The gens Aemilia, originally written Aimilia, was one of the greatest patrician families at Rome. The gens was of great antiquity, and claimed descent from Numa Pompilius, the second King of Rome. Its members held the highest offices of the state, from the early decades of the Republic to imperial times. The Aemilii were almost certainly one of the gentes maiores, the most important of the patrician families. Their name was associated with two major roads (the Via Aemilia and the Via Aemilia Scauri), an administrative region of Italy, and the Basilica Aemilia at Rome.
Several stories were told of the foundation of the Aemilii, of which the most familiar was that their ancestor, Mamercus, was the son of Numa Pompilius. In the late Republic, several other gentes claimed descent from Numa, including the Pompilii, Pomponii, Calpurnii, and Pinarii. A variation of this account stated that Mamercus was the son of Pythagoras, who was sometimes said to have taught Numa. However, as Livy observed, this was not possible, as Pythagoras was not born until more than a century after Numa's death, and was still living in the early days of the Republic.
This Mamercus is said to have received the name of Aemilius because of the persuasiveness of his language (δι᾽ αἱμυλίαν λόγου), although such a derivation is certainly false etymology. A more likely derivation is from aemulus, "a rival". According to a different legend, the Aemilii were descended from Aemylos, a son of Ascanius, four hundred years before the time of Numa Pompilius. Still another version relates that the gens was descended from Amulius, the wicked uncle of Romulus and Remus, who deposed his brother Numitor to become king of Alba Longa.
In the late Republic, a number of minor families claimed descent from the figures of Rome's legendary past, including through otherwise unknown sons of Numa. Modern historians dismiss these as late inventions, but the claim of the Aemilii was much older, and there was no corresponding need to demonstrate the antiquity of a gens that was already prominent at the beginning of the Republic. In any case, the Aemilii, like Numa, were almost certainly of Sabine origin. The praenomen Mamercus is derived from Mamers, a god worshipped by the Sabelli of central and southern Italy, and usually regarded as the Sabellic form of Mars. At Rome, this name, and its diminutive, Mamercinus, were known primarily as cognomina of the Aemilii and the Pinarii, although the Aemilii continued to use it as a praenomen. A surname of the later Aemilii, Regillus, seems to be derived from the Sabine town of Regillum, better known as the ancestral home of the Claudian gens, and perhaps alludes to the Sabine origin of the Aemilii.
The Aemilii regularly used the praenomina Lucius, Manius, Marcus, and Quintus, and occasionally Mamercus. The Aemilii Mamercini also used Tiberius and Gaius, while the Aemilii Lepidi, who had a particular fondness for old and unusual names, used Paullus, presumably with reference to the family of the Aemilii Paulli, which had died out nearly a century earlier. An obscure family of uncertain date seems to have used Caeso. The daughters of the Aemilii are known to have used the numerical praenomina Prima, Secunda, and Tertia, although these were frequently treated as cognomina, and placed at the end of the name.
Branches and cognomina
The oldest stirps of the Aemilii bore the surname Mamercus, together with its diminutive, Mamercinus; these appear somewhat interchangeably in early generations. This family flourished from the earliest period to the time of the Samnite Wars. Several other important families, with the surnames Papus, Barbula, Paullus, and Lepidus, date from this period, and were probably descended from the Mamercini. The most illustrious of the family was undoubtedly Mamercus Aemilius Mamercinus, three times dictator in the second half of the fifth century BC.
The Aemilii Papi occur in history for about a century and a half, from the time of the Samnite Wars down to the early second century BC. Their surname, Papus, like Mamercus, appears to be of Oscan origin. The name Aemilius Papus occurs again in the time of the emperor Hadrian, but properly speaking these appear to have belonged to the Messia gens, and probably claimed descent from the more illustrious Aemilii through a female line.
Barbula, or "little beard", occurs as the surname of one branch of the Aemilii, which appears in history for about a century beginning in the time of the Samnite Wars, and accounting for several consulships.
