|RAAF Aermacchi MB-326H A7-054 landing at RAAF Base Edinburgh (November 1986)|
|Role||Advanced trainer/Light attack|
|First flight||10 December 1957|
|Primary users||Italian Air Force
South African Air Force
Brazilian Air Force
Royal Australian Air Force
The Aermacchi or Macchi MB-326 is a light military jet aircraft designed in Italy. Originally conceived as a two-seat trainer, there have also been single and two-seat light attack versions produced. It is one of the most commercially successful aircraft of its type, being bought by more than 10 countries and produced under licence in Australia, Brazil and South Africa. It set many category records, including an altitude record of 56,807 ft (17,315 m) on 18 March 1966. More than 600 were built.
- 1 Design and development
- 2 Design
- 3 Operational history
- 4 Variants
- 5 Operators
- 6 Accidents and losses
- 7 Preserved examples
- 8 Specifications (MB-326)
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Design and development
In the 1950s, a number of countries were operating small jet trainers with a similar performance to their operational aircraft. At this time, several nations commenced development of purpose-built aircraft for the role, such as the Fouga Magister, the T-37, the Jet Provost, and the Aero L-29. Italy, which was still recovering from the effects of the Second World War, could not afford the development of supersonic interceptors or bombers; it instead elected to focus its development efforts on light fighter and trainer aircraft.
The MB-326 was designed by Ermanno Bazzocchi at Macchi. Bazzocchi considered many configurations before it was chosen to proceed with a single-engined design. The airframe was a robust and light structure, all-metal, simple and cheap; powered by an efficient engine, the Armstrong Siddeley Viper. This engine was designed as a short-life unit originally destined for target drones, but showed itself to be far more reliable. This airframe and engine combination led, in 1953, to the MB-326 project.
The Italian Air Force was quite interested, and so the MB-326 took part in the contest.
The contest specifications were:
- Max load 7 g at maximum weight
- 5,000 hours lifespan, 50–60 hours between servicing, stall-alert (at 15 km/h (9 mph) more than stall speed)
- Take-off at max load in 800 m (2,625 ft) over a 15 m (50 ft) high obstacle, or 500 m (1,640 ft) at light weight, landing in 450 m (1,480 ft) at minimum weight
- Speed (min-max): 110/130–700 km/h
- Rate-of-climb must be at least 15 m/s (2,950 ft/min) and endurance should be three hours at 3,000 m (9,840 ft).
There were several modifications to the MB-326 project: the horizontal tail surfaces lost their negative dihedral angle, the airbrakes (two in the wings) became one, in the ventral position. In 1956 the AMI approved the project and requested two prototypes (MM.571 and 572) and one airframe for static tests. No weaponry or pressurization was needed, but Bazzocchi introduced them.
The first prototype made its maiden flight on 10 December 1957, flown by Chief Test Pilot Guido Carestiato, and the second flew the following year. The plane showed very good characteristics, but the modifications affected the weight, which was 400 kg (880 lb) more than the initial estimates. The original Viper 8 engine produced 7.8 kN (1,750 lbf) of thrust, so the Viper 9 was adopted, which had 0.7 kN (147 lbf) more of thrust.
I-MAKI, the prototype, was first demonstrated in France. The second prototype first flew on 22 September 1958. It had a new Viper engine, the '11' model, updated to produce 11.1 kN thrust (1,134 kgf, 2,500 lbf).
On 15 December 1958, the AMI placed an order for 15 pre-series examples. In 1960, an order for 100 aircraft was placed, establishing Aermacchi's supremacy in jet trainers.
Direct competition came from the Fiat G.80, being more powerful and the first real Italian jet, having flown five years earlier, but it was also heavier, bigger and more expensive. It lost the contest, remaining without a market.
