Aedes japonicus

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Aedes japonicus
CDC 7887 Ochlerotatus japonicus.jpg
Scientific classification
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Ae. japonicus
Binomial name
Aedes japonicus
(Theobald, 1901)

Aedes japonicus, commonly known as the Asian bush mosquito or the Asian rock pool mosquito, was first described by Theobald in 1901 from Tokyo, Japan and has four known subspecies Ae. j. japonicus, Ae. j. shintienensis, Ae. j. yaeyamensis, and Ae. j. amamiensus.[1][2] They are competent arbovirus vectors known to transmit the West Nile virus as well as Japanese and St. Louis encephalitis.[3] They are listed as an invasive species by the Global Invasive Species Database.[4]

Bionomics[edit]

Adults live in forested areas and are day biters, but are apparently reluctant to bite humans.[5] In the laboratory, they feed on chicks and mice but not on reptiles or amphibians.[5] Larvae occur in a wide variety of natural and artificial water retainers such as tree holes and rock holes, usually preferring shaded places and water rich in organic matter. They are found from early spring to early autumn in their native habitat of Central Japan.[5] They overwinter as eggs in cooler regions and larvae in warmer regions.[5]

Description[edit]

Adults have a distinctive bronze-colored, lyre-shaped pattern on the scutum, and larvae have a linear arrangement of branched frontal setae and a strongly spiculated anal saddle.[6]

Distribution[edit]

Ae. japonicus is native to Eastern Asia and can be found in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Japan, and parts of Russia, China and the Korean Peninsula, additionally they have invaded and colonized North and South America as well as Europe.[7][8] It was first recorded in New York and New Jersey in 1998,[9] and has been spotted as far west as Vancouver Island.[10] Its range is expected to eventually include much of North America, Central America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii.[7][2] A distribution model developed for Germany predicted that A. japonicus will continue to expand across Germany even as the climate continues to change.[8] Another model that studied A. japonicus in North America predicted it to continue its invasion into the Southern United States with the possibility of reaching island nations such as Jamaica and Cuba.[7] Both models suggest that the invasion will likely be a rapid affair.[7][8]  

Habitat[edit]

Larval habitats are often established in rock pools near streams as well as container habitats that provide adequate moisture such as buckets, tree holes, and the insides of tires.[11] Their large variety of colonizable habitats has been shown to negatively impact native species through displacement, competition, and disease spreading capabilities.[12] Adult mosquitoes prefer temperate climates with mortality rates rising around 28°C (82.5°F) and can survive cold conditions by entering diapause in the egg stage.[8][13]

Life Cycle[edit]

A. japonicus are multivoltine and oviposit 2 – 3 times per gonotrophic cycle, producing a mean of 114 ± 51 eggs per female.[14] The eggs are resistant to desiccation and if temperatures are low then the eggs will enter the prediapause stage where its responsive to environmental based cues that cause it to enter diapause at the pharate first instar.[13] Their larvae are active as soon as early spring in snowy spring waters, notably the only mosquito to do so and is likely key to their invasive success.[2]

Medical Importance[edit]