Paullus, occasionally found as Paulus, was an old praenomen, meaning "little". As a praenomen, its masculine form had fallen into disuse at Rome, although the feminine form, Paulla, in various orthographies,[i] was very common. As a surname, Paullus appeared in many families down to the latest period of the Empire, but none were more famous than the Aemilii Paulli. This family was descended from Marcus Aemilius Paullus, consul in 302 BC, and vanished with the death of Lucius Aemilius Paullus, the conqueror of Macedonia, in 160 BC. His sons, though grown, were adopted into the families of the Fabii Maximi and the Cornelii Scipiones. The Aemilii Lepidi revived the name toward the end of the Republic, when it was fashionable for younger branches of aristocratic families to revive the surnames of older, more illustrious stirpes.
The cognomen Lepidus belongs to a class of surnames derived from the habits of the habits of the bearer, and evidently referred to someone with a pleasant demeanor. The Aemilii Lepidi appear only a generation after the Aemilii Paulli, beginning with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, consul in 285 BC, and produced many illustrious statesmen down to the first century AD. In the final decades of the Republic, they revived a number of names originally belonging to older stirpes of the Aemilian gens, including Mamercus as a praenomen, Regillus as a cognomen, and Paullus as both. The last generations were related by marriage to the imperial family.
The Aemilii Scauri flourished from the beginning of the second century BC to the beginning of the first century AD. Their surname, Scaurus, referred to the appearance of the feet or ankles; Chase suggests "swollen ankles".
The cognomina Regillus and Buca apparently belonged to short-lived families. Regillus appears to be derived from the Sabine town of Regillum, perhaps alluding to the Sabine origin of the gens. The Aemilii Regilli flourished for about two generations, beginning at the time of the Second Punic War. Buca, probably the same as Bucca, referred to someone with prominent cheeks, or perhaps someone known for shouting or wailing. The Aemilii Buci are known chiefly from coins, and seem to have flourished toward the end of the Republic.
As with other prominent gentes of the Republic, there were some Aemilii whose relationship to the major families is unclear, as the only references to them contain no surname. Some of these may have been descended from freedmen, and been plebeians. Aemilii with a variety of surnames are found in imperial times.
Aemilii Mamerci et Mamercini
- Lucius Aemilius Mam. f. Mamercus, consul in 484, 478, and 473 BC.
- Tiberius Aemilius L. f. Mam. n. Mamercus, consul in 470 and 467 BC.
- Gaius Aemilius Mamercus, dictator in 463 BC, according to Lydus, but found in no other sources; perhaps an interrex.
- Mamercus Aemilius M. f. Mamercinus, dictator in 438, 433, and 426 BC.
- Manius Aemilius Mam. f. M. n. Mamercinus, consul in 410 BC, and consular tribune in 405, 403, and 401.
- Gaius Aemilius Ti. f. Ti. n. Mamercinus, consular tribune in 394 and 391 BC.
- Lucius Aemilius Mam. f. M. n. Mamercinus, consular tribune in 391, 389, 387, 383, 382, 380, and 377 BC.
- Lucius Aemilius L. f. Mam. n. Mamercinus, consul in 366 and 363 BC.
- Lucius Aemilius L. f. L. n. Mamercinus, magister equitum in 352 BC.
- Lucius Aemilius L. f. L. n. Mamercinus Privernas, consul in 341 and 329 BC, and dictator in 335 and 316 BC.
- Tiberius Aemilius Ti. f. Ti. n. Mamercinus, praetor in 341 and consul in 339 BC.
- Marcus Aemilius Papus, dictator in 321 BC.
- Quintus Aemilius (Cn. f.) Papus, consul in 282 and 278 BC.
- Lucius Aemilius Q. f. Cn. n. Papus, consul in 225 BC.
- Marcus Aemilius Papus, curio maximus, died in 210 BC.
- Lucius Aemilius Papus, praetor in 205 BC, received Sicily as his province.
