this house is a woman (surprised)?"
кӏалэм еуагъэр сэруи?
[t͡ʃʼaːɮam jawaːʁar sarwəj]
the boy (erg.) the one (s)he hit me?
"The one who hit the boy is me (surprised)?"
а кӏалэ кӏакор кӏуачӏэуи?
[aː t͡ʃʼaːɮa t͡ʃʼaːkʷar kʷʼaːt͡ʂʼawəj]
that boy the short one (abs.) is (s)he really strong?
"That short boy is strong (surprised)?"

Complex cases[edit]

In Adyghe verbs, nouns and adjectives can be described for different cases by adding suffixes and

prefixes to the described word, because of this some sentences in the Adyghe language can have very

complex words (usually verbs).

псы къэсфэпхьышъутыгуа?
псы къэ-с-фэ-п-хьы-шъу-ты-гу-а
[psə qasfapħəʃʷtəɡʷaː]
water can you bring me it for now
"can you bring me water for now?"
уздэджэгурагъоми уахътэ сиӏэп
у-с-дэ-джэгу-рагъо-ми уахътэ с-иӏэ-п
[wəzdad͡ʒaɡʷəraːʁʷaməj waːχta səjʔap]
even if you me to play with you time i don't have
"even if you want me to play with you i don't have time"
сыкъэшъугъэгуабжьырагъуа?
сы-къэ-шъу-гъэ-гуабжьы-рагъо-а?
[səqaʃʷʁaɡʷaːbʑəraːʁʷaː]
do you (plural) want to make me angry?
"do you (plural) want to make me angry?"

Adverbs[edit]

The Adverbs can be formed from different speech elements by gaining suffix ~эу (-aw) or ~у (-u): From verbs: ГумэкIын - beware, МыгумэкIыху - unflappable, Джэгун - Play, Джэгуну - playing, Щысын-

sits, Щысу - sitting. For example: Щысу илъэгъогъ - he saw white sitting, мэджэгуну мэчIагъ - he ran

white playing.

From adjectives: тэрэз - correct, Тэрэзэу тхы! - write correctly, рэхьат - calm, рэхьату - calmly, псынкIэ -

quick, псынкIу - quickly.

From other speech elements: ежь - itself (jaʑ), Ежь-ежьэрэу иIофыр къэгъэухыгъ – He (she) has

finished his (her) work by himself (herself).

The following adverbs are not formed from another words:

Place adverbs[edit]

Such as: мыдэ, mode, моджэ here, мыдыджэ here, мэу here.

удэ, удыджэ, ауджэ - (there, there) different with comparative vicinity degree: удэ къэкIорэр

тигъунэгъу - Here goes our neighbour (wda qakʷʼarar tiʁʷnaʁʷ).

Tense adverbs[edit]

непэ - today, тыгъубсэ or тыгъуасэ - yesterday, нэущы - tomorrow, едэдэм - presently, ыужым or

иужым or икънэуыж - after, етIубнэ or етIонэ – afterwards, жъу or пасу – early, лъэжъуагъу - late.

Нэпэ ap къэкIощтэп - Today he will not come, Тыгъуасэ тызытегущыIагъэм угу къэкIыжьа? – Do You

remember, what we talked about yesterday?, Неущы тыкIот ауджэ - Tomorrow we will go there,

Пчэджэм жъэу сэкъэтэджагъ – I got up early in the morning.

Number adverbs[edit]

мбкIэу or тэку or маӀу - few, бэ - much, a lot, бэр’э - often/long, бэщагъ’у - long ago.

МакIэу Iо, бэу шIэ – Talk less, do a more, Ащ бэрэ лъэхъугъ, ау къыгъотыжьыгъэп – I had been looking

for him for a long time, but I did not find him, Нахь бэрэ уIущхыпцыкIынэу сэфай - I want you to smile

more often, Бэшъагъу оу слъэгъугъэп - I have not seen you for a long time.

Pronouns[edit]

Personal pronouns[edit]

Case Singular Plural
First-person Second-person Third-person First-person Second-person Third-person
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
Absolutive сэ sa о wa ар aːr тэ ta шъо ʃʷa ахэр aːxar
Ergative сэ sa о wa ащ aːɕ тэ ta шъо ʃʷa ахэмэ aːxama
Instrumental сэркӏэ sart͡ʃʼa оркӏэ wart͡ʃʼa ащкӏэ aːɕt͡ʃʼa тэркӏэ tart͡ʃʼa шъоркӏэ ʃʷart͡ʃʼa ахэмкӏэ aːxamt͡ʃʼa
Adverbial сэрэу saraw орэу waraw арэу aːraw тэрэу taraw шъорэу ʃʷaraw ахэрэу aːxaraw

Demonstrative Pronouns[edit]

Case Singular Plural
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
Absolutive мыр, мор mər, mawr мыхэр, мохэр məxar, mawxar
Ergative мыщ, мощ məɕ, mawɕ мыхэмэ, мохэмэ məxama, mawxama
Instrumental мыщкIэ, мощкIэ məɕt͡ʃʼa, mawɕt͡ʃʼa мыхэмкIэ, мохэмкIэ məxamt͡ʃʼa, mawxamt͡ʃʼa
Adverbial мырэу, морэу məraw, mawraw мыхэрэу, мохэрэу məxaraw, mawxaraw

Other Pronouns[edit]

Case Singular Plural
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
Absolutive джэр, ор, дыор, дымыр d͡ʒar, war, dəwar, dəmər джэхэр, охэр, дыухэр, дымхэр d͡ʒaxar, waxar, dəwxar, dəmxar
Ergative джэщ, ущ, дыущ, дымыщ d͡ʒaɕ, wəɕ, dəwəɕ, dəməɕ джэхэмэ, охэмэ, дыухэмэ, дымхэмэ d͡ʒaxama, waxama, dəwxama, dəmxama
Instrumental джэщкӏэ, ущкӏэ, дыущкӏэ, дымыщкӏэ d͡ʒaɕt͡ʃʼa, wəɕt͡ʃʼa, dəwəɕt͡ʃʼa, dəməɕt͡ʃʼa джэхэмэкӏэ, охэмэкӏэ, дыухэмэкӏэ, дымхэмэкӏэ d͡ʒaxamat͡ʃʼa, waxamat͡ʃʼa, dəwxamat͡ʃʼa, dəmxamat͡ʃʼa
Adverbial джэрэу, орэу, дыорэу, дымырэу d͡ʒaraw, waraw, dəwaraw, dəməraw джэхэрэу, охэрэу, дыухэрэу, дымхэрэу d͡ʒaxaraw, waxaraw, dəwxaraw, dəmxaraw

Like nouns, personal pronouns take one of the follow four cases: absolutive, ergative, instrumental, and adverbial.

