Aegukka

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
애국가
English: The Patriotic Song
Aegukka
Anthem of North Korea sheet music.svg
Sheet music atop North Korean state emblem

National anthem of  North Korea
Also known as(English: Song of a Devotion to a Country)
LyricsPak Se-yong, 1946[1]
MusicKim Won-gyun, 1945[1]
Adopted1947
Preceded by"Kimigayo"
Audio sample
"Aegukka" (instrumental)
Aegukka
Chosŏn'gŭl
Hancha
Revised RomanizationAegukga
McCune–ReischauerAegukka

"Aegukka" (Chosŏn'gŭl: 애국가, lit. "Patriotism Song") officially translated as the "Patriotic Song"[2] is the national anthem of North Korea. It was composed in 1945 as a patriotic song celebrating independence from Imperial Japanese occupation and was adopted as the state anthem in 1947.

Etymology[edit]

"Aegukka" is a Romanized transliteration of "The Patriotic Song"; the song is also known by its incipit Ach'imŭn pinnara or "Let Morning Shine"[3][1] or alternatively as the "Song of a Devotion to a Country".

The Encyclopedia of Korean Culture defines "Aegukka" as "the song to wake up the mind to love the country". "Aegukka" in itself is differentiated from a national anthem. While a national anthem or gukka is an official symbol of the state, aegukka refers to any song, official or unofficial, that contains patriotic fervor towards its country, such as Hungary's "Szózat" or the U.S. "The Stars and Stripes Forever". However, the nationally designated "Aegukka" plays the role of symbolizing the country.[4][5] In general shorthand, the term aegukka refers to the national anthem of North Korea.[6][4]

History[edit]

In the 1890s, the previously established Joseon dynasty began to contact other countries for the first time, including the United States, United Kingdom, and Russia. The meeting with foreign countries gave rise to patriotism, which then created several "Aegukkas". For instance, works in 1896 includes "Aeguka" created by Na Pil-gun, Han Myung-one, and Lee Yong-mu.[4] On November 21, 1896, scholars from the Pai Chai school sang a version of "Aegukga" in the independence door ceremony. However, this song differs from the song sung by the Military Academy in 1898 and from the songs sung on the birthday of the former emperor.[4]

However, a book from the Korean Empire in 1900 has a record of a national anthem. It was called the "Korean Empire Aegukga", or literally the "Anthem of the Greater Korean Empire". The anthem is commonly believed to be written by Franz Eckert.[4][7] Some people contend that records documenting Franz Eckert's actions show that it was physically impossible for him to write the anthem. It is guessed that the song sung by the Paejae school was the Scottish song "Auld Lang Syne" and that the song sung by the Military Academy is a version of the UK's national anthem, "God Save the Queen".[4]

The song attributed to Eckert was established by the military in 1902. A version of Eckert's song with different lyrics began to be officially implemented in the schools in 1904. All the schools were forced to sing the version of the song. The policy is thought of as a by-product of the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 and the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1907.[4]

The Korean exile government (1919–1945) in Shanghai, China adopted as their national anthem "Aegukga" (which has the same name with a different Romanization), to the tune of "Auld Lang Syne". After World War II, South Korea kept the words, put to a new tune (changed from "Auld Lang Syne"), while North Korea adopted this newly written piece in 1947.[3] The words were written by Pak Se-yong and the music was composed by Kim Won-gyun.[1]

In the early 1980s, Kim Jong-il sought to reduce the song's importance to the benefit of "Song of General Kim Il-sung".[8]

On official occasions, when only the first verse is performed, it is customary to repeat the last four bars. However, if both verses are performed, it is the last four bars of the second verse that are repeated instead.[9][10]

"Song of General Kim Il-sung" and "Song of General Kim Jong-il" have since taken the place of de facto national anthems domestically, and "Aegukka" is reserved for representing North Korea internationally: when foreign dignitaries visit the country or North Korean athletes compete at international sporting competitions.[11] Compared to other nations, the North Korean national anthem is not often performed inside the country and thus many North Koreans do not know the lyrics.[11]

Lyrics[edit]

Chosŏn'gŭl
McCune-Reischauer
IPA transcription
Literal translation
Poetic translation

1절
아침은 빛나라 이 강산
은금에 자원도 가득한
삼천리 아름다운 내 조국
반만년 오랜 력사에
𝄆 찬란한 문화로 자라난
슬기론 인민의 이 영광
몸과 맘 다 바쳐 이 조선
길이 받드세 𝄇[a]

2절
백두산 기상을 다 안고
근로의 정신은 깃들어
진리로 뭉쳐진 억센 뜻
온 세계 앞서 나가리
𝄆 솟는 힘 노도도 내밀어
인민의 뜻으로 선 나라
한없이 부강하는 이 조선
길이 빛내세 𝄇[b][12]

1 chŏl
Ach'imŭn pinnara i kangsan
Ŭn'gŭme chawŏndo kadŭkhan
Samch'ŏlli arŭmdaun nae choguk
Panmannyŏn oraen ryŏksaë
𝄆 Ch'allanhan munhwaro charanan
Sŭlgiron inminŭi i yŏnggwang
Momgwa mam ta pach'yŏ i Chosŏn
Kiri pattŭse 𝄇[c]