- Marcus Messius Rusticus Aemilius Papus, father of the consul of AD 135, and a comes of the Emperor Hadrian.
- Marcus Cutius Priscus Messius M. f. Rusticus Aemilius Papus Arrius Proculus Julius Celsus, consul in AD 135.
- Marcus Messius M. f. Rusticus Aemilius Afer Cutius, brother of the consul of AD 135.
- Quintus Aemilius Q. f. L. n. Barbula, consul in 317 and 311 BC.
- Marcus Aemilius Q. f. L. n. Barbula, dictator in an uncertain year between 292 and 284 BC.
- Lucius Aemilius Q. f. Q. n. Barbula, consul in 281 BC, and conqueror of Tarentum.
- Marcus Aemilius L. f. Q. n. Barbula, consul in 230 BC.
- Marcus Aemilius L. f. L. n. Paullus, consul in 302 BC, defeated Cleonymus of Sparta. The following year he was appointed magister equitum by the dictator Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus, who sent him against the Etruscans, but Aemilius was defeated.
- Marcus Aemilius M. f. L. n. Paullus, consul in 255 BC, during the First Punic War. He and his colleague, Servius Fulvius Paetinus Nobilior, led a Roman fleet to Africa, and won an important naval victory over the Carthaginians, but much of their fleet was wrecked in a storm on their return.
- Lucius Aemilius M. f. M. n. Paullus, consul in 219, triumphed over the Illyrians. Consul for the second time in 216 BC, early in the Second Punic War, he opposed engaging Hannibal at the Cannae, but fought bravely and was slain in battle.
- Lucius Aemilius L. f. M. n. Paullus, afterward surnamed Macedonicus, consul in 182 and 168 BC. The most illustrious of his family, he triumphed over Perseus of Macedon in 167 BC; but his two elder sons were adopted into other gentes, and his younger sons died within days of his triumph, leaving no sons to carry on his name.
- Tertia Aemilia L. f. M. n. Paulla, the sister of Macedonicus, married Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, the conqueror of Hannibal. Her daughter, Cornelia, was the mother of the Gracchi, and when she died, her property passed to her adoptive grandson, who was also her nephew, Scipio Africanus Minor.
- Lucius Aemilius L. f. L. n. Paullus, afterward Quintus Fabius Q. f. Q. n. Maximus Aemilianus, the eldest son of Macedonicus, he was adopted into the Fabian gens.
- Aemilius L. f. L. n. Paullus, afterward Publius Cornelius P. f. P. n. Scipio Africanus Aemilianus, or "Africanus Minor", was the second son of Macedonicus, and was adopted by his cousin, Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, whose father had defeated Hannibal. Aemilianus was consul in 147 and 134 BC.
- Prima Aemilia L. f. L. n. Paulla, married Quintus Aelius Tubero, who served under her father, Macedonicus, in the war with Perseus.
- Secunda Aemilia L. f. L. n. Paulla, married Marcus Porcius Cato Licinianus, who also served under his father-in-law in the war with Perseus.
- Tertia Aemilia L. f. L. n. Paulla, when a little girl, gave her father a favorable omen, when following his election as consul for 168 BC, in order to conduct the war with Perseus, he returned home to find Aemilia crying because her dog, also named Perseus, had died.
- Aemilius L. f. L. n. Paullus, the elder of two sons of Macedonicus by his second wife, died at the age of fourteen, three days after his father's triumph in November of 167 BC.
- Aemilius L. f. L. n. Paullus, the youngest son of Macedonicus, died at the age of twelve, five days before his father's triumph.
- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, consul in 285 BC.
- Marcus Aemilius M. f. M. n. Lepidus, consul in 232 BC, and perhaps consul suffectus in 220.
- Marcus Aemilius M. f. M. n. Lepidus, praetor in 218 BC.
- Lucius Aemilius M. f. M. n. Lepidus, son of the consul of 232 BC.