The MB-326 was a low-wing monoplane with an all-metal (light alloy) structure. Powered by a Rolls-Royce Viper non-afterburning turbojet with low air-intakes in the wing roots. Each wing had 22 ribs and two spars. The fuel system had one large tank in the middle-fuselage and two in the wingtips. The aft fuselage was almost entirely dedicated to the engine, from just behind the wings. The cockpit had a tandem configuration, which was chosen to give a better aerodynamic fuselage (slimmer) than the more usual side-by-side arrangement. There was a long, low bubble canopy. The rear of each wing had flaps, and ailerons with a trim surface. Wing fences were added mid-wing to increase the lift characteristics.
The MB-326 was one of the last Italian aircraft to set any records, when Guido Carestiano set the C1D group 1 category altitude record of 15,489 m during August 1961.
In the meanwhile, the first machines, after a very long development, finally arrived at the 214° Group's Lecce-Galatina school; temporarily fielded at Brindisi. The type entered service with 43° Flyer course on 22 March 1962. These machines replaced North American T-6 Texans, and within 130 hours, the pilots were as ready as after having 210 hours training in T-6s. This solution was much costlier, but the enthusiasm was great and, with G-91T advanced trainers, there was an "entirely-jet" training course for AMI pilots, and moreover they were all national aircraft. Differing from G.91s that were never convincing as light fighters, the MB-326s immediately scored several export successes.
Eight MB-326Bs were ordered by Tunisia in 1965. These were developed from basic MB-326s with a weapons capability, with the 37th series AMI aircraft being converted (it had civilian markings I-MAKC). The main innovation was its ground attack capability, with six underwing pylons, holding a maximum of 907 kg of stores. In the same year, Ghana ordered nine similar MB-326Fs.
The "A" and "C" models were never realized. The "A" was intended as a light attack aircraft, with two 7.62 mm machine-guns in the nose, but was never built. Later, some MB-326s were called "A", but this only meant that they were fitted with an ADF Marconi AD-370. The "C" version was to have the NASARR radar in the nose, to train F-104 pilots, but it only appeared as a mock-up.
Alitalia ordered four aircraft as trainers in the "D" version; demilitarized and equipped with special instruments to train pilots in preparation for the new jet-liners.
Pilots also provided publicity for the MB-326: Riccardo Peracchi, working for AMI, displayed the MB-326's controllability at many airshows; while Massimo Ralli set many records:
- 8 February 1966, climbing records: 2 min 2 sec to 3,000 m, 3 min 56 sec to 6,000 m, 6 min 39 sec to 9,000 m, and 12,000 m in 10 min 53 sec.
- 18 March 1966, 15,690 m altitude record in horizontal flight, and 17,315 m with a launched climb.
- 18 July 1966, endurance record, with 970 km
- 2 August 1966, speed record over a 3 km straight: 871 km/h
- December 1966: speed of 880.586 km/h over 15–25 km, 831.007 km/h over 100 km, 777.667 km/h over 500 km, and another endurance record at 777.557 km
These successes showed the MB-326's performance, and established it as one of the best in its category. Peracchi displayed its agility, while Ralli concentrated on performance; there were already some customers well-satisfied with this machine.
The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) used the MB-326H as a jet trainer. A total of 97 were ordered: 12 were delivered by Macchi, 18 assembled from kits in Australia, and another 67 were built by the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation and Hawker Aircraft with the designation CA-30. They were essentially similar to the MB-326G but with improved avionics. The RAAF's aerobatic team, The Roulettes, flew the MB-326H from December 1970 until 1989. Although widely liked for its excellent handling and well-suited to its task, the service career of the MB-326 was cut short because of structural fatigue problems. The Australian fleet, for example, had a life of type extension program in the 1980s and were then re-winged in the early 1990s after a fatigue-related crash. Even so, the MB-326 was supplemented by new Pilatus PC-9 trainers to reduce flying hours, and the last examples had been withdrawn by 2001 when they were replaced by the Hawk 127.
Other MB-326Gs used the Viper Mk 20 engine which provided 1,524 kg of thrust, and were consequently faster and had an increased payload of 1,814 kg max. Argentina ordered eight, initially as the MB-326K, later called the MB-326GB.
