Aegukga

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Aegukga
English: Patriotic Song
애국가
愛國歌
South Korean national anthem.gif

National anthem of  South Korea
LyricsUnknown (probably Yun Chi-ho or Ahn Changho), 1896[1]
MusicAhn Eak-tai, 1936 (arranged 2018)[2]
AdoptedAugust 1948; 72 years ago (1948-08)
Audio sample
"Aegukga" (instrumental)
Aegukga
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationAegukga
McCune–ReischauerAegukka

"Aegukga" (Korean: 애국가, Hanja: 愛國歌, pronounced [ɛːɡuk͈ːa]; lit.'"Patriotic Song"'), often translated as "The Patriotic Song", is the national anthem of Republic of Korea. It was adopted in 1948, the year the country was founded. Its music was composed in the 1930s and arranged most recently in 2018; its lyrics date back to the 1890s. The lyrics of "Aegukga" were originally set to the music of the Scottish song "Auld Lang Syne" before Ahn Eak-tai composed a unique melody specifically for it in 1936. Before the founding of South Korea, the song's lyrics, set to the music of "Auld Lang Syne", was sung, as well as during Korea under Japanese rule by dissidents. The version set to the melody composed by Ahn Eak-tai was adopted as the national anthem of the Korean exile government, which existed during Korea's occupation by Japan from the early 1910s to the mid-1940s.

"Aegukga" has four verses, but on most occasions only the first one, followed by the chorus, is sung when performed publicly at events such as baseball games and football matches.

Etymology[edit]

Aegukga literally means 'Patriotic song'.The Encyclopedia of Korean Culture defines "Aegukga" as "the song to wake up the mind to love the country". "Aegukga" in itself is differentiated from a national anthem. While a national anthem or gukga (lit.'national song') is an official symbol of the state, aegukga refers to any song, official or unofficial, that contains patriotic fervor towards its country, such as Hungary's "Szózat" or the U.S. "The Stars and Stripes Forever". However, the nationally designated "Aegukga" plays the role of symbolizing the country.[3][4] In general shorthand, the term aegukga refers to the national anthem of South Korea.[5] Nevertheless, there are still more than ten other extant "Aegukgas" in South Korea.[3]

History[edit]

Choral rendition of the South Korean national anthem featuring all verses
"Auld Lang Syne", which the words were originally set to.
"Aegukga" sung in the early 1940s
The South Korean national anthem performed by a U.S. military band in 2011, during an official South Korean state visit to the U.S.

Origins[edit]

In the 1890s, the previously established Joseon dynasty began to contact other countries for the first time, including the United States, United Kingdom, and the Russian Empire. The meeting with foreign countries gave rise to patriotism, which then created several "Aegugkas". For instance, works in 1896 includes "Aegukga" created by Na Pil-gun, Han Myung-one, and Lee Yong-mu.[3] On November 21, 1896, scholars from the Pai Chai school sang a version of "Aegukga" at the Independence Gate cornerstone-laying ceremony. However, this song differs from the song sung by the Military Academy in 1898 and from the songs sung on the birthday of the former emperor.[3]

However, a book from the Korean Empire era in 1900 has a record of a national anthem. It was called the "Korean Empire Aegukga", or literally the "Anthem of the Greater Korean Empire". That composition is commonly believed to have been written by Franz Eckert,[3][6] who also arranged the Japanese national anthem. Some people contend that records documenting Franz Eckert's actions show that it was physically impossible for him to write the anthem. It is guessed that the song sung by the Paejae school was the Scottish song "Auld Lang Syne" and that the song sung by the Military Academy is a version of the British song "God Save the Queen".[3]

The song attributed to Eckert was established by the military in 1902. A version of Eckert's song with different lyrics began to be officially implemented in the schools in 1904. All the schools were forced to sing the version of the song. The policy is thought of as a by-product of the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 and the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1907.[3]

There are many theories concerning the writer of the currently official lyrics of "Aegukga". It is most commonly believed that the lyrics were written for the cornerstone-laying ceremony of the Independence Gate in Seoul in 1896 by Yun Chi-ho, a Korean politician.[3][7] Later, Kim Gu during the Korean government-in-exile era, said to his comrades: "In the March 1st Movement, we had the Taegeukgi and the Aegukga. Why should who wrote it be an issue?" He wrote: "The lyrics and the anthem's spirit are more important than the nature of the lyricist."[8] Other theories name the lyricist as An Chang-ho, Choi Byung-hun, Kim In-sik, Min Yeong-hwan, or some combination of the aforementioned writers. A committee was established in 1955 by the government to determine authorship of the lyrics, on the request of the United States, but it concluded that there was not enough evidence to favour anyone.[9]

Initially, "Aegukga" was sung to the tune of the Scottish folk song "Auld Lang Syne", introduced to Korea by western missionaries. The Provisional Korean Government (1919–1945) in Shanghai, China, adopted it as their national anthem. At a ceremony celebrating the founding of South Korea on 15 August 1948, the Scottish tune was finally replaced by the Finale of "Korea Fantasia", which Ahn Eak-tai had composed in 1936, though its usage with it had been done unofficially for a few years before then.[10] The new "Aegukga" was later adopted by the Presidential Decree of 1948 by the then South Korean President Syngman Rhee.

