Aerial Experiment Association
The AEA produced several different aircraft in quick succession, with each member acting as principal designer for at least one. The group introduced key technical innovations, notably wingtip ailerons and the tricycle landing gear.
According to Bell, the AEA was a "co-operative scientific association, not for gain but for the love of the art and doing what we can to help one another." Although the association had no significant commercial impact, one of its members, Glenn Curtiss, later established the large and successful aeronautical manufacturing company Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company. The AEA was disbanded on 31 March 1909.
The AEA came into being when John Alexander Douglas McCurdy and his friend Frederick W. "Casey" Baldwin, two recent engineering graduates of the University of Toronto, decided to spend the summer in Baddeck, Nova Scotia. McCurdy had grown up there, and his father was the personal secretary of Dr. Bell. He had grown up close to the Bell family and was well received in their home. One day, as the three sat with Dr. Bell discussing the problems of aviation, Mabel Bell, Alexander's wife, suggested they create a formal research group to exploit their collective ideas. Being independently wealthy, she provided a total of US$35,000 (equivalent to $920,000 in 2015) to finance the Association, with $20,000 made available immediately by the sale of property.
Curtiss, the American motorcycle designer and manufacturer and a recognized expert on gasoline engines, was recruited as a member of the association. Curtiss had visited the Wright brothers to discuss aeronautical engineering and offered them use of a 50 hp engine. Wilbur cordially declined, saying that a motor of their own development met their power needs, unaware that the AEA was about to become a serious competitor in powered flight. Bell wrote to U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt to have an interested young officer who had volunteered his help, US Army Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge, officially detailed to Baddeck. Selfridge was assigned to the Aeronautical Division, U.S. Signal Corps on 3 August 1907, two days after its formation, and was sent to Nova Scotia. A year later, on 17 September 1908, while riding as a passenger with Orville Wright on a demonstration flight for the U.S. Army, he became the first person killed in an aircraft accident.
In 1898, Bell experimented with tetrahedral kites and wings constructed of multiple compound tetrahedral kites covered in maroon silk.[N 1] The tetrahedral wings were named Cygnet I, II and III, and were flown both unmanned and manned (Cygnet I crashed during a flight carrying Selfridge) in the period from 1907–1912. Some of Bell's kites are on display at the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site.
Later AEA designs
The AEA's work progressed to heavier-than-air machines, applying their knowledge of kites to gliders. The AEA collaboration led to very public success. Casey Baldwin became the first Canadian and first British subject pilot on 12 March 1908 flight of Red Wing. [N 2]
Its successor, White Wing, also of 1908, was the first airplane to have Bell's ailerons. The following design, the June Bug, also of 1908 and piloted by Curtiss, won the Scientific American Trophy by making the first official one kilometer flight in North America, although, the Wrights had already accomplished this in 1904.
Their fourth flying machine, the Silver Dart, also constructed in 1908, made the first controlled powered flight in Canada on 23 February 1909 when it was flown off the ice of Bras d'Or Lake near Baddeck by McCurdy, who had been one of its designers. On 10 March 1909, McCurdy set a record when he flew the Silver Dart on a circular course over a distance of more than 32 km (20 mi), a feat that the Wrights had already accomplished in 1905. The Association made the first passenger flight in Canada on 2 August, also in the Silver Dart.
Much development also took place in Hammondsport, New York where in 1908 pioneering experimentation was done on seaplane carried out by Curtiss. In France Henri Fabre successfully flew the first powered seaplane in history, the Fabre Hydravion, in March 1910.
Bell's organization was established with a fixed term mandate, which was extended to March 31, 1909 by joint agreement of all its members, with Mrs. Bell contributing an additional $10,000 of financing. After Lt. Selfridge's death in September 1908, McCurdy became the organization's secretary and Dr. Bell's cousin, Charles J. Bell, became the Association's legal trustee.
After Curtiss unexpectedly formed a new commercial aircraft building venture, the Herring-Curtiss Company, in March 1909, strained relations arose between Curtiss and the Association's other members. A request for him to attend the association's meeting and resolve the issue went unanswered, and the organization's mandate was not extended a second time. The AEA was disbanded on 31 March 1909.