- Quintus Aemilius M. f. M. n. Lepidus, son of the consul of 232 BC.
- Manius Aemilius M'. f. Lepidus, praetor in 213 BC.
- Marcus Aemilius M. f. M. n. Lepidus, consul in 187 and 175 BC.
- Marcus Aemilius M'. f. M' n. Lepidus, consul in 158 BC.
- Marcus Aemilius M. f. M. n. Lepidus, military tribune against Antiochus III in 190 BC.
- Marcus Aemilius M. f. M. n. Porcina, consul in 137 BC.
- Marcus Aemilius M. f. M. n. Lepidus, consul in 126 BC.
- Quintus Aemilius M. f. M. n. Lepidus, probably son of the military tribune of 190 BC.
- Marcus Aemilius Q. f. M. n. Lepidus, consul in 78 BC.
- Mamercus Aemilius Mam. f. M. n. Livianus, consul in 77 BC.
- Manius Aemilius Mam. f. M. n. Lepidus, consul in 66 BC.
- Lucius Aemilius M. f. Q. n. Lepidus Paullus, consul in 50 BC.
- Marcus Aemilius M. f. Q. n. Lepidus, the triumvir, consul in 42 BC.
- Aemilius (M. Lepidi f. Q. n.) Regillus, mentioned by Cicero.
- Paullus Aemilius L. f. M. n. Lepidus, consul suffectus in 34 BC.
- Marcus Aemilius M. f. M. n. Lepidus, son of the triumvir; conspired to assassinate Octavianus in 30 BC.
- Quintus Aemilius Lepidus, consul in 21 BC.
- Lucius Aemilius Paulli f. L. n. Paullus, consul in AD 1; conspired against Augustus.
- Marcus Aemilius Paulli f. L. n. Lepidus, consul in AD 6.
- Aemilia Paulli f. L. n. Lepida (b. 22 BC)
- Manius Aemilius Q. f. Lepidus, consul in AD 11.
- Aemilia Q. f. Lepida, wife of Publius Sulpicius Quirinus, accused of various crimes and condemned in AD 20.
- Marcus Aemilius L. f. Paulli n. Lepidus, put to death by Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus, AD 39.
- Aemilia L. f. Paulli n. Lepida, the first wife of Tiberius Claudius Drusus.
- Aemilia M. f. Paulli n. Lepida (d. AD 36), wife of Drusus Julius Caesar.
- Marcus Aemilius Regillus (d. 205 BC), Flamen Quirinalis and unsuccessful candidate for the consulship in 214 BC.
- Lucius Aemilius (M. f.) Regillus, praetor in 190 BC, during the war against Antiochus III.
- Marcus Aemilius (M. f.) Regillus (d. 190 BC), brother of Lucius Aemilius Regillus, died in the course of the war against Antiochus.
- Lucius Aemilius Scaurus, an officer in the Roman fleet during the war against Antiochus III in 190 BC.
- Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, consul in 115 and 107 BC, censor in 109, and princeps senatus.
- Marcus Aemilius M. f. Scaurus, praetor in 56 BC.
- Aemilius Scaurus M. f. Scaurus (d. 101 BC), fought against the Cimbri under Quintus Lutatius Catulus.
- Marcus Aemilius M. f. M. n. Scaurus, supporter of Marcus Antonius.
- Mamercus Aemilius M. f. M. n. Scaurus, orator and poet, twice accused of majestas.
- Lucius Aemilius Buca, quaestor in the time of Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
- Lucius Aemilius L. f. Buca, triumvir of the mint in 54 BC.
- Aemilia, one of the Vestal Virgins, who miraculously rekindled the sacred flame with a piece of her garment.
- Aemilia, a Vestal put to death on the charge of incest in 114 BC. Two others, Marcia and Licinia, were acquitted, on the grounds that Aemilia had instigated the crime, but they were condemned to death by Lucius Cassius Longinus Ravilla.
- Caeso Aemilius K. f. Varrius, a military engineer of uncertain date.