During official ceremonies until 1987, "Aegukga" was preceded by four ruffles and flourishes, similar to the Taiwanese practice; today the anthem is played following the playing of the presidential honours music.[11]

Copyright[edit]

Since the composer Ahn Eak-tai died in 1965, the copyright for the music was to not expire until at least 2036. Two South Korean professional football clubs were sued by a copyright holders' group for playing this song in December 2003.[12] However, on March 16, 2005, the composer's widow—Lolita Ahn—and her family relinquished all rights to "Aegukga" to the South Korean government.[13] "Aegukga" has since become a public domain song.[14]

Criticism[edit]

The South Korean national anthem's lyrics have been criticised by professor of international studies Brian Reynolds Myers as being too focused on ethnic nationalism instead of civic republicanism.[15][16] Myers believes that it fosters ethnic nationalist affinity towards a "Korean race" rather than patriotism towards the South Korean state itself.[15] Myers claims that a side effect of this is increased sympathy among South Koreans for the North Korean regime under the guise of pan-ethnic nationalism, which could possibly endanger South Korea's national security in the face of a North Korean military threat.[15][16] There is no proof of this though, and this criticism is not shared by South Koreans themselves.

Lyrics[edit]

Hangul (official) Hangul and Hanja Revised Romanization IPA transcription Literal English translation Poetic English translation[17]

1절:
동해 물과 백두산이 마르고 닳도록,
하느님이 보우하사 우리나라 만세.

후렴:
무궁화 삼천리 화려 강산,
대한 사람, 대한으로 길이 보전하세.

1절:
東海물과 白頭山이 마르고 닳도록,
하느님이 保佑하사 우리나라 萬歲.

후렴:
無窮花 三千里 華麗 江山,
大韓 사람, 大韓으로 길이 保全하세.

1-jeol:
Donghae mulgwa Baekdusani mareugo daltorok
Haneunimi bouhasa urinara manse.

Huryeom:
Mugunghwa samcheolli hwaryeo gangsan
Daehan saram, daehaneuro giri bojeonhase.

[1 t͡ɕʌ̹ɭ]
[to̞ŋɦe̞mulgwa̠ pe̞k̚t͈usʰa̠ɲi ma̠ɾɯgo̞ ta̠ltʰo̞ɾo̞k̚]
[ha̠nɯɲimi po̞uɦa̠sʰa̠ uɾina̠ɾa̠ ma̠nsʰe̞ ǁ]

[ɸʷuɾjʌ̹m]
[muɡuŋβwa̠ sʰa̠mt͡ɕʰʌ̹ʎʎi ɸwa̠ɾjʌ̹ ka̠ŋsʰa̠n]
[tɛ̝ɦa̠n sʰa̠ɾa̠m ǀ te̞ɦa̠nɯɾo̞ kiɾi po̞d͡ʑʌ̹nɦa̠sʰe̞ ǁ]

1st verse
Until that day when Mt. Baekdu is worn away and the East Sea's[a] waters run dry,
May God protect and preserve our country.

Refrain:
Roses of Sharon and three thousand Ri full of splendid mountains and rivers;
Great Koreans, to the Great Korean way, always stay true.

1st verse
Until the East Sea's waves are dry, Mt. Baekdu worn away,
God watch o'er our land forever, our Korea manse.

Refrain:
Rose of Sharon, thousand miles of range and river land;
Guarded by her people, ever may Korea stand.

2절:
남산 위에 저 소나무 철갑을 두른 듯
바람서리 불변함은 우리 기상일세.

후렴

2절:
南山 위에 저 소나무 鐵甲을 두른 듯
바람서리 不變함은 우리 氣像일세.

후렴

2-jeol:
Namsan wie jeo sonamu cheolgabeul dureun deut
Baram seori bulbyeonhameun uri gisang-ilse.

Huryeom

[2 t͡ɕʌ̹ɭ]
[na̠msʰa̠n (ɥ)ie̞ t͡ɕʌ̹ sʰo̞na̠mu t͡ɕʰʌ̹lga̠bɯl tuɾɯn tɯt̚]
[pa̠ɾa̠m sʰʌ̹ɾi pulbjʌ̹nɦa̠mɯn uɾi kisʰa̠ŋils͈e̞ ǁ]

[ɸʷuɾjʌ̹m]


2nd verse
As the pine atop Namsan Peak stands firm, unchanged through wind and frost,

as if wrapped in armour, so shall our resilient spirit.