Aircraft designed and constructed
- AEA Glider (1907) A biplane hang glider based on the designs and data shared by Octave Chanute
- Aerodrome No. 1 Red Wing (1908), Selfridge design, Single-seat powered biplane
- Aerodrome No. 2 White Wing (1908), Baldwin design, Single-seat powered biplane
- Aerodrome No. 3 June Bug (1908), Curtiss design, Single-seat powered biplane
- Aerodrome No. 3A Loon (1908), June Bug modified as a float plane
- Aerodrome No. 4 Silver Dart (1909), McCurdy design, powered biplane
- Aerodrome No. 5 Cygnet II & Cygnet III (1909), Bell design, Single-seat powered aircraft with unorthodox wing
- Bell Oionus I (1910) A tetrahedral triplane built after the AEA had disbanded, constructed at Baddeck Kite House, Nova Scotia, and Bell's final aviation pursuit.[N 3]
- Bell was inspired in part by Australian aeronautical engineer Lawrence Hargrave's work with man-carrying box kites. Hargrave declined to take patents on his inventions, similar to Bell's decision not to file patents on some of his inventions. Bell also chose maroon-colored silk as it would show up clearly against the light-colored sky in his photographic studies.
- Quote: "Professor Alexander Graham Bell's New Machine, Built After Plans by Lieutenant Selfridge, Shown to Be Practicable by Flight Over Keuka Lake. Portion of Tail Gives Way, Bringing the Test to an End. Views of an Expert. Hammondsport, New York, 12 March 1908. Professor Alexander Graham Bell's new aeroplane, the Red Wing, was given its test flight over Lake Keuka today by F. W. Baldwin, the engineer in charge of its construction. The machine was built by the Aerial Experiment Association for Lieut. Thomas Selfridge, U.S.A."
- Built by McCurdy and Baldwin for Alexander Graham Bell
- Milberry 1979, pp. 12–13.
- Milberry 1979, p. 13.
- Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved November 10, 2015.
- Gillis, Rannie. "Mabel Bell Was A Focal Figure In The First Flight of the Silver Dart." Cape Breton Post, 29 September 2008. Retrieved: 24 February 2012.
- "First Airplane Flight In Canada." Nova Scotia's Electric Scrapbook, 2 April 2010. Retrieved: 24 February 2012.
- Toward 1984, pp. 141–155.
- Technical Gazette, New South Wales, 1924, p. 46.
- "Nova Scotia's Electric Scrapbook." ns1763.ca. Retrieved: 29 December 2009.
- Casey 1981, pp. 8–11.
- "Selfridge Aerodrome Sails Steadily for 319 Feet. At 25 to 30 miles an Hour. First Public Trip of Heavier-than-air Car in America." Washington Post, 13 May 1908.
- Casey 1981, pp. 12–15.
- Casey 1981, pp. 16–23.
- Casey 1981, pp. 28–33.
- Phillips 1977, pp. 95–96.
- Casey 1981, p. 60.
- Casey 1981, p. 37.
- Casey 1981, pp. 40–41.
- Phillips 1977, p. 97.
- Casey 1981, pp. 36–37.
- Casey 1981, pp. 6–7.
- Casey 1981, pp. 24–27.
- Casey 1981, pp. 34–36.
- Milberry 2008, p. 73.
- Casey, Louis S. Curtiss, The Hammondsport Era, 1907-1915, New York: Crown Publishers, 1981, pp. 12–15, ISBN 0-517543-26-5, ISBN 978-0-517543-26-9.
- Milberry, Larry. Aviation in Canada. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1979. ISBN 0-07-082778-8.
- Milberry, Larry. Aviation in Canada: The Pioneer Decades, Vol. 1. Toronto: CANAV Books, 2008. ISBN 978-0-921022-19-0.
- Phillips, Allan. Into the 20th Century: 1900/1910 (Canada's Illustrated Heritage). Toronto: Natural Science of Canada Limited, 1977. ISBN 0-919644-22-8.
- Toward, Lilias M. Mabel Bell: Alexander's Silent Partner. Toronto: Methuen, 1984. ISBN 978-0-458-98090-1.
- Parkin, John H. Bell and Baldwin: Their Development of Aerodromes and Hydrodromes at Baddeck, Nova Scotia. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1964.
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