сэ - I, сэркIэ - me, for me, by me, сэру - for me, by me, o/уэ - you, орыкIэ – for you, by you, ору - for

you, by you, ap – he (she), аркIэ, ащкIэ - for him (her), by him (her), ару - for him (her), by him (her), тэ -

we, тэркIэ – us, тэру - us, шъо шъощ – You (plural form), шъоркIэ you, for you, by you, шъору- for you,

by you, ахэр ахэмэ - they, ахэмкIэ – by them, аху - by them.

Examples: Сэ o къыосIуагъ - I said to you, Сэ ap къэсэлъэIугъ - I asked him (her), O уятэ къыоIуагъа? –

Did you say to your father? [You your-father once-you- say-did], Ащ еупчI – Ask him, Ащ ыIорэр сэркIэ

тIуейзы – All he says, is not important for me, Ахэр бо Iэшъу аIу – People say they are very tasty.

Possessive pronouns[edit]

Dependent possessive pronouns[edit]

The nouns in Adyghe are different by their accessory signs[clarification needed], which are broken down into the natural attribute and the property attribute. The natural attribute is for body parts and kin relationships (e.g. 'son', 'sister'). All other words belong to the property attribute.

  • Natural attributes are expressed with the following prefixes:
Prefix meaning example
Cyrillic IPA
Singular 1st person с- or сы- /s-/ or /sə-/ "my" сылъакъо /səɬaːqʷa/ - my leg; сшыпхъу /sʃəpχʷ/ - my sister
2nd person п- or у- /p-/ or /w-/ "your" плъакъо /pɬaːqʷa/ - your leg; ушыпхъу /wʃəpχʷ/ - your sister
3rd person ы- (ə-) /ə-/ "his" ылъакъо /əɬaːqʷa/ - his leg; ышы /əʃə/ - his brother
Plural 1st person тэ- or т- /ta-/ or /t-/ "our" тлъакъохэ /tɬaːqʷaxa/ - our legs; тшы /tʃə/ - our brother; тшыхэ /tʃəxa/ - our brothers
2nd person шъо- or шъу- /ʃʷa-/ or /ʃʷə-/ "your" шъулъакъохэ /ʃʷəɬaːqʷaxa/ - your legs; шъошыпхъу /ʃʷaʃəpχʷə/ - your sister; шъошыпхъухэ

/ʃʷaʃəpχʷəxa/ - your sisters

3rd person a- /aː-/ "their" алъакъохэр /aːɬaːqʷaxa/ - their legs; ашыпхъу /aːʃəpχʷə/ - their sister; ашыпхъухэ /aːʃəpχʷəxa/ - their

sisters

  • Property attributes are expressed by a different set of prefixes:
Prefix meaning example
Cyrillic IPA
Singular 1st person си- /səj-/ "my" сиунэ /səjwəna/ - my house; ситхылъ /səjtxəɬ/ - my book
2nd person уи- /wəj-/ "your" уиунэ /wəjwəna/ - your house; уитхылъ /wəjtxəɬ/ - your book
3rd person и- /jə-/ "his" иунэ /jəwəna/ - his house; итхылъ /jətxəɬ/ - his book
Plural 1st person ти- /təj-/ "our" тиунэ /təjwəna/ - our house; титхылъ /təjtxəɬ/ - our book
2nd person шъуи- /ʃʷəj-/ "your" шъуиунэ /ʃʷəjwəna/ - your house; шъуитхылъ /ʃʷəjtxəɬ/ - your book
3rd person я- /jaː-/ "their" яунэ /jaːwəna/ - their house; ятхылъ /jaːtxəɬ/ - their book

Significies the attribute of subject: сэсый - mine, оуий - yours, ащий – his, hers, тэтый - ours,

шъошъуий - yours, яий - theirs.

Varied on the same principle, as noun, verbs, adjectives etc.: Мы ощыр сэсый - this axe is mine, Мы

унэр тэтый - this house is ours, Мы къамыр оуий - this dagger is Yours, Мы лагъэхэр шъошъуиех -

these plates are Yours.

The indefinite pronoun[edit]

In Adyghe whole one - зыгорэ.[clarification needed] Serves for indication of all notions

corresponding to English words "someone", "something", "someone", "something", "sometime",

"somewhere", etc.

Changes either as noun – in number and in cases:

Case Ending Singular form Plural form
Absolutive -r зыгорэ /zəɡʷara/ зыгорэхэр /zəɡʷaraxar/
Ergative -m зыгорэм /zəɡʷaram/ зыгорэхэм /zəɡʷaraxam/
Instrumental -kӀэ -t͡ʃa or -мkӀэ -mt͡ʃa зыгорэ(м)кIэ /zəɡʷara(m)t͡ʃa/ зыгорэхэ(м)кIэ /zəɡʷaraxa(m)t͡ʃa/
Adverbial -эу -aw зыгорэу /zəɡʷaraw/ зыгорэхэу /zəɡʷaraxaw/

Зыгорэ къэшъотх – Write something, Зыгорэ къэкIуагъ – Someone has come, Зыгорэм уеупчIын фае

– You need to ask somebody, Зыгорэм сэкъэкIощт - I will come someday, НекIоба, зыгорэм тыкIощт –

Come on, we’ll go somewhere, Непэ ap тадэжи къэкIощт. - Today he (she) will come to us.

зыгорэ макIоу слъэгъогъ
[zəɡʷara maːkʷʼaw sɬaʁʷaʁ]
someone (abs.) while he is going I saw
"I saw someone going"
кIалэгорэм бэнанэр ешхы
[t͡ʃaːlaɡʷaram banaːna jaʃxə]
some boy (erg.) the banana (abs.) he eats
"some boy is eating the banana"
пшъэшъэ дахэгорэм мэр къысиIуагъ
[pʂaʂa daːxaɡʷaram mar qəsiʔʷaːʁ]
girl some pretty (erg.) this he/she told me
"some pretty girl told me this"

Generalization pronouns[edit]

сыдри сыди (Abadzekh), лъэури лъэуи (some Shapsugs), шъыдри шъыди (Bzhedug): each

(not about human), хэтри хэти - each (about human), зэкIэ or зэпсэо - all, ежь - itself, ежьхэ - themself.