2 chŏl
Paektusan kisangŭl ta anko
Kŭlloŭi chŏngsinŭn kittŭrŏ
Chilliro mungch'yŏjin ŏksen ttŭt
On segye apsŏ nagari
𝄆 Sonnŭn him nododo naemirŏ
Inminŭi ttŭsŭro sŏn nara
Hanŏpsi puganghanŭn i Chosŏn
Kiri pinnaese 𝄇[d]

[ha̠na̠ t͡ɕʌ̹ɭ]
[a̠t͡ɕʰimɯn pinna̠ɾa̠ i ka̠ŋsʰa̠n]
[ɯngɯme̞ t͡ɕa̠wʌ̹ndo̞ ka̠dɯkʰa̠n]
[sʰa̠mt͡ɕʰʌ̹ɭʎi a̠ɾɯmda̠un nɛ̝ t͡ɕo̞guk̚]
[pa̠nma̠nɲjʌ̹n o̞ɾɛ̝n ɾjʌ̹ks͈a̠e̞]
𝄆 [t͡ɕʰa̠ɭɭa̠nɦa̠n munβwa̠ɾo̞ t͡ɕa̠ɾa̠na̠n]
[sʰɯɭgiɾo̞n inminɰi i jʌ̹ŋgwa̠ŋ]
[mo̞mgwa̠ ma̠m ta̠ pa̠t͡ɕʰjʌ̹ i t͡ɕo̞sʰʌ̹n]
[kiɾi pa̠t̚t͈ɯsʰe̞] 𝄆[e]

[tuɭ t͡ɕʌ̹ɭ]
[pɛ̝k̚t͈usʰa̠n kisʰa̠ŋɯɭ ta̠ a̠nko̞]
[kɯɭɭo̞ɰi t͡ɕʌ̹ŋɕinɯn kit̚t͈ɯɾo̞]
[t͡ɕiɭʎiɾo̞ muŋt͡ɕʰjʌ̹d͡ʑin ʌ̹ks͈e̞n t͈ɯt̚]
[o̞n sʰe̞ɡje̞ a̠ps͈ʌ̹ na̠ga̠ɾi]
𝄆 [sʰo̞nnɯn çim no̞do̞do̞ nɛ̝miɾʌ̹]
[inminɰi t͈ɯsʰɯɾo̞ so̞n na̠ɾa̠]
[ha̠nʌ̹p̚ɕ͈i puga̠ŋɦa̠nɯn i t͡ɕo̞sʰʌ̹n]
[kiɾi pinnɛ̝sʰe̞] 𝄆[f][13]

I
May the morning shine on the rivers and mountains of this land,
Packed with the wealth of silver and gold.
My beautiful homeland of three thousand Ri.[g]
With a long history of five millennia.
𝄆 Brought up in a brilliant culture
The glory of a wise people
We devote our bodies and minds
To supporting this Korea forever. 𝄇[h]

II
Embracing the atmosphere of Mount Paektu,
Nest for the spirit of labour,
The firm will, allied with the truth,
Will set forth before the whole world.
𝄆 The nation, created by the will of the People,
Facing the furious waves with thunderous force.
Let's glorify this Korea forever,
Infinitely rich and strong. 𝄇[i]

I
Shine bright, you dawn, on this land so fair;
So rich in silver and in gold you are.
The country of three thousand Ri;
Five thousand years your history.
𝄆 Rich in cultural heritage,
Our people ever were renowned and sage
And as with heart and soul we strive –
Korea shall forever thrive! 𝄇[j]


See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Only when the first verse alone is performed.
  2. ^ Only when both verses are performed.
  3. ^ Only when the first verse alone is performed.
  4. ^ Only when both verses are performed.
  5. ^ Only when the first verse alone is performed.
  6. ^ Only when both verses are performed.
  7. ^ A ri is a Korean unit of measurement, equivalent to approximately 392.72 m (1,288.5 ft).
  8. ^ Only when the first verse alone is performed.
  9. ^ Only when both verses are performed.
  10. ^ Only when the first verse alone is performed.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Hoare, James E. (2012-07-13). Historical Dictionary of Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Scarecrow Press. p. 273. ISBN 9780810879874. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  2. ^ "National Anthem of the DPRK". DPRK Today. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  3. ^ a b Agency, Central Intelligence (2015-01-01). "KOREA, NORTH". The World Factbook. Masterlab. ISBN 9788379912131.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "애국가". Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
  5. ^ "애국가[愛國歌]". Doosan Coroporation. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
  6. ^ "애국-가愛國歌". NAVER Corp. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
  7. ^ "대한제국애국가". NAVER Corp. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
  8. ^ Eddie Burdick (May 26, 2010). Three Days in the Hermit Kingdom: An American Visits North Korea. McFarland. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-7864-5653-6. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
  9. ^ BlueMarbleNations (27 October 2011). "North Korean National Anthem - "Aegukka" (KO/EN)" – via YouTube.
  10. ^ Military Parade Music (4 September 2015). "Military Music - North Korean National Anthem - "Aegukka"" – via YouTube.
  11. ^ a b Lankov, Andrei (April 24, 2007). North of the DMZ: Essays on Daily Life in North Korea. McFarland. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-7864-5141-8. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
  12. ^ "National Anthems & Patriotic Songs "North Korean National Anthem - Aegukka (애국가)" lyrics". Lyrics-on.
  13. ^ Based on Wiktionary's Korean pronunciation.

External links[edit]