Brazil was the main customer for the MB-326, in 1970 ordering two prototypes and 166 MB-326GCs, called the AT-26 Xavante. It was produced under license by Embraer with a further six for Togo and 10 for Paraguay. Another 17 were built in Italy for Zaire (Force Arienne Zairoise) and 23 for the Zambian Air Force.
The MB-326K (originally known as the MB-336) was the last generation model, fitted with the Viper Mk 600 engine, capable of 1,814 kg thrust to give an even better performance. The first flight took place on 22 August 1970. The two prototypes were I-AMKK and I-KMAK, the MB-326G was converted to this new model.
Dubai bought three in 1974, and a further three in 1978 (MB-326KD), Tunisia eight (MB-326KT), Ghana nine (MB-326KB) and Zaire eight (MB-326KB).
The MB-326L was essentially the MB-326K with two seats. Two MB-326LD were supplied to Dubai and four MB-326LD to Tunisia.
One of the last buyers was, again, AMI, who ordered 12 MB-326E, comprising six MB-326 updated to MB-326G, and six newly produced (MM.54384/389). They had provisions for armament, but the engine was the Viper 11 Mk 200 and not the Viper 20 Mk 540.
The measures to save costs led the MB-326 to be substituted by propeller-driven models, but the Macchi was flexible enough to act as a medium trainer and light attack aircraft. RAAF pilot training in 1985 consisted of 60 hours pre-selection on CAC Winjeels, 150 hours medium and another 75 hours advanced training on MB-326s, before finally progressing to the Mirage IIIOD.
In Italian service, the MB-326 was replaced by the MB-339 between 1981 and 1984, acting after that as fast linkage aircraft, replacing the old T-33s that were slightly faster. Unusually the MB-326 did not see service with the Frecce Tricolori aerobatic team, who kept their faster G-91R PANs (they were later replaced by MB-339s).
The MB.326 failed to impress other NATO air forces, but it did have some success amongst many Third World countries, being used as a front-line machine in local wars.
The MB-326, like its competitors the Cessna T-37 and the BAC Jet Provost, was designed and ordered in the period when the "all-through" jet trainer was a fashionable concept in many air forces. The idea was to provide a single type that could be used for both elementary and advanced training right through to near combat-ready standard. In practice it was soon discovered that the simplicity and economy of scale of operating just one type for all training purposes was far outweighed by the purchase and operating costs of a large all-jet training fleet. Most operators quickly added a cheaper piston-engined type for basic training, and the MB-326 found its primary role as a lead-in trainer to prepare pilots for transition to very high performance fighter aircraft.
The aircraft was important also for two developments: from the MB.326K the MB.326L was produced, this was the direct ancestor of the Aermacchi MB.339. With license-building in Brazil, the MB.326 opened the field to further collaborations, leading to the AMX. Neither the MB.339 nor the AMX were as successful as the MB.326, but this machine was capable of further steps in technology and commerce.
South Africa obtained a license to produce the MB-326M (similar to the 'G' model), as the Impala Mk I in 1964 with production starting in 1966. It received 40 Italian-built aircraft followed by about 125 built locally by the Atlas Aircraft Corporation, using them both as trainers and in an armed configuration. Seven examples of the MB-326K were also bought as light attack aircraft, with a further 15 assembled from kits, while around 78 were license-produced and known as the Impala Mk II. Licence production of the single seat version began in 1974. The Impala Mk II, locally manufactured and equipped with French armament, was also advanced with a South African ECM suite.
The South African Defence Force employed Impalas during campaigns against the People's Armed Forces for the Liberation of Angola (FAPLA) and Cuban expeditionary troops in Angola between 1975 and 1989. Impala pilots typically flew at 550–650 km/h at a height of 15 m to avoid Angolan air defences. Over the course of the South African Border War, one was downed by an SA-7; another returned with an unexploded missile in its exhaust.