Because A. japonicus have the ability to transfer arboviruses they have quickly become of medical import and a public health concern.[3][15] They are capable of experimental transmission of West Nile virus and is considered to be an active vector of West Nile virus disease with its associated syndromes.[5] Its interactions with other known disease vectors give it the potential to influence the ecology of other vector-borne diseases.[2] Research has shown that Japanese Encephalitis Virus and West Nile virus have different infection rates depending on genetic background of the mosquito.[15] A possible way to reduce both the invasiveness and health concern that they pose is to implement a biocontrol through parasitic water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidae).[16] The mites have been shown to reduce fecundity and thus may represent a way to reduce mosquito populations.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ F. V. Theobald. 1901. A Monograph of the Culicidae or Mosquitoes. London: British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 1: 385; http://www.mosquitocatalog.org/files/pdfs/131700-32.PDF Archived 2016-03-25 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ a b c d Michael G. Kaufman and Dina M. Fonseca. 2014. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae). Annu. Rev. Entomol., 59: 31–49; http://vectorbio.rutgers.edu/publications/Kaufman2014InvasionBiologyjaponicus.pdf.
  3. ^ a b Bock, F., Kuch, U., Pfenninger, M., and Muller, R. (2015). "Standardized Laboratory Feeding of Larval Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)". J. Insect Sci. 15: 144–150. doi:10.1093/jisesa/iev126. PMC 4626676. PMID 26452522.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ "GISD". www.iucngisd.org. Retrieved 2019-12-02.
  5. ^ a b c d e Thomas V. Gaffigan, Richard C. Wilkerson, James E. Pecor, Judith A. Stoffer and Thomas Anderson: "Aedes (Fin.) japonicus" in Systematic Catalog of Culicidae, Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit, http://www.wrbu.org/SpeciesPages_non-ANO/non-ANO_A-hab/AEjap_hab.html Archived 2016-03-21 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 16 Mar 2016.
  6. ^ Kaufman, Michael G.; Fonseca, Dina M. (2014). "Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)". Annual Review of Entomology. 59: 31–49. doi:10.1146/annurev-ento-011613-162012. ISSN 0066-4170. PMC 4106299. PMID 24397520.
  7. ^ a b c d Peach, Daniel A.H.; Almond, Max; Pol, Joshua C. (2019). "Modeled distributions of Aedes japonicus japonicus and Aedes togoi (Diptera: Culicidae) in the United States, Canada, and northern Latin America". Journal of Vector Ecology. 44 (1): 119–129. doi:10.1111/jvec.12336. ISSN 1081-1710. PMID 31124225.
  8. ^ a b c d Wieser, A., Reuss, F., Niamir, A., Muller, R., O'Hara, R.B., and Pfennigen, M. (2019). "Modelling Seasonal Dynamics, Population, Stability, and Pest Control in Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)". Parasite Vectors. 12 (1): 142–153. doi:10.1186/s13071-019-3366-2. PMC 6434845. PMID 30909930.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ E. L. Peyton, Scott R. Campbell, Thomas M. Candeletti, Michael Romanowski and Wayne J. Crans. 1999. Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald), A New Introduction into the United States. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 15(2):238-241; https://archive.org/stream/cbarchive_103746_aedesfinlayajaponicusjaponicus1999/JAMCA_V15_N2_P238-241_djvu.txt
  10. ^ Peach, Daniel A. H. (2018). "An updated list of the mosquitoes of British Columbia with distribution notes". Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia. 115: 123–125.
  11. ^ Kaufman, M.G., Stanuszek, W.W., Brouhard, E.A., Knepper, R.G., and Walker, E.D. (2012). "Establishment of Aedes japonicus japonicus and Its Colonization of Container Habitats in Michigan". J. Med. Entomol. 49 (6): 1307–1317. doi:10.1603/ME12061. PMC 4106292. PMID 23270158.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ Armistead, J.S., Nishimura, N., Arias, J.R., and Lounibos, L.P. (2012). "Community Ecology of Container Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Virginia Following Invasion by Aedes japonicus". J. Med. Entomol. 49 (6): 1318–1327. doi:10.1603/ME11261. PMC 3539167. PMID 23270159.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ a b Bova, J., Soghigian, J., and Paulson, S. (2019). "The Prediapause Stage of Aedes japonicus japonicus and the Evolution of Embryonic Diapause in Aedini". Insects. 10 (8): 222–230. doi:10.3390/insects10080222. PMC 6723955. PMID 31349599.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ Oliver, Joanne; Howard, John J. (2005). "Fecundity of Naturally Blood-Fed Ochlerotatus japonicus". J. Med. Entomol. 42 (3): 254–259. doi:10.1093/jmedent/42.3.254. PMID 15962772.
  15. ^ a b Huber, K., Jansen, S., Leggewie, M., Badusche, M., Schmidt-Chanasit, J., Becker, N., Tannich, E., and Becker, S.C. (2014). "Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Germany Have Vector Competence for Japan Encephalitis Virus but are Refractory to Infection with West Nile Virus". Parasite Res. 113 (9): 3195–3199. doi:10.1007/s00436-014-3983-9. PMID 24948103.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ a b Manges, A.B., Simmons, T.W., and Hutchinson, M.L. (2018). "First Record of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Second Record of Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) Parasitized by Water Mites (Acari: Hydrachnidiae) in North America". J. Med. Entomol. 55 (6): 1617–1621. doi:10.1093/jme/tjy105. PMID 30020480.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)