Aeritalia F-104S Starfighter
|F-104S ASA in low-visibility colour scheme flying over the Alps|
|First flight||22 December 1966|
|Primary users||Italian Air Force
Turkish Air Force
|Developed from||Lockheed F-104 Starfighter|
The Aeritalia F-104S Starfighter was a licensed production Italian version of the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter which served in the Italian Air Force (AMI, Aeronautica Militare Italiana), and was the AMI's mainstay from the late 1960s until the beginning of the 21st Century. The F-104S also served in the Turkish Air Force until the mid-1990s. The F-104S was the final development of the Starfighter line.
Derived from Lockheed's design studies on a "Super Starfighter", the F-104S was one of the most capable of the F-104 series, and destined to be the last in service worldwide. The F-104S (upgraded to ASA/M standard) was retired from service in October 2004.
Design and development
The F-104 series had entered a second development phase with the F-104G (for Germany, lead country for this version). While the USAF had no more interest in the F-104, Lockheed proposed the Model CL-901 featuring the new J79-GE-19 engine and the improved Sparrow III. Further proposed developments included the CL-958 with larger wings, the CL-981 with retractable canard wings behind the cockpit, and the CL-984 optimised for low-level strike missions. An RF-104G was modified and flew in December 1966 as the prototype CL-901 "Super Starfighter". Externally, the new type had slightly larger air intakes and steel inlet guide vanes that allowed an increase in operating temperature from 121 to 175 °C (250 to 347 °F), enabling a maximum speed of Mach 2.2.
During the first five years in Italian service, 23 F-104G aircraft were lost; as only 80 to 90 F-104s (of 149 acquired) were operational at best, it was decided to purchase a new interceptor and fighter-bomber to reinforce front-line units.
The AMI mid-1960s "AW-X" (All-Weather-eXperimental) requirement for a new all-weather fighter aircraft led to an evaluation of many available types: the McDonnell Douglas F-4B/C Phantom, Dassault Mirage IIIC-1, BAC Lightning, and North American F-100S Super Sabre among others. The eventual choice was the Lockheed CL-980 (a simplified version with the same wings of the projected Model CL-901). On 26 January 1966, the AMI chose the definitive F-104S as their future fighter. The first F-104S was actually a modified Fiat-built F-104G, MM6658, that acted as an aerodynamic prototype and first flew on 22 December 1966, while a second prototype, MM6660, fitted with new avionics systems closer to the final configuration, flew on 28 February 1967. MM.6701, the first production F-104S built by Aeritalia flew on 30 December 1968.
The F-104S was designed to carry AIM-7 Sparrow missiles (while deleting the Vulcan gun). In the attack role, the F-104S had nine hardpoints, and could carry up to seven 227 kg (500 lb) or 340 kg (750 lb) bombs, an improvement over the F-104G, which could lift only half that on five hardpoints, two of which were needed for auxiliary tanks. Theoretically, an F-104S could be equipped with four or five bombs, two droptanks, and two AIM-9s, becoming a dual-role aircraft.
The new type entered service in mid-1969, with 22° Gruppo (51° Stormo); and in that year, the F-104S accumulated 460 flying hours.
The AMI bought 205 examples, all delivered from 1969 to 1979, with the 100th aircraft delivered in January 1973, and the 200th in May 1976. The model was built in two versions; as an interceptor armed with AIM-7 Sparrow missiles (the M61 Vulcan being removed); and as a fighter bomber, with the gun retained and bombs and other air-to-surface ordnance. The models were interchangeable, making it unclear how many were built or rebuilt to these specifications.
AMI squadrons equipped with the F-104G and S versions were: 9, 10, 12, 18 (initially recce than dual), 20 (training), 21, 22, 23, 28(recce), 132 (recce) 102, 154, 155, and 156 (bombers).
The J79-GE-19 allowed a faster climb, comparable with contemporary fighters (up to 277 m (909 ft)/sec, with a time-to-climb 10,600 m (34,777 ft) of 80 seconds claimed; ten seconds less than the F-104G), with the capability of reaching Mach 2 at 12,000 m (39,370 ft) in around five minutes.
Napoleone Bragagnolo, a test pilot for Aeritalia, was able to land at Ciampino, Rome, 19 minutes and 30 seconds after taking off from Turin. During this flight with two wingtip auxiliary tanks, he climbed 15 km (49,213 ft) and accelerated to Mach 2. The aircraft still had 1,300 l (290 imp gal; 340 US gal) of fuel on board when it landed; enough to reach Palermo at subsonic speeds. The average speed for the flight was Mach 1.5. Even with these new Starfighters, the loss rate remained high, with peaks in 1973 and 1975 (ten F-104s of all versions were lost in AMI service during this period). Up to 1997, Italy had lost 137 (38%) of its F-104s in 928,000 flying hours (14.7 aircraft every 100,000 hours). Despite a drop in the loss rate in the 1980s (with 33 losses between 1981 and 1990 included), the debate about the reliability of this aircraft was often fierce in the mass media. In the 1980s the loss rate dropped, even more so in the 1990s, when all the old versions (except TF-104s) were scrapped. The last Italian F-104 was withdrawn from front line in 2004, after the type had flown around a million flying hours in a total of over 40 years of service. Four F-104s (2 TF-104M and 2 f-104ASAM) were flown by the Italian Air Force Test Center until July 2005. The last F-104's military flight was in Pratica di Mare on July 27.