- Marcus Aemilius Avianus, a friend of Cicero, and the patron of Avianus Evander and Avianus Hammonius.
- Aemilius Macer, a poet who flourished during the early decades of the Empire, and wrote upon the subjects of birds, snakes, and medicinal plants.
- Aemilius Macer of Verona, a poet who wrote upon Homeric subjects He flourished toward the end of the reign of Augustus.
- Aemilius Rectus, governor of Egypt in AD 15, was rebuked by Tiberius for returning more money to the treasury than had been requested; Tiberius replied that he wanted the governors to shear his sheep, not shave them.
- Aemilius Sura, annalist, probably a contemporary of Marcus Velleius Paterculus.
- Aemilius Rufus, prefect of the cavalry under Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo in Armenia.
- Aemilius Pacensis, tribune of the city cohorts at the death of Nero in AD 69; perished fighting against Aulus Vitellius.
- Quintus Aemilius Laetus, Praetorian Prefect under Commodus.
- Aemilius Asper (late 1st century), grammarian and commentator on Publius Terentius Afer and Publius Vergilius Maro.
- Aemilius Asper Junior, a grammarian who flourished during the second century, and the author of Ars Grammatica.
- Aemilius Papinianus, a jurist of the late second and early third century.
- Aemilius Macer (3rd century), a jurist who lived in the time of Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander.
- Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus, governor of Pannonia and Moesia, was proclaimed Emperor in 253, but slain by his soldiers.
- Aemilius Magnus Arborius, a fourth-century poet, and a friend of the brothers of Constantinus.
- Aemilius Parthenianus, a historian who gave an account of the various persons who aspired to the tyranny.
- Aemilius Probus, grammarian of the late fourth century, to whom the Excellentium Imperatorum Vitae of Cornelius Nepos was erroneously attributed.
- Blossius Aemilius Dracontius a fifth-century Christian poet.
- In addition to Paulla, the form Polla, was common in Latin, and either could be spelled with one 'l' or two. There were three distinct pronunciations of the vowel, which can be seen from Greek inscriptions, including Παυλλα, Πολλα, and Πωλα. The same variation was probably characteristic of the masculine Paullus, as with other Latin names, such as Claudius, which was frequently spelled Clodius, although this came to be regarded as a plebeian spelling.
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p. 30 ("Aemilia Gens").
- Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, i. 18.
- Chase, pp. 122, 123.
- Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome, p. 10.
- Chase, pp. 114, 140, 141.
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 120 ("Papus").
- Chase, pp. 114, 115.
- Birley, The Fasti of Roman Britain, pp. 242, 243.
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p. 461 ("Barbula").
- Chase, pp. 109, 110.
- New College Latin & English Dictionary, s. v. barbula.
- Chase, pp. 109, 110, 150.
- Chase, pp. 165, 166.
- Kajava, Roman Female Praenomina.
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 153 ("Aemilius Paulus").
- Chase, pp. 110, 111.
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, p. 762 ("Aemilius Lepidus").
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, pp. 735, 736 ("Scaurus", "Aemilius Scaurus").
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 642 ("Regillus").
- Chase, p. 113, 114.
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p. 516 ("Buca").
- Broughton, vol. I, p. 35.
- Birley, The Fasti of Roman Britain, pp. 242–244.
- Birley, p. 243.
- Broughton, vol. I, p. 187.
- Livy, x. 1–3.
- Polybius, i. 36, 37.
- Eutropius, ii. 22.
- Orosius, iv. 9.
- Diodorus Siculus, xxiii. 14.
- Zonaras, viii. 14.
- Niebuhr, History of Rome, vol. iii. p. 591.
- Arnold, History of Rome, vol. ii. p. 593, note 67.
- Polybius, iii. 16–19, iv. 37.
- Appian, Bella Illyrica, 8.
- Zonaras, viii. 20.
- Livy, xxii. 35, xxiii. 21.
- Horace, Carmen Saeculare, i. 12.