The aircraft had many advantages over expensive supersonic jets. Although slower, it could operate from relatively primitive airfields and strike swiftly. The South African Air Force (SAAF) used up to 6 x 120 kg or 4 x 250 kg bombs. The main armament consisted of 68 mm SNEB rocket-launchers (four x 6 or two x 18), and two 30 mm autocannon (with 300 rounds). These cannons were the real bonus for the Impala Mk II, helping to give a superior performance compared to earlier two-seat versions. The latter could also carry a pair of 30 mm DEFA guns in under-wing pods. However, dual capability as trainer-attackers was better appreciated, as was the availability of six hard points and so dual-seat versions were far more common. Six squadrons were equipped with the Impala Mk II in the SAAF during the 1970s and 1980s. Prior to Operation Moduler, most Impalas were withdrawn from their operating bases in South-West Africa, leaving the work to Mirage IIIs and Blackburn Buccaneers.
Impala Mk IIs were also opportunistically used as interceptors. In several encounters in 1985 with Mi-8 and Mi-24 helicopters, they shot down a total of six. This happened during a crucial phase of the ground war, when Angolan and Cuban troops were checked in an offensive against UNITA bases. This ended in disaster for the Angolan/Cuban alliance when their supplies were cut off by UNITA and the SAAF and front line troops ran out of ammunition. Helicopters were being used to supply the besieged troops and the SAAF cut off this link. Two Mi-24s were shot down in the first encounter while escorting Mi-17s. The MiG-21s that escorted them flew too high to react in time. Two days later the Impala Mk IIs struck again, downing two Mi-24s and two Mi-17s. Attacks on unsuspecting helicopters were carried out with only two guns per aircraft. The single seat Impala Mk IIs were also sometimes armed with Matra R550 Magic air-to-air missiles for self-defence. The Impala Mk II operated at extreme ranges and had to fly very low, climbing only when helicopters were seen at medium altitude. After each attack they returned to low level to avoid interception by enemy MiGs.
The Silver Falcons, the SAAF aerobatic team, were equipped before with Impala Mk Is.
The flying school for Impalas was Flying Training School at Langebaanweg while operational squadrons were 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 Squadrons, with 85 Combat Flying School also having a small number of Impalas to supplement their Mirage trainers.
MB-326s, together with more modern MB-339s, formed the equipment of the Argentine Navy's 1 Escuadrilla de Ataque in 1982, when Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands. A number of MB-326s were deployed to bases along the Argentine coast immediately following the Argentine invasion, but soon returned to the squadron's base at Punta Indio. While several MB-339s were deployed to the Falklands, the MB-326s remained on the mainland. After the end of the war, 11 EMB-326GBs were received from Brazil to replace losses and restore 1 Escuadrilla de Ataque's strength.
- MB-326: Two prototypes and 125 production training aircraft for the Italian Air Force.
- MB-326A: Proposed armed version for weapons training, not built.
- MB-326B: Eight two-seat jet trainer, light attack aircraft for Tunisia.
- MB-326D: Four two-seat unarmed jet trainers for Alitalia.
- MB-326E: Six two-seat armed jet trainers for the Italian Air Force.
- MB-326F: Nine two-seat jet trainer, light attack aircraft for Ghana.
- MB-326G: Two two-seat jet trainer, ground-attack aircraft.
- MB-326GB: Two-seat jet trainer, ground-attack aircraft. Eight were sold to the Argentine Navy. 17 aircraft were exported to Zaire, and another 23 aircraft to Zambia.
- MB-326GC: Two-seat jet trainer, ground-attack aircraft for the Brazilian Air Force. 167 aircraft built under license in Brazil as the Embraer EMB-326 for the Brazilian Air Force. Eleven of them were transferred to the Argentine Navy after the Falklands War. Six aircraft were exported to Togo, and another ten to Paraguay. Total production, 182.