Refrain

2nd verse
Like that Mt. Namsan armoured pine, standing on duty still,

wind or frost, unchanging ever, be our resolute will.

Refrain

3절:
가을 하늘 공활한데 높고 구름 없이
밝은 달은 우리 가슴 일편단심일세.

후렴

3절:
가을 하늘 空豁한데 높고 구름 없이
밝은 달은 우리 가슴 一片丹心일세.

후렴

3-jeol:
Ga-eul haneul gonghwalhande nopgo gureum eopsi
Balgeun dareun uri gaseum ilpyeondansimilse.

Huryeom

[3 t͡ɕʌ̹ɭ]
[ka̠ɯɭ ha̠nɯɭ ko̞ŋβwa̠ɾɦa̠nde̞ no̞p̚k͈o̞ kuɾɯm ʌ̹p̚ɕ͈i]
[pa̠lgɯn ta̠ɾɯn uɾi ka̠sʰɯm ilpʰjʌ̹nda̠nɕʰimils͈e̞ ǁ]

[ɸʷuɾjʌ̹m]

3rd verse
The autumn skies are void and vast, high and cloudless;

the bright moon is like our heart, undivided and true.

Refrain

3rd verse
In autumn's, arching evening sky, crystal and cloudless blue;

be the radiant moon our spirit, steadfast, single and true.

Refrain

4절:
이 기상과 이 맘으로 충성을 다하여
괴로우나 즐거우나 나라 사랑하세.

후렴

4절:
이 氣像과 이 맘으로 忠誠을 다하여
괴로우나 즐거우나 나라 사랑하세.

후렴

4-jeol:
I gisanggwa i mameuro chungseong-eul dahayeo
Goerouna jeulgeouna nara saranghase.

Huryeom

[4 t͡ɕʌ̹ɭ]
[i kisʰa̠ŋgwa̠ i ma̠mɯɾo̞ t͡ɕʰuŋsʰʌ̹ŋɯl ta̠ɦa̠jʌ̹]
[kø̞ɾo̞una̠ t͡ɕɯlgʌ̹una̠ na̠ɾa̠ sʰa̠ɾa̠ŋɦa̠sʰe̞ ǁ]

[ɸʷuɾjʌ̹m][18]

4th verse
With this spirit and this mind, let us give all loyalty,

in suffering or joy, to love our nation.

Refrain

4th verse
With such a will, such a spirit, loyalty, heart and hand,

Let us love, come grief, come gladness, this our beloved land.

Refrain

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ South Korea, and the Korean language in general, refers to the Sea of Japan as East Sea

References[edit]

  1. ^ (CHEONGWADAE), 청와대. "대한민국 청와대". 대한민국 청와대. Archived from the original on 2015-06-10.
  2. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F6zGHbK-BcY
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "애국가". Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
  4. ^ "애국가[愛國歌]". Doosan Coroporation. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
  5. ^ "애국-가愛國歌". NAVER Corp. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
  6. ^ "대한제국애국가". NAVER Corp. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
  7. ^ "South Korea – Aegukga". NationalAnthems.me. Archived from the original on 2012-04-24. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
  8. ^ 팽귄기자. "대학토론 배틀 – 좋은 투자의 조건 -". demo-press.optian.co.kr.
  9. ^ "안익태가 애국가를 처음 만들었다?". NAVER Corp. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  10. ^ TheKhanate (11 June 2016). "National anthem of South Korea(first recording 1942)(alternative version):"애국가"(Aegukga)" – via YouTube.
  11. ^ 강민구 (10 February 2018). "1984년 국군의날기념식 (건군36주년)" – via YouTube.
  12. ^ "애국가 틀때도 저작권료 내야돼?". The Hankyoreh. Retrieved October 11, 2013.
  13. ^ "애국가 작곡가 안익태 48주기 추모식". News1 Korea. Retrieved October 11, 2013.
  14. ^ "Republic of Korea - National Anthem". Internet Archive. 2007. Retrieved June 24, 2019.
  15. ^ a b c Myers, Brian Reynolds (22 September 2011). "North Korea's state-loyalty advantage". Free Online Library. Archived from the original on 20 May 2018. The national anthem conveys no republican ideals at all, referring only to the ancient race and homeland.
  16. ^ a b Myers, Brian Reynolds (20 December 2017). "North Korea's Unification Drive". [P]eople here [in South Korea] do not identify strongly with their state. No public holiday celebrates it, neither the flag nor the coat of arms nor the anthem conveys republican or non-ethnic values, no statues of presidents stand in major cities. Few people can even tell you the year in which the state was founded. When the average man sees the flag, he feels fraternity with Koreans around the world.
  17. ^ http://15cwd.pa.go.kr/english/children/country/anthem.php
  18. ^ Based on Wiktionary's Korean pronunciation.

External links[edit]