- Valerius Maximus, i. 3. § 3.
- Plutarch, "The Life of Aemilius Paullus".
- Livy, xxxiv. 45, xxxv. 10, 24, xxxvi. 2, xxxvii. 46, 57, xxxix. 56, xl. 25–28, 34, xliv. 17–xlv. 41, Epitome, 46.
- Polybius, xxix.–xxxii.
- Aurelius Victor, De Viris Illustribus, 56.
- Valerius Maximus, v. 10. § 2.
- Velleius Paterculus, i. 9, 10.
- Orelli, Onomasticon Tullianum, vol. ii. p. 16.
- Polybius, xxxii. 12.
- Diodorus Siculus, excerpta, xxxi.
- Valerius Maximus, vi. 7. § 1.
- Plutarch, "The Life of Aemilius Paullus", 2.
- Livy, xxxviii. 57.
- Plutarch, "The Life of Aemilius Paullus", 28.
- Cicero, De Divinatione, i. 46, ii. 40.
- Plutarch, "The Life of Aemilius Paullus", 10.
- Année Epigraphique 2003.881.
- Dionysius, ii. 68.
- Valerius Maximus, i. 1. § 7.
- Plutarch, "Quaestiones Romanae", p. 284.
- Livy, Epitome, 63.
- Orosius, v. 15.
- Asconius Pedianus, In Ciceronis Pro Milone, p. 46, ed. Orelli.
- Karl Julius Sillig, Catalogus Artificium (1827), Appendix, s.v.
- Desiré-Raoul Rochette, Lettre à M. Schorn, p. 422, 2nd ed.
- Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares xiii. 2, 21, 27.
- Cassius Dio, lvii. 10.
- Orosius, vii. 4.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1870). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
- Polybius, Historiae (The Histories).
- Marcus Tullius Cicero, De Divinatione.
- Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica (Library of History).
- Quintus Horatius Flaccus (Horace), Carmen Saeculare.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Romaike Archaiologia (Roman Antiquities).
- Titus Livius (Livy), History of Rome.
- Marcus Velleius Paterculus, Compendium of Roman History.
- Valerius Maximus, Factorum ac Dictorum Memorabilium (Memorable Facts and Sayings).
- Quintus Asconius Pedianus, Commentarius in Oratio Ciceronis Pro Milone (Commentary on Cicero's Oration Pro Milone).
- Plutarchus, Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans; Moralia, including "Quaestiones Romanae" (Roman Questions).
- Appianus Alexandrinus (Appian), Bella Illyrica (The Illyrian Wars).
- Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus (Cassius Dio), Roman History.
- Eutropius, Breviarium Historiae Romanae (Abridgement of the History of Rome).
- Paulus Orosius, Historiarum Adversum Paganos (History Against the Pagans).
- Sextus Aurelius Victor, De Viris Illustribus (On Famous Men).
- Joannes Zonaras, Epitome Historiarum (Epitome of History).
- Johann Caspar von Orelli, Onomasticon Tullianum, Orell Füssli, Zürich (1826–1838).
- Barthold Georg Niebuhr, The History of Rome, Julius Charles Hare and Connop Thirlwall, trans., John Smith, Cambridge (1828).
- Thomas Arnold, History of Rome, B. Fellowes, London (1838-1842).
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, William Smith, ed., Little, Brown and Company, Boston (1849).
- George Davis Chase, "The Origin of Roman Praenomina", in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, vol. VIII (1897).
- Friedrich Munzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families (1920).
- T. Robert S. Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, American Philological Association (1952).
- Anthony R. Birley, The Fasti of Roman Britain, Clarendon Press (1981).
- Mika Kajava, Roman Female Praenomina: Studies in the Nomenclature of Roman Women, Acta Instituti Romani Finlandiae (1994).
- Timothy J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000–264 BC), Routledge, London (1995).
- John C. Traupman, The New College Latin & English Dictionary, Bantam Books, New York (1995).