- AT-26 Xavante: Brazilian Air Force designation of the MB-326GC.
- RT-26 Xavante: Some AT-26 Xavantes were converted into reconnaissance aircraft.
- MB-326H: 87 two-seat jet trainers built for the Royal Australian Air Force, and 10 for the Royal Australian Navy. Twelve Italian-built aircraft and 85 built under license in Australia by the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation with the designation "CA-30".
- MB-326K: Single-seat ground-attack aircraft for the South African Air Force. Built under license in South Africa by the Atlas Aircraft Corporation.
- Impala Mk II: South African Air Force designation of the MB-326K.
- MB-326KB: Single-seat ground-attack aircraft for Zaire. (Six built).
- MB-326KD: Single-seat ground-attack aircraft for Dubai. (Three built).
- MB-326KG: Single-seat ground-attack aircraft for Ghana. (Four Built).
- MB-326KT: Single-seat ground-attack aircraft for Tunisia. (Seven built).
- MB-326L: Two-seat advanced jet trainer aircraft.
- MB-326LD: Two-seat advanced jet training aircraft for Dubai. (Two built).
- MB-326LT: Two-seat advanced jet training aircraft for Tunisia. Four built.
- MB-326M: Two-seat jet trainer, ground-attack aircraft for the South African Air Force. Built under license in South Africa by the Atlas Aircraft Corporation.
- Impala Mk I: South African Air Force designation of the MB-326M.
- MB-326RM: Five Italian Air Force MB-326s were converted into ECM aircraft.
- Argentine Navy - The Argentine Naval Aviation received 8 MB-326GB plus 11 MB-326GC ex-Brazilian Air Force
- Royal Australian Air Force operated 87 MB-326Hs from 1967 to 2001. As of 2014 some fuselages are still in use at RAAF Base Wagga as training aids.
- No. 25 Squadron RAAF
- No. 76 Squadron RAAF
- No. 77 Squadron RAAF
- No. 79 Squadron RAAF
- No. 2 Flying Training School RAAF
- No. 2 Operational Conversion Unit RAAF
- No. 5 Operational Training Unit RAAF
- Central Flying School RAAF
- Aircraft Research and Development Unit
- RAAF School of Technical Training (still in use as training aids)
- Fleet Air Arm (RAN) operated 10 MB-326Hs from 1970 to 1983.
- No. 724 Squadron RAN
- Brazilian Air Force received 182 MB-326GCs (known as the AT-26 Xavante) and 12 Atlas Impala ex-South African Air Force. The last examples were retired on 2 December 2010.
- Dubai Defence Force Air Wing - 6 x MB 326KD, 3 x MB 326LD passed on to the United Arab Emirates Air Force in 1999.
- Ghana Air Force received 15 MB.326s.
- Paraguayan Air Force operates ten EMB-326GBs/AT-26 Xavante, some in reserve.
- South African Air Force operated 62 MB-326s plus 125 Impala Mk.1s and 73 Mk.2s
- Togolese Air Force received six MB-326GCs.
- Tunisian Air Force received 16 MB-326s.
- United Arab Emirates Air Force inherited six aircraft from the Dubai Defence Force Air Wing.
- Zaire Air Force received 25 MB-326GBs.
- Zambian Air Force received 23 MB-326GB.
Accidents and losses
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In Australian service
- 7 March 1968: CA-30 (Aermacchi MB-326H) crashed after aileron control jammed; pilot ejected safely.
- 31 January 1969: CA-30 loss of control; pilot and student survived.
- 22 July 1969: CA-30 crashed after engine fire; pilot and student ejected safely.
- 1 October 1969: CA-30 crashed after engine fire; pilot and student ejected safely.
- 11 August 1970: CA-30 canopy separated in flight, pilot and student killed.
- 19 November 1970: CA-30 crashed during night flying; pilot did not survive ejection.
- 29 October 1975: CA-30 crashed after striking trees; crew ejected with minor injuries.