Хэтри инасып ежежэу хехы - Each one chooses his fate by himself, Сыдри цIыфри дэгъурэ дэйрэ

епIолъэн плъэкIыщт - About each person it’s possible to say as bad as good.

Demonstratives[edit]

Adyghe has six demonstratives that vary between dialects: а /ʔaː/, джэ /d͡ʒa/, у /wə/, дыу /dəw/, мыдэ /dəm/ and мы /mə/.

а /ʔaː/

  1. that
    а бэнанэthat banana
    а пшъашъэthat girl
    а кӀалэм еӀоthat boy is saying
  • The determiner 'а' usually refer to a referent that is far away to both the speaker and the listener(s).

джэ /d͡ʒa/ (гьэ /gʲa/ in the Shapsug dialect)

  1. that
    джэ бэнанэthat banana
    джэ пшъашъэthat girl
    джэ кӀалэм еӀоthat boy is saying
  • The determiner 'джэ' refer to a referent that can be both visible and invisible. This determiner is used when the speaker wants to show and to give a strong impression that this is indeed the referent he talks about and refer to.

у /wə/

  1. that
    у бэнанэthat banana
    у пшъашъэthat girl
    у кӀалэм еӀоthat boy is saying
  • The determiner 'у' refer to a referent that is visible to both the speaker and the listener(s) (both the speaker and the listener(s) can see the referent). Usually this determiner is used when the speaker know that the listener(s) is/are aware who is the referent he talks about or refer to.

удыу /wədəw/ or дыу /dəw/

  1. that (over there)
    дыу бэнанэthat banana over there
    дыу пшъашъэthat girl over there
    дыу кӀалэм еӀоthat boy over there is saying
    дыу цӀыфэр улъэгъуа? — Do you see that person over there?
  • The determiner 'дыу' refer to a referent that is also visible. Unlike the determiner у (wə), this determiner is used when the listener(s) aren't aware who is the referent. It can be used to introduce a new stranger on the street for example. Usually the speaker will look at the referent whatever it's a person or an object. It might be used while pointing one's finger at the people or objects in question. Even without pointing fingers the listener(s) will expect the referent to be the thing the speaker looks at.

мыдэ /mədəm/ or дымы /dəmə/

  1. this (over here)
    дымы бэнанэthis banana over here
    дымы пшъашъэthis girl over here
    дымы кӀалэм еӀоthis boy over here is saying
    дымы цӀыфэр улъэгъуа? — Do you see this person over here?
  • The determiner 'дымы' refer to a referent that is visible. This determiner is similar to the determiner дыу (dəw). This is used instead of дыу (dəw) when the referent is very near. Like the determiner дыу (dəw) it might be used while pointing one's finger at the referent in question. Even without pointing fingers the listener(s) will expect the referent to be the thing the speaker looks at. It can be used to point on objects in a room for example.

мы /mə/

  1. this
    мы бэнанэthis banana
    мы пшъашъэthis girl
    мы кӀалэм еӀоthis boy is saying
    мы мэгъэthis year
  • The determiner 'мы' is exactly like the English language determiner this.

тэ (ta)

  1. which
    тэ бэнанэ?which banana?
    тэ пшъашъэ?which girl?
    тэ кӀалэм еӀо?which boy is saying?

Conjugation[edit]

[edit]

For Ergative case. ащ /ʔaːɕ/ (he, she, it), гьэщ /gʲa/) (he, she, it), ущ /wəɕ/ (that person), дыущ /dəwəɕ/ (that person over there), дымыщ /dəməɕ/ (this person over here), мыщ /məɕ/ (this person),тэщ /taɕ/ (which person?).

Instrumental case has the suffix -щгьэ or -щкӀэ. ащгьэ (ʔaːɕgʲa) (using that), гьэщгьэ (gʲaɕgʲa) (using

that),уыщгьэ (waəɕgʲa) (using that), дыуыщгьэ (dəwəɕgʲa) (using that thing over there), дымыщгьэ

(dəməɕgʲa) (using this thing over here), мыщгьэ (məɕgʲa) (using this),тэщгьэ (tawgʲa) (with what?).

а кIалэм къысиIуагъэр ащ есIощт
[ʔaː t͡ʃaːlam qəsiʔʷaːʁar ʔaːɕ jasʔʷaɕt]
that the boy (erg.) the thing he told me he, she, it, that I will tell him
"I will tell the thing that boy told me to him"
мыщ еIорэ ушIэн фай
[məɕ jaʔʷara wʃʼan faːj]
this (person or object) the thing he is saying (you) to know/do must/want
"you must do as this person says"
"you must know the things this person says"

-эр[edit]

For Absolutive case. ар (ʔaːr) (he, she, it), гьэр (gʲar) (he, she, it), ор (war) (that person), дыор (dəwar)

(that person over there), дымэр (dəmaɕ) (this person over here), мэр (mar) (this person),тэр (tar) (which

person?).

ар тиунэ къэкIощт
[ʔaːr tiwna qakʷʼaɕt]
he my house he will come
"he will come to my house"
гьэр къащти къэсфэхь
[ɡʲar qaːɕti qasfaħ]
that (object) pick it up (in order to something to happen) bring it to me
"lift that and bring it to me"

-эхэ[edit]

Plural form. ахэ (ʔaːxa) (they, those), гьэхэ (gʲaxa) (they, those), охэ (waxa) (those people), дыухэ (dəwxa)

(those people over there), дымэхэ (dəmaxa) (these people over here), мэхэ (maxa) (they, these),тэхэ

(taxa) (which people or object?).

For Ergative case it has the suffix -эхэмэ. ахэмэ (ʔaːxama) (those), гьэхэмэ (gʲaxama) (those), охэмэ

(waxama) (those), дыухэмэ (dəwxama) (those over there), дымэхэмэ (dəmaxama) (those over here),

мэхэмэ (maxama) (these),тэхэмэ (taxa) (which people or object?).

For Absolutive case it has the suffix -эхэр. ахэр (ʔaːxar) (those), гьэхэр (gʲaxar) (those), охэр (waxar)

(those), дыухэр (dəwxar) (those over there), дымэхэр (dəmaxar) (those over here), мэхэр (maxar)

(these),тэхэр (taxar) (which people or object?).

