Aeroméxico

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AeroMéxico
AeroMéxico Logo.svg
IATA ICAO Callsign
AM AMX AEROMEXICO
Founded 1 October 1988 (1988-10-01); (Its predecessor was Aeronaves de México, founded on 14 September 1934, 81 years ago)
Commenced operations 1 October 1988 (1988-10-01); 27 years ago (as Aerovias de Mexico SA de CV)
Hubs
Secondary hubs
Frequent-flyer program Club Premier
Alliance SkyTeam
Subsidiaries Aeroméxico Cargo
Aeroméxico Connect
Aeroméxico Express
Aeroméxico Servicios
Fleet size 69
Destinations 84
Company slogan
  • "Mexico's Global Airline" (English)
  • "La linea que nos une" (Spanish)[2]
Parent company Grupo Aeroméxico
Headquarters Aeromexico headquarters bldg., Mexico City, Mexico
Key people Andrés Conesa Labastida (CEO)
Revenue Increase US$ 2.80 billion (2011)[3]
Net income Increase US$ 267.6 million (2011)[3]
Employees 13,745 (5 March 2014)
Website www.aeromexico.com

Aerovías de México, S.A. de C.V.[4] operating as Aeroméxico, is the flag carrier[5] airline of Mexico based in Mexico City. It operates scheduled services to more than 80 destinations[6] in Mexico; North, South, and Central America; the Caribbean, Europe, and Asia. Its main base and hub is Mexico City International Airport, with a secondary hub at Monterrey.[1] Aeromexico's headquarters building is in the financial district on Paseo de la Reforma overlooking the Diana the Huntress Fountain.[7][8]

Grupo Aeroméxico includes Aeroméxico mainline and Aeroméxico Connect (regional subsidiary). The group held #1 place in domestic market share with 36.6%, and #2 place behind American Airlines with 15.3% of the international market share, in the 12 months ending March 2014,[9] becoming Mexico's largest domestic airline group. Aeroméxico is one of the four founding members of the SkyTeam airline alliance, along with Air France, Delta Air Lines, and Korean Air.

Aeroméxico works closely with U.S.-based Delta Air Lines, which owns part of Aeroméxico and in 2015 announced its intention to acquire up to 49%. In December 2016 the two airlines agreed to set up a joint commercial agreement (JCA), sharing information, costs and revenues on all flights between the United States and Mexico.[10]

In 2016, the company flew 19,703,000 passengers (up 5.0% vs. previous year), of which 13,047,000 domestic (+3.7%)and 6,656,000 international (+7.6%). It flew 34,776,000 revenue passenger kilometers (RPKs), had 43,362,000 available seat kilometers (ASKs), and an 80.3% load factor.[11]

History[edit]

1934[edit]

The airline was established as Aeronaves de México on 15 September 1934,[12] by Antonio Díaz Lombardo. Its first aircraft was a Stinson SR. Julio Zinser piloted the maiden flight on the Mexico City - Acapulco route on 14 September 1934.

An early Bellanca aircraft of Aeroméxico, México City - Acapulco ca. 1935
Aeronaves de Mexico Bristol Britannia at New York JFK in 1958

1940s[edit]

When World War II began, the airline continued to grow with the help of Pan Am, which owned 25% of the new Mexican airline. Aeroméxico saw few changes for the next two decades. However, during the 1950s, renovation began, and the airline took over various small competitor companies across the country, including Aerovías Guest (the second airline of the country at that time) that held the routes to Madrid and Paris. Aeroméxico added aircraft including the Douglas DC-3 and its successor, the Douglas DC-4.

1950s[edit]

During the late 1950s, the Douglas DC-4s were replaced by some pressurised Douglas DC-6s and two Bristol Britannias (the first turboprop passenger aircraft in the fleet) and in 1958, services were inaugurated to Idlewild Airport (now JFK) using the Britannias. The Mexico City-New York route would prove profitable for "Aeronaves" and its North American competitors. The airline was nationalised in 1959.

1960s[edit]

In the early 1960s, the fleet of Aeronaves de México (Aeroméxico) included Douglas DC-3, Douglas DC-6, and Bristol Britannia aircraft. Starting in 1961, "Aeronaves" began replacing its piston-engined aircraft with new jets. The first jet-engined aircraft were a pair of Douglas DC-8s. The DC-8s were used on routes within Mexico and to New York City. Between 1962 and 1963, Aeronaves de México (Aeroméxico) took over Aerovías Guest Mexico the second airline, and they were merged under the name Aeronaves de México. Later in the 1960s, more DC-8s were added and service to Europe was resumed, operated by two Comet-4C aircraft dry-leased by Aerovías Guest prior to the merger.

1970s[edit]

Aeronaves de Mexico Douglas DC-8 at Toronto Airport in 1971
Aeroméxico Douglas DC-9-32 at Miami International Airport in 1975

The 1970s brought dramatic changes for Aeroméxico. In 1970, under a government plan, Mexican domestic airlines were nationalized into an integrated air transport system under the control of Aeronaves de México. The system included eight smaller carriers, although these were later disbanded.[12] During the early 1970s, the remaining Douglas DC-6 and Bristol Britannia aircraft were retired. A new color scheme (orange and black) was introduced and the airline changed its name from "Aeronaves de México" to its current, shortened version of Aeroméxico in February 1972.

Aeroméxico, as one of the launch customers of the McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 program, received the first of its aircraft in 1974. That same year the airline also took delivery of its first seven McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32s. During this period the airline's popularity and visibility grew dramatically. This was due in part to Aeroméxico's involvement in Mexican movies. Basically, every time characters in any movie produced in Mexico had to fly somewhere, they were depicted as flying on Aeroméxico aircraft. Service to Canada was initiated and in the early 1970s, two more DC-9-15s were added to the fleet.[citation needed]

1980s[edit]

The early 1980s were marked by expansion. A new color scheme was introduced (orange paint and silver), two DC-10-15s