- 19 July 1979: CA-30 crashed during aerobatic practice; pilot ejected safely.
- 15 February 1980: CA-30 canopy separated in flight, pilot and student ejected with injuries.
- 15 August 1980: CA-30 crashed during aerobatic display; pilot survived ejection but died when wreckage exploded.
- 15 December 1983: two CA-30s collided mid air during aerobatic practice; both pilots killed.
- 3 August 1987: CA-30 crashed due to engine icing; crew ejected safely.
- 5 April 1988: CA-30 crashed after engine failure; pilot and student ejected safely.
- 4 February 1988: CA-30 damaged beyond repair on landing due to brake failure; pilot uninjured, fuselage used as training aid.
- 10 March 1988: two CA-30s collided mid air during aerobatic practice; one pilot ejected safely, other aircraft landed but damaged beyond repair.
- 3 August 1989: CA-30 crashed after engine fire; pilot and student ejected safely.
- 16 October 1990: CA-30 crashed during aerobatic practice; pilot ejected safely.
- 11 November 1990: CA-30 crashed after wing failure; pilot killed during ejection.
- 24 October 1994: two CA-30s collided mid air during combat training, both pilots ejected with minor injuries.
In Italian service
- 22 April 1959: First prototype I-MAKI crashed in Egypt; pilot ejected.
Excluding the prototype, 33 Italian Air Force MB-326s were lost in accidents between 1963 and 1992.
South African service
- On 2 October 1993, an Impala Mark I (Aermacchi MB-326)(no. 489) of the SAAF Silver Falcons aerobatic team crashed after suffering separation of the right wing during a performance at the Lanseria Airshow. The pilot, Captain Charlie Rudnick, ejected but was killed, as the ejection was initiated outside of the design envelope of the ejection seat.
|This section is incomplete. (July 2014)|
- RAAF Museum (2 aircraft)
- RAAF Base Amberley, Aviation Heritage Centre
- RAAF Base Edinburgh, gate guard
- RAAF Base Pearce, gate guard
- RAAF Base Wagga, gate guard
- RAAF Base Williamtown, Fighter World (2 aircraft)
- HMAS Albatross, Fleet Air Arm Museum
- Benalla Aviation Museum, Benalla, Victoria
- Aviation Heritage Museum, Bull Creek, Western Australia
- Gippsland Armed Forces Museum, West Sale Airport (2 aircraft)
- Historical Aircraft Restoration Society, Illawarra Regional Airport, New South Wales
- South Australian Aviation Museum, Port Adelaide (2 aircraft)
- Merredin Military Museum, Merredin, Western Australia
- At least 5 privately owned
- TAM Museum (1 aircraft)
- San Pelagio Air and Space Museum, Due Carrare
- Istituto Tecnico Industriale Aeronautico, Udine
- Museo dell’Araba Fenice, Parma (flyable)
- Estrella Warbirds Museum, airfield
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1969-70 
- Crew: Two
- Payload: 1,814 kg (4,000 lb)
- Length: 10.65m (34 ft 11¼ in)
- Wingspan: 10.56 m (34 ft 8 in)
- Height: 3.72 m (12 ft 2½ in)
- Wing area: 19.0 m² (204.5 ft²)
- Empty weight: 2,237 kg (4,930 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 3,765 kg (8,300 lb)
- Powerplant: 1 × Bristol Siddeley Viper Mk.11 turbojet, 11.1 kN (2,500 lbf)
- Never exceed speed: Mach 0.8
- Maximum speed: 806 km/h (436 knots, 501 mph) at 4,575m (15,000 ft)
- Stall speed: 146 km/h (79 knots , 91 mph) (wheels and flaps lowered)
- Range: 1,665 km (900 Nmi, 1,035 miles) with large tip tanks at 11,500 m (38,000 ft)
- Service ceiling: 12,500 m (41,000 ft)
- Rate of climb: 22.3 m/s (4,400 ft/min)
- Guns: provision for 2 × 12.7 mm Browning machine guns in underwing pods
- Bombs: Up to 2000 lb (900 kg) of weapons on six hardpoints, including gun-pods, bombs, and rockets
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Aircraft, compared and contrasted, 2011, p. 140.