Turkey was the only other customer for the Aeritalia F-104S. The initial order was placed in 1974, with the first of 18 examples entering service by December 1974. These first aircraft were a gift from Libya to Turkey during US embargo against 1974 Cyprus Peace Operation. These may also seemed as a reward for good relations and Turkish technical assistance to improve the capabilities of the Libyan Air Force. Another 18 were ordered in May 1975, which eventually increased to 40 aircraft, but another batch (for 20 aircraft) was dropped, probably because F-4's were delivered as well. They served with 142 and 182 Filo from the 1970s, and around a dozen were still in service until the mid-1990s. While 200 Selenia AIM-7 missiles were delivered, Turkish F-104Ss were seldom seen carrying them, thus F-4E's were probably the main users of those missiles.
Two further update programs were carried out prior to the introduction into AMI service of the Eurofighter Typhoon, resulting in the F-104S-ASA and F-104S-ASA/M.
The F-104ASA (Aggiornamento Sistemi d'Arma, Weapon Systems Update), developed in 1986, introduced a Fiar Setter radar, with 'look-down' capability and compatibility with the Selenia Aspide missile. AIM-9Ls were then used as the main armament, replacing the previous "B" and "F" version of this missile, while the older AIM-7s were retained. One AIM-7 was usually carried under each wing. In total, 147 of the F-104S airframes were converted to ASA standard at an expense of around 600 billion lire, the last ASA model was delivered in the early 1990s.
The ASA/M upgrade (initially known as the 'ECO' (Estensione Capacità Operative) upgrade) focused on improving reliability rather than combat enhancements, and involved 49 ASA aircraft. 15 TF-104Gs were also involved in this program .
- F-104S (Lockheed Model CL-901)
- 246 aircraft produced mainly by Fiat and Aeritalia (one aircraft was lost before delivery), upgraded for the interception role having NASARR R-21G/H radar with moving target indicator and continuous wave illuminator for SARH missiles (initially AIM-7 Sparrow), two additional wing and two underbelly hardpoints (to give a total of nine), uprated J79-GE-19 engine with 52.8 kN (11,870 lbf) thrust (79.6 kN/17,900 lbf with afterburner), and two additional ventral fins for increased stability at high Mach numbers. The 20 mm (.79 in) M61 cannon was sacrificed to make room for the missile avionics, the cannon was always fitted to fighter-bomber variants. Up to two Sparrow; and two, theoretically four or six, Sidewinder missiles were carried on all the hardpoints except the central (underbelly), or seven 340 kg (750 lb) bombs (normally, two-four 227–340 kg/500-750 lb). Range was up to 1,250 km (777 mi) with four tanks, ferry range 2,940 km (1,827 mi).
- (Aggiornamento Sistemi d'Arma - "Weapon Systems Update") - An upgraded Italian version, with 147 modified from existing airframes, upgraded with Fiat R21G/M1 radar with frequency hopping, look-down/shoot-down capability, new IFF and weapons delivery computer, and provision for AIM-9L all-aspect Sidewinder and Selenia Aspide missiles. Due to the delays of Aspide integration, it was also called the ASA-1 with Sparrows, and ASA-2 when the Aspide became available, and eventually all F-104Ss were upgraded to ASA-2 standard. The fighter-bombers had no substantial improvements in the "ASA" version, and were later modified to interceptor standards (CI) without the M61.
- (Aggiornamento Sistemi d'Arma/Modificato - "Weapon Systems Update/Modified") - 49 F-104S-ASA and 15 two-seat TF-104G aircraft were upgraded from 1998 to ASA/M standard with GPS, new TACAN and Litton LN-30A2 INS, refurbished airframe, and improved cockpit displays. All strike-related equipment was removed, and the IRST as well (the small unit known as 'IR-Sight', forward the windshield). The last Starfighters in combat service, they were withdrawn in October 2004 (the last unit was 10° Gruppo/9° Stormo, Grazzanise), and temporarily replaced by the F-16 Fighting Falcon, while awaiting Eurofighter Typhoon deliveries.
Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft, 1976-1977
- Crew: 1
- Length: 16.7 m (54 ft 9 in)
- Wingspan: 6.68 m (21 ft 11 in)
- Height: 4.11 m (13 ft 6 in)
- Wing area: 18.2 m² (196 ft²)
- Empty weight: 6,760 kg (14,900 lb)
- Loaded weight: 9,840 kg (21,690 lb) ("clean" T-O weight)
- Max. takeoff weight: 14,060 kg (31,000 lb)
- Powerplant: 1 × General Electric J79-GE-19 afterburning turbojet
- Dry thrust: 52.8 kN (11,870 lbf)
- Thrust with afterburner: 79.6 kN (17,900 lbf)
- Never exceed speed: Mach 2.2
- Maximum speed: 2,330 km/h (1,450 mph, 1,259 kn, Mach 2.2) at 11,000 m (36,000 ft)
- Cruise speed: 981 km/h (610 mph, 530 kn) at 11,000 m (36,000 ft)
- Range: 2,920 km (1,815 mi, 1,576 nmi) (Ferry range)
- Service ceiling: 17,680 m (58,000 ft)
- Rate of climb: 277 m/s (54,850 ft/min) ()
- Wing loading: 680 kg/m² ()
- Thrust/weight: 0.78:1 typical
- Climb to 10,700 m (35,000 ft): 1 min 20 sec
- Climb to 17,100 m (56,000 ft): 2 min 40 sec
- Ballistic zoom: > 27,400 m (90,000 ft)
- Range (with four auxiliary tanks), interceptor: 1,250 km (777 mi)
- Range lo-lo-lo with 7 x 340 kg (750 lb) bombs: 480 km (300 mi)
- Range hi-lo-hi with 7 x 340 kg (750 lb) M117 bombs: 608 km (375 mi)
- Acceleration to 12,000 m and Mach 2: 5 min
- Max G-load: -3 +8
- Turning rate, max and continuous: 13 and 9°/sec
- Takeoff and landing: 830 m and 760 m
- Guns: 20 mm (0.79 in) M61A1 Vulcan cannon with 725 rounds
- Other: External bombs (max. seven) and missiles (max. eight). Hardpoints: ventral for 900 kg (1,984 lb), lateral, fuselage: 365 kg (805 lb), underwing, internal (wet) 450 kg (992 lb), external 365 kg (805 lb), wingtips (wet) for 680 kg (1,499 lb). AIM-9s could be carried on all except central, AIM-7s on underwing, external. Bombs on all except wingtips, but it was possible to carry napalm bombs. Typical loads: two-four tanks + two/four bombs or one AIM-9 and one AIM-7 (Interdictor configuration) or six AIM-9 and two AIM-7/Aspide (Interceptor configuration)
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- Niccoli 2005, p. 4.
- Taylor 1976, p.103.
- Pace 1992, p. 88.
- "F-104 ASA-M, Il Portale dell'Aeronautica Militare Italiana (in Italian)." Archived August 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. aeronautica. Retrieved: 6 October 2007.
- Michell 1994, p. 118.
- Sgarlato, Nico. "F-104 Starfighter" (in Italian). Delta editions, Great Planes Monograph series, February 2004.
- Fricker and Jackson 1996, p. 98.
- Sgarlato 2004
- "Aeritalia: Cornerstone of Italian Aerospace." Air International Volume 16, No. 2, February 1979.
- Bowman, Martin W. Lockheed F-104 Starfighter. Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK: Crowood Press Ltd., 2000. ISBN 1-86126-314-7.
- Fricker, John and Paul Jackson. "Lockheed F-104 Starfighter". Wings of Fame. Volume 2 1996. London: Aerospace Publishing, p. 38 - 99. ISBN 1-874023-69-7.
- Gianvanni, Pietro. "F-104 Starfighter." Ed.Ai editions, June 1998.
- Michell, Simon, ed. "Alenia (Lockheed) F-104S ASA Starfighter Upgrade." Jane's Civil and Military Aircraft Upgrades 1994-95. Coulsdon, Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group, 1994. ISBN 0-7106-1208-7.
- Niccoli, Ricardo. "'S' is for 'Sparrow'." Air Enthusiast Issue 117, May–June 2005.
- Niccoli, Ricardo. "Starfighters in the AMI". Air International Volume 31, No. 6, December 1986.
- Pace, Steve. F-104 Starfighter: design, Development and Worldwide Operations of the First Operational Mach 2 Fighter. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1992. ISBN 0-87938-608-8.
- Sgarlato, Nico. "F-104 Starfighter" (in Italian). Delta editions, Great Planes Monograph series, February 2004.
- Taylor, John W.R., ed. "Aeritalia (Lockheed) F-104S" Jane's All the World's Aircraft, 1976-1977. London: Macdonald and Jane's. 1976. ISBN 0-531-03278-7.
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