Instrumental case has the suffix эхэмгьэ or -эхэмкӀэ

дыухэмэ яшIагъхэр ошIа?
[dəwxama jaːʃʼaːʁxar waʃʼaː]
those over there the things they done do you know?
"do you know the things those (people) done?"
мэхэр тиунэ илхьэх
[maxar tiwna jəlħax]
these my house put it inside it
"put these into my house"

-рэ[edit]

арэ (ʔaːra) (that too), гьэрэ (gʲara) (that too), орэ (wara) (that too), дыурэ (dəwra) (that person or object

over there too), дымэрэ (dəmara) (this person or object over here too), мэрэ (mara) (this too),тэрэ (tara)

(which people or object too?).

гьэрэ уатэрэ къэсфэхь
[ɡʲara waːtara qasfaħ]
that too/that and a hammer too bring it to me
"bring me that and the hammer."

-ддэ[edit]

аддэ (ʔaːdda) (there), уыддэ (wədda) (there), дыуыддэ (dəwədda) (that place or spot over there),

дымэддэ (dəmadda) (this place or spot over here), мыддэ (mədda) (here),тэдэ (tada) (where?).

мыддэ ушIагъэ
[mədda wəʃʼaːʁa]
here you done
"look what you done here"
гьэр уыддэ гъэтылъ
[ɡʲar wədda ʁatəɬ]
that there put it down
"put that down there"

-дрэ[edit]

адрэ (ʔaːdra) (that other), уыдрэ (wədra) (that other), дыуыдрэ (dəwədra) (that other person or object

over there), дымэдрэ (dəmadra) (this other person or object over here), мыдрэ (mədra) (this

other),тэдрэ (tadra) (what other?).

For Ergative case it has the suffix -дрэм. адрэм (ʔaːdram) (that other), уыдрэм (wədram) (that other),

дыуыдрэм (dəwədram) (that other person or object over there), дымэдрэм (dəmadram) (this other

person or object over here), мыдрэм (mədram) (this other),тэдрэм (tadram) (which other?).

For Absolutive case it has the suffix -дрэр. адрэр (ʔaːdrar) (that other), уыдрэр (wədrar) (that other),

дыуыдрэəр (dəwədrar) (that other person or object over there), дымэдрэр (dəmadrar) (this other

person or object over here), мыдрэр (mədrar) (this other),тэдрэр (tadrar) (which other?).

Instrumental case has the suffix эдрэмгьэ or -эдрэмкӀэ

Instrumental case and plural has the suffix эдрэхэмгьэ or -эдрэхэмкӀэ

мэ уатэрэп къэсфэпхьынэу сфэйагъэ, адрэ уатэ рары
мэ уатэ-рэп къэс-фэхь-п-нэу с-фэй-агъэ, адрэ уатэ рары
[ma waːtarap qasfapħənaw səfajaːʁa aːdra waːta

raːrə]

this not the hammer the thing you to bring me the thing i wanted the other thing hammer that is
"it's not this hammer I wanted you to bring me, it's the other hammer"
адрэ пакIэм тгъакIу
[aːdra paːkam tʁaːkʷʼ]
that other the way (erg.) let us go
"let us go to that other way"

-эу[edit]

ау (ʔaːw) (over there), гьэу (gʲaw) (over there),оу (waw) (over there), дыоу (dəwaw) (over there), дымэу

(dəmaw) (over here), мэу (mədaw) (over here),тэу (taw) (over where?).

ау укIомэ къэбгъэзэщтэп
[aːw wkʷʼma qabʁazaɕtap]
over there if you go you will not manage to return
"if you go there you will not manage to return back"
мэу бэнанэр щышх
[maw banaːnar ɕəʃx]
over here the banana (abs.) eat it there
"eat the banana here"

-эурэ[edit]

аурэ (ʔaːwra) (over there too), гьэурэ (gʲawra) (over there too),оурэ (wawra) (over there too), дыоурэ

(dəwawra) (over there too), дымэурэ (dəmawra) (over here too), мэурэ (mədawra) (over here too),тэурэ

(tawra) (over where too?).

Instrumental case has the suffix -эугьэ. аугьэ (ʔaːwgʲa) (using that way), гьэугьэ (gʲawgʲa) (using that

way),оугьэ (wawgʲa) (using that way), дыоугьэ (dəwawgʲa) (using that way over there), дымэугьэ

(dəmawgʲa) (using this way over here), мэугьэ (məwgʲa) (using this way),тэугьэ (tawgʲa) (using which

way?).

-ары[edit]

ары (ʔaːrə) (that is), гьары (gʲaːrə) (that's it), уары (waːrə) (that is), дыуары (dəwaːrə) (that person or

object over there), дымары (dəmaːrə) (this person or object over this), мары (maːrə) (this is),тары (taːrə)

(which thing or person?).

ары къысиIуагъэ
[aːrə qəsiʔʷaːʁa]
that is the thing he told me
"that is what he told me"
дыуары кIалэу сфэсIуагъэ
[dəwaːrə t͡ʃaːlaw səfasʔʷaːʁa]
that is over there boy (adv.) the thing i talked about
"here is the boy i talked about"

-щто[edit]

ащто (ʔaːɕtaw) (like that), гьэщто (gʲaɕtaw) (like that), уыщто (wəɕtaw) (like that), дыуыщто (dəwəɕtaw)

(like that over there), дымыщто (dəməɕtaw) (like this over here), мыщто (məɕtaw) (like this),тэщто

(taɕtaw) (like what?).

Instrumental case has the suffix щтогьэ or -щтокӀэ.

ащто умышI
[ʔaːɕtaw wnəʃʼ]
like that don't do
"don't do like that"
дыуыщто кIалэр макIо
[dəwəɕtaw t͡ʃaːlar mːkʷʼa]
like that over there boy (abs.) he is going
"the boy is going like that (over there)"

-фэдэ[edit]

афэдэ (ʔaːfada) (like that), гьэфэдэ (gʲafada) (like that), уфэдэ (wəfada) (like that), дыуфэдэ (dəwfada)

(like that over there), дымфэдэ (dəmfada) (like this over here), мыфэдэ (məfada) (like this),тэфэдэ

(tafada) (like what?).