- Angelucci and Matricardi 1980, pp. 269–71.
- Jannetti 1987
- Taylor 1969, p. 120.
- Angelucci and Matricardi 1980, p. 269.
- Dennis et al 2008, p. 335.
- Potgieter, Herman and Willem Steenkamp. Aircraft of the South African Air Force. London: Jane's, 1981, First edition 1980. ISBN 0-86977-133-7.
- The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, Issue 1, 1981, p. 20.
- The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, Issue 2, 1981, p. 34.
- War machines 1985, p. 2119.
- War machines 1985
- Fenili 1990
- Cooper, Tom. "Angola: SAAF Bushwacks Six Helicopters." ACIG. Retrieved: 2 January 2010.
- Burden et al 1986, p. 29.
- Burden et al 1986, p. 33.
- "Brazilian air force retires last Xavante trainers." Flightglobal, 3 December 2010. Retrieved: 22 January 2012.
- "Cameroon orders CN235." defenceweb.co. Retrieved: 9 November 2012.
- Andrade 1982, p. 56
- Official website Aeronautica Militare Archived November 9, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- 4 Squadron, www.saairforce.co.za, Retrieved 2013-10-08.
- 5 Squadron, www.saairforce.co.za, Retrieved 2013-10-08.
- 6 Squadron, www.saairforce.co.za, Retrieved 2013-10-08.
- 7 Squadron, www.saairforce.co.za, Retrieved 2013-10-08
- 8 Squadron, www.saairforce.co.za, Retrieved 2013-10-08.
- 24 Squadron, www.saairforce.co.za, Retrieved 2013-10-08.
- 40 Squadron, www.saairforce.co.za, Retrieved 2013-10-08.
- 85 Combat Flying School, www.saairforce.co.za, Retrieved 2013-10-08.
- The Silver Falcons, www.saairforce.co.za, Retrieved 2013-10-08
- "ASN Wikibase Occurrence # 31989." Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved: 22 February 2011.
- "Chronological Listing of Italian Losses & Ejections." Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved: 22 February 2011.
- "Silver Falcons." silverfalcons.co.za. Retrieved: 22 February 20111.
- Taylor 1969, pp. 120–121.
- "Aermacchi M.B.326". The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, London: Orbis, Volume 1, Issue 1, 1981, p. 20.
- "Aermacchi M.B.326K". The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, London: Orbis, Volume 1, Issue 2, 1981, p. 34.
- Andrade, John. Militair 1982. London: Aviation Press, 1982. ISBN 0-907898-01-7.
- Angelucci, Enzo and Paolo Matricardi. World Aircraft: Combat Aircraft 1945–1960. Maidenhead, Berkshire, UK: Sampson Low Guides, 1980. ISBN 0-562-00136-0.
- Burden, Rodney A., Michael A. Draper, Douglas A. Rough, Colin A Smith and David Wilton. Falklands: The Air War. Twickenham, UK: British Air Review Group, 1986. ISBN 0-906339-05-7.
- Dennis, Peter; Grey, Jeffrey; Morris, Ewan; Prior, Robin; Bou, Jean (2008). The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2nd ed.). Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-195517842.
- Fenili, Vincenzo. "Impala sul Bush." JP4 Magazine, January 1990.
- Jannetti, Fabrizio. "30 anni di '326." Aeronautica & Difesa magazine, Rome: Ed. Ai editions, N.14, December 1987, pp. 38–47.
- Taylor, John W.R., ed. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1969–70. London: Jane's Yearbooks, 1969.
- War Machines Encyclopaedia (Italian edition printed by De Agostini). London: Aerospace Publishing, 1985, pp. 2117–19 .
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