гьэфэдэ уатэ сэри сфай
[ɡʲafada waːta sari sfaːj]
like that hammer me too i want
"I want a hammer like that too"

-щфэдэ[edit]

ащфэдэ (ʔaːɕfada) (like him, it), гьэщфэдэ (gʲaɕfada) (like him, it), ущфэдэ (wəɕfada) (like that person),

дыуыщфэдэ (dəwəɕfada) (like that person over there), дымыщфэдэ (dəməɕfada) (like this person over

here), мыщфэдэ (məɕfada) (like this),тэщфэдэ (taɕfada) (like what?).

For Ergative case it has the suffix -щфэдэм

For Absolutive case it has the suffix -щфэдэр

Instrumental case has the suffix -щфэдэгьэ or -щфэдэкӀэ.

ащфэдэу умышI
[ʔaːɕfada wnəʃʼ]
like that/him don't do
"don't do it like him"

-армэ[edit]

армэ (ʔaːrma) (if that), гьармэ (gʲaːrma) (if it's that), уармэ (waːrma) (if that), дыуармэ (dəwaːrma) (if

that over there), дымармэ (dəmaːrma) (if this over here), мармэ (maːrma) (if this).

Plural: ахэрмэ (ʔaxarma) (if those), гьэхэрмэ (gʲaxarma) (if it's those), охэрмэ (waxarma) (if those),

дыохэрмэ (dəwaxarma) (if those over there), дымэхэрмэ (dəmaxarma) (if these over here), мэхэрмэ

(maxarma) (if these).

армэ ушIэрэ узгъэлъэгъущт о
[ʔaːrma wəʃʼata wazʁaɬaʁʷəɕt wa]
if that the thing you are doing I will show you/I gonna make you see it you
"If that's what you doing then i gonna show you"

Adjectives[edit]

The functions of adjectives are distinguished through word order and conjugation.

Qualitative adjectives[edit]

Qualitative adjectives are paired with nouns and always follow them, as in Romance languages. They can be suffixed for comparison and superlativeness.[how?]

  • Пшъашъэ дэх - beautiful girl [girl beautiful]
  • ЦIыф Iуш - wise man [person wise].

Quantitative adjectives[edit]

Adjectives can function as nouns in the quantitative form when suffixed for number with ~хэ. For example:

  • дахэ – beautiful, дахэхэ - beautiful (plural);
  • дэгъу - good, дэгъухэ - good (plural);
  • дэи - bad, дэихэ - bad (in plural form)

The relative adjectives are those that cannot have the comparative degrees. They are posited before the

defined word: ГъукIэ гъогур - railway [iron road], Пхъэ Iанэ - wooden table.

In both events when we change the form and number of structure "none + quality adjective" or "relative

adjectives + none" this leads to changing of the suffix of the last word in structure: Пшъэшъэ дах -

Beautiful girl, Пшъэшъэ дахэхэр - beautiful girls, ЦIыф Iуш - wise person, ЦIыф Iушхэр - wise people,

ГъукIэ гъогур - railway, ГъукIэ гъогухэр - railways.

Qualitative adjectives can have comparative and superlative degrees: The Comparative degree is formed

by auxiliary word нахь / анбхь (more).

Ар ощ нахь лъагэ – he is higher than you, Нахь ины хъугъэ – He became bigger [More big became],

Нахь лIэблан охъун фай - You must be braver.

For superlative degrees the structure зэкIэмэ анахь (more than all...) is used: Ар зэкIэмэ анахь дахэ –

She is the most beautiful, Ар зэкIэмэ анахь лъагэ - It is the highest, ЗэкIэми анахь дэгъу шхынкIэ

ыгъэшхагъ – She feeds him with the tastiest meal, Ар заужмэ анахь лъэщэ – He is the strongest.

Adjective suffixes[edit]

Too much -ашэ (-aːʃa)[edit]

дахэ [daːxa] - pretty, дахашэ [daːxaːʃa] - too much pretty, кӀэхьы [kʲaħə] - long, кӀэхьышэ [kʲaħəːʃa] - too

long, бэ [ba] - much, башэ [baːʃa] - too much.

пхъэу къэпхьыгъэ кӀэхьышэ
[pχaw qapħəʁa kʲaħəːʃa]
wood (adv.) what thing you bring too long
"The wood your bring is too long"
кӀалэм ахъчэ башэ иӀ
[t͡ʃaːlam aːχt͡ʃa baːʃa jəʔ]
the boy (erg.) money/cash too much he have
"The boy have too much money"
сиӀоф къинышэ
[siʔof qinəʃa]
my work too hard
"My work is too hard"

Very much -шъыпкъ (-ʂəpq)[edit]

дахэ [daːxa] - pretty, дэхэшъыпкъ [daːxaʂəpq] - really pretty, кӀэхьы [kʲaħə] - long, кӀэхьышъыпкъ

[kʲaħəʂəpq] - really long, бэ [ba] - much, бэшъыпкъ [baʂəpq] - a lot much/very much/very lot. The word

шъыпкъэ (ʂəpqa) means truth.

пхъэу къэпхьыгъэ кӀэхьышъыпкъ
[pχaw qapħəʁa kʲaħəʂəpq]
wood (adv.) what thing you bring really long
"The wood you brought is really long"
кӀалэм ахъшэ бэшъыпкъ иӀ
[t͡ʃaːlam aːχʃa baʂəpq jəʔ]
the boy (erg.) money/cash very lot of he have
"The boy have very lot of money"
сиӀоф къинышъыпкъ
[siʔof qinəʂəpq]
my work really hard
"My work is really hard"

Numbers[edit]

  • Numbers from zero to ten are specific words
0 зиӀ [ziʔ]
1 зы About this sound [zə] 
2 тӀу About this sound [tʷʼə] 
3 щы About this sound [ɕə] 
4 плӀы About this sound [pɬʼə] 
5 тфы About this sound [tfə] 
6 хы About this sound [xə] 
7 блы About this sound [blə]  or About this sound [bɮə] 
8 и About this sound [jə] 
9 бгъу About this sound [bʁʷə] 
10 пшӀы About this sound [pʃʼə] 
  • Numbers from eleven to nineteen are built with the word for ten, followed by кIу ([kʷʼə]) and the

unit digit:

11 пшӀыкӀуз About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼəz] 
12 пшӀыкӀутIу About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼətʷʼ] 
13 пшӀыкӀущ About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼəɕ] 
14 пшӀыкӀуплI About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼəpɬʼ] 
15 пшӀыкӀутф About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼətf] 
16 пшӀыкӀух About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼəx] 
17 пшӀыкӀубл About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼəbl] 
18 пшӀыкӀуй About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼəj] 
19 пшӀыкӀубгъу About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼəbʁʷ] 
  • The tens follow a vigesimal system from forty up, with the exception of fifty:
20 тӀокӀы [tʷʼat͡ʃə] (20)
21 тӀокӀырэ зырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃəra zəra] (20 and 1)
22 тӀокӀырэ тIурэ [tʷʼat͡ʃəra tʷʼəra] (20 and 2)
23 тӀокӀырэ щырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃəra ɕəra] (20 and 3)
...
30 щэкӀы [ɕat͡ʃə] (30)
31 щэкӀырэ зырэ [ɕat͡ʃə zəra] (30 and 1)
32 щэкӀырэ тIурэ [ɕat͡ʃə tʷʼəra] (30 and 2)
...
40 тӀокӀитIу [tʷʼat͡ʃitʷʼ] (20 × 2)
41 тӀокӀитIурэ зырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃitʷʼəra zəra] (20 × 2 and 1)
42 тӀокӀитIурэ тIурэ [tʷʼat͡ʃitʷʼəra tʷʼəra] (20 × 2 and 2)
...
50 шъэныкъо [ʂanəqʷa] (half-hundred)
51 шъэныкъорэ зырэ [ʂanəqʷara zəra] (half-hundred and 1)
52 шъэныкъорэ тIурэ [ʂanəqʷara tʷʼəra] (half-hundred and 2)
...
60 тӀокӀищ [tʷʼat͡ʃiɕ] (20 × 3)
61 тӀокӀищырэ зырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃiɕəra zəra] (20 × 3 and 1)
62 тӀокӀищырэ тIурэ [tʷʼat͡ʃiɕəra tʷʼəra] (20 × 3 and 2)
...
70 тӀокӀищырэ пшIырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃiɕra pʃʼəra] (20 × 3 and 10)
71 тӀокӀищырэ пшIыкIузырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃiɕra pʃʼəkʷʼəzəra] (20 × 3 and 11)
72 тӀокӀищырэ пшӀыкӀутIурэ [tʷʼat͡ʃiɕra pʃʼəkʷʼətʷʼəra] (20 × 3 and 12)
...
80 тӀокӀиплӀ [tʷʼat͡ʃipɬʼ] (20 × 4)
81 тӀокӀиплӀырэ зырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃipɬʼəra zəra] (20 × 4 and 1)
82 тӀокӀиплӀырэ тIурэ [tʷʼat͡ʃipɬʼəra tʷʼəra] (20 × 4 and 2)
...
90 тӀокӀиплӀырэ пшIырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃipɬʼəra pʃʼəra] (20 × 4 and 10)
91 тӀокӀиплӀырэ пшIыкIузырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃipɬʼəra pʃʼəkʷʼəzəra] (20 × 4 and 11)
91 тӀокӀиплӀырэ пшӀыкӀутIурэ [tʷʼat͡ʃipɬʼəra pʃʼəkʷʼətʷʼəra] (20 × 4 and 12)
  • One hundred is шъэ (ʂa). The hundreds are formed by the hundred word root (шъ (ʂ)) followed by -и-

(-i-) and the multiplier digit root.

100 шъэ (ʂa)
101 шъэрэ зырэ (ʂara zəra) (100 and 1)
110 шъэрэ пшӏырэ (ʂara pʃʼəra) (100 and 10)
200 шъитӀу (ʂitʷʼ) (100 × 2)
201 шъитӀурэ зырэ (ʂitʷʼəra zəra) (200 × 2 and 1)
300 шъищ (ʂiɕ) (100 × 3)
400 шъиплӀ (ʂipɬʼ) (100 × 4)
500 шъитф (ʂitf) (100 × 5)
600 шъих (ʂix) (100 × 6)
700 шъибл (ʂibl) (100 × 7)
800 шъий (ʂij) (100 × 8)
900 шъибгъу (ʂibʁʷ) (100 × 9)
  • One thousand is мин (min). The thousands are formed by the thousand word root (мин (məjn))

followed by -и- (-i-) and the multiplier digit root.

1000 мин (min)
1001 минрэ зырэ (minra zəra) (1000 and 1)
1010 минрэ пшӏырэ (minra pʃʼəra) (1000 and 10)
1100 минрэ шъэрэ (minra ʂara) (1000 and 100)
2000 минитӀу (minitʷʼ) (1000 × 2)
3000 минищ (miniɕ) (1000 × 3)
4000 миниплӀ (minipɬʼ) (1000 × 4)
5000 минитф (minitf) (1000 × 5)
6000 миних (minix) (1000 × 6)
7000 минибл (minibl) (1000 × 7)
8000 миний (minij) (1000 × 8)
9000 минибгъу (minibʁʷ) (1000 × 9)
10000 минипшӏ (minipʃʼ) (1000 × 10)
11000 минипшӀыкӀуз (minipʃʼəkʷʼəz) (1000 × 11)
12000 минипшӀыкӀутIу (minipʃʼəkʷʼətʷʼ) (1000 × 12)
20000 минитӀокӀы (minitʷʼat͡ʃə) (1000 × 20)
100000 минишъэ (miniʂa) (1000 × 100)
200000 минишъитӀу (miniʂitʷʼ) (1000 × 200)

When composed, the hundred word takes the -рэ (-ra) suffix, as well as the ten and the unit if any (e.g.:

шъэрэ зырэ (ʂara zəra) [101], шъэрэ тIурэ (ʂara tʷʼəra) [102], шъэрэ пшӀыкӀузырэ (pʃʼəkʷʼətʷʼəra) [111],

шъитӀурэ щэкӀырэ плIырэ (ʂitʷʼəra ɕat͡ʃəra pɬʼəra) [234]).

  • One thousand is мин (min). The other thousands are formed by concatenating the thousand word with

-и- (-i-) and the multiplier digit root: минитӀу (minitʷʼə) [2,000], минищ (miniɕ) [3,000]…

минищ шъэ (miniɕ ʂa) [3,100], минищ шъитIу (miniɕ ʂitʷʼə) [3,200], миниплӀ (minipɬʼ) [4,000],

миниплӀы шъэ (minipɬʼəra ʂa) [4,100], минишъиплIтIу (miniʂipɬʼətʷʼ) [4,200], минишъиплӀщ

(miniʂipɬʼəɕ) [4,300], минитфы шъэ (minitfə ʂa) [5,100], минишъитфтIу (miniʂitfətʷʼ) [5,200]...

When there is a certain amount of the noun, the noun is followed by -и (-i) and the multiplier digit root.

for example: Зы кӀалэ - One boy (zə t͡ʃaːla), КӀалитӀу - two boys (t͡ʃaːlitʷʼ), КӀалиплӏ -

four boys (t͡ʃaːlipɬʼ), КӀалишъэ - 100 boys (t͡ʃaːliʂa), Зы мафэ - one day (zə maːfa),

МафитIу - two days (maːfitʷʼ), Мафищы (мафищ) - three days (maːfiɕ).

Ordinal numbers[edit]

  • Except апэрэ/япэрэ - first (aːpara/jaːpara) are formed by prefix я- (jaː-) and suffix – нэрэ (- nara). For

example: ятIунэрэ - second (jaːtʷʼənara), ящынэрэ - third (jaːɕənara), яплIынэрэ - fourth (jaːpɬʼənara).

first - япэрэ [jːpara]
second - ятӀунэрэ [jaːtʷʼənara]
third - ящынэрэ [jaːɕənara]
fourth - яплӀынэрэ [jaːpɬʼənara]
firth - ятфынэрэ [jaːtfənara]
sixth - яхынэрэ [jaːxənara]
seventh - яблынэрэ [jaːblənara]
eighth - яинэрэ [jaːjənara]
ninth - ябгъунэрэ [jaːbʁʷənara]
tenth - япшӀынэрэ [jaːpʃʼənara]
eleventh - япшӀыкӏузынэрэ [jaːpʃʼəkʷʼəzənara]
twelfth - япшӀыкӏутӏунэрэ [jaːpʃʼəkʷʼətʷʼənara]
twenty th - ятӏокӏынэрэ [jaːtʷʼat͡ʃənara]
hundredth - яшъэнэрэ [jaːʂanara]

Япэрэ мафэ - First day (jaːpara maːfa), ЯтIонэрэ мафэ - second day (jaːtʷʼənara maːfa), ЯтIонэрэ цуакъо

- second shoe (jaːpara t͡ʃʷaːqʷa), Яхэнэрэ классым щэгъэжьагъу тутын сешъо~I have been smoking

since the sixth class.

Discrete numbers[edit]

  • Are formed by changing the last vowel ~ы (~ə) of number to ~эрэ (~ara):

о плIэрэ къосIогъах - I have told you four times already.

  • Number can also define measure of a share: Numbers "one" and "two" are formed by words псау

(psaw) (whole, whole), ренэ (pena) (whole, whole about length of time), ныкъо (nəqʷa) (the half).

  • Fractional numerals are formed from cardinal numerals with the help of the -(а)нэ /aːna/ morpheme:

щы /ɕə/ "three" - щанэ /ɕaːna/ "third", плӏы /pɬʼə/ "four" - плӏанэ /pɬʼaːna/ "fourth", хы "six" - ханэ

/xaːna/ "sixth" and so on. In a sentence: Чӏыгоу къытатыгъэм изыщанэ картоф хэдгъэтӏысхьа́гъ "On

one third of the allocated land we have planted potatoes", Хатэм изыщанэ помидор хэдгъэтIысхагъ-

third part of vegetable garden we used for the tomatoes, Ахщэ къыратыгъэм ыпӏланэ чыфэ ритыгъ –

The quarter of the money he received, he lent.

half (1÷2) - ныкъо [nəqʷa]
one third (1÷3) - щанэ [ɕaːna]
two thirds (2÷3) - щанитӏу [ɕaːnitʷʼ] (1÷3 × 2)
one fourth (1÷4) - плӀанэ [pɬʼaːna]
two fourths (2÷4) - плӀанитӏу [pɬʼaːnitʷʼ] (1÷4 × 2)
three fourths (3÷4) - плӀанищ [pɬʼaːniɕ] (1÷4 × 3)
one fifth (1÷5) - тфанэ [tfaːna]
one sixth (1÷6) - ханэ [xaːna]
one seventh (1÷7) - бланэ [blaːna]
one eighth (1÷8) - янэ [jaːna]
one ninth (1÷9) - бгъуанэ [bʁʷaːna]
one tenth (1÷10) - пшӀанэ [pʃʼaːna]
one eleventh (1÷11) - пшӀыкӏузанэ [pʃʼəkʷʼəzaːna]
one twelfth (1÷12) - пшӀыкӏутӏуанэ [pʃʼəkʷʼətʷʼaːna]
one twentieth (1÷20) - тӏокӏанэ [tʷʼat͡ʃaːna]
one hundredth (1÷100) - шъанэ [ʂaːna]
  • Separative numerals are formed by repetition of the appropriate cardinal numeral with the help of the

morpheme -ры /-rə/: зырыз /zərəz/ "by one", тӏурытӏу /tʷʼərətʷʼ/ "by twos", щырыщ /ɕərəɕ/ "by threes",

плӏырыплӏ /pɬʼərəplʼ/ "by fours", тфырытф /tfərətf/ "by fives" and so on. In a sentence: Еджакӏохэр

экзаменым тӏурытӏоу чӏахьэщтыгъэх "Pupils entered the examination room by twos".

  • Approximate numerals are formed as a combination of three cardinal numerals where the main

constructive numeral is, usually, the numeral зы "one". for example зыхыбл /zəxəbl/ зы-хы-бл "about six

or seven", зытӏущ /zətʷʼəɕ/ зы-тӏу-щ "about two or three" . In a sentence: Непэ садэжь нэбгырэ зыт1ущ

къы1ухьагъ "About two or three people have approached me today".

Postpositions[edit]

Postposition serve similar functions to prepositions in English, but are placed after the noun.

  • These are the words: ыпэ or ипэ (əpa/jəpa) – before first, дэжь (ди) - to, beside, чIэгъ - under, кIыб –

behind for

Ыпэ узытеплъэрэм машинэ дэгъу - At first you thought the car was good, Ар ыпэ къэчIэжьыгъэп - I

did not remember him at first, Чэтыур анэ чIэгъым чIэс – The cat sits under the table.

  • If the object is a personal pronoun, these words can merge with it and form an independent structure:

Садэжь - To me, beside me (saːdaʑ), Сидэжь - near me (sidaʑ), Тадэжь - To us,beside us (taːdaʑ),

Тидэжь - near us (tidaʑ).

Садэжь укъакIощта непэ? – Can you come to me today?, Тадэжь къакIоба! – Come to us!.

  • Conjunction: ыкIы, ыджы – and, else (ət͡ʃə, əd͡ʒə), бу, шъхьбем - but (bu, ʂħbem), e/йэ - or (ja).

Лъэу ыджы къыпIотэщт? - What else will You say?, Ащ бэрэ лъэхъугъ, ау къыгъотыжьыгъэп – I was

looking for him for a long time, but I did not find, E улIэн, e улIын – Die or be a man! (Adyghe proverb).

  • The Particles affirmative and negative:

ары – yes (arə), хьау – no (ħaːaw).

ЗэхэушыкIа? – Do you understand?; Ары. ЗэхэсэшыкIы - Yes, I understand; Хьау, ЗэхэсэшыкIэп - No, I

don’t understand.

Sentence structure[edit]

  • Adyghe exhibits mostly free word order, though predicate finality is preferred.[why?]

Пчэджэм жъэу сыхьатэблым сэкъэтэджагъ. - I got up at seven o’clock in the early morning.

Сэ тутынэр сешъону чIэсыдзыжьыгъ - I gave up smoking.

Interrogatives[edit]

  • Questions are indicated by the suffix ~a /aː/, which, in verbs ending with /a/, lengthens the end vowel.
  • макӏо /maːkʷʼa/ "he is going" → макӏуа? /maːkʷʼaː/ "is he going?"
  • мэтхагъ /matxaːʁ/ "he wrote" → мэтхагъа? /matxaːʁaː/ "did he wrote?"
  • кӏалэр машхэ /t͡ʃʼaːɮar maːʃxa/ "the boy is eating" → кӏалэр машха? /t͡ʃʼaːɮar maːʃxaː/ "is the boy eating?"
  • шъокӏо /ʃʷakʷʼa/ "you (plural) are going → шъокӏуа? /ʃʷakʷʼaː/ "are you (plural) going?"
  • отхэ /watxa/ "you are writing" → отха? /watxaː/ "are you writing?"
  • машхэх /maːʃxax/ "they are eating" → машхэха? /maːʃxaxaː/ "are they eating?"
кӏалэр къэущыжьыгъа?
кӏалэ-р къэущыжь-агъ-а
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar qawɕəʑəʁaː]
the boy (arg.) did (s)he woke up?
"Did the boy woke up?"
дэгуха мы унэм исыхэр?
дэгу-х-а мы унэ-м ис-ыхэ-р
[daɡʷəxaː wənam jəsəxar]
are they deaf? this house the people that are in
"Are the people that are in this house deaf?"
  • If question is posited to word having Negative Suffix ~п (~p), it is converted to suffix ~ба (~baː)[clarification needed]. for example: пшӏэрэба? – Don’t you know?, Къыоэджэ, зэхэпхырэба? – They call You, don’t you hear

[that]?, укIожьрагъоба? - Don’t you want to go back?, къакIорагъоба - isn't he want to come?,

ушхэрагъоба - don't you want to eat?

  • макӏуа? /maːkʷʼaː/ "is he going?" → макӏоба? /maːkʷʼabaː/ "isn't he going?"
  • ошӏа /waʃʼaː/ "do you know?" → пшӏэрэба? /pʃʼarabaː/ "don't you know?"
  • мэтхагъа /matxaːʁaː/ "did he wrote" → мэтхагъэба? /matxaːʁabaː/ "didn't he wrote?"
  • кӏалэр машха /t͡ʃʼaːɮar maːʃxaː/ "is the boy is eating?" → кӏалэр машхэба? /t͡ʃʼaːɮar maːʃxabaː/ "isn't the

boy eating?"

  • шъокӏуа /ʃʷakʷʼaː/ "are you (plural) going? → шъокӏоба? /ʃʷakʷʼabaː/ "aren't you (plural) going?"
  • сыдаха /sədaːxaː/ "am I look beautiful" → сыдахэба /sədaːxabaː/ "doesn't I look beautiful"
кӏалэр къэущыжьгъэба?
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar qawɕəʑʁabaː]
boy (abs.) isn't he woke up?
"Has not the boy woke up?"
кӏалэр тиунэ къакӏорэба?
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar tiwna qaːkʷarabaː]
boy (abs.) our house isn't he coming?
"Isn't the boy coming to my house?"
кӏалэр тиунэ къакӏоба?
[t͡ʃʼaːɮar tiwna qaːkʷabaː]
boy (abs.) our house he is coming to right?
"The boy is coming to my house right?"
  • If question is posited by auxiliary interrogative words, хэт (who), щыд or лъэу or сыд (what), тыдэ

(where), тары (which), хьэ or щтэ or сыда (why), these word are positioned in the sentence in that place,

where the word is supposed to be positioned, being answer to supplied question:

хэт къэкӏуагъэ?
[xat qakʷʼaːʁa]
who the person that came
"Who came?"
сыд кӏалэм ыцӏэ?
[səd t͡ʃʼaːɮam ət͡sʼa]
what the boy (erg.) his name
"What is the boy's name?"
непэ тыдэ ущыӏэщт?
[najpa təda wɕəʔaɕt]
today where you will be there
"Today where will you be?"

References[edit]


Bibliography[edit]

  • Аркадьев, П. М.; Ландер, Ю. А.; Летучий, А. Б.; Сумбатова, Н. Р.; Тестелец, Я. Г. Введение. Основные

сведения об адыгейском языке в кн.: "Аспекты полисинтетизма: очерки по грамматике

адыгейского языка" под ред.: П. М. Аркадьев, А. Б. Летучий, Н. Р. Сумбатова, Я. Г. Тестелец. Москва:

РГГУ, 2009 (Arkadiev, P. M.; Lander, Yu. A.; Letuchiy, A. B.; Sumbatova, N. R.; Testelets, Ya. G.

Introduction. Basic information about Adyghe language in "Aspects of polysyntheticity: studies on

Adyghe grammar" edited by: P. M. Arkadiev, A. B. Letuchiy, N. R. Sumbatova, Ya. G. Testelets. Moscow,

RGGU, 2009) (in Russian) ISBN 978-5-7281-1075-0

  • Ranko Matasović,A SHORT GRAMMAR OF EAST CIRCASSIAN (KABARDIAN):

[1].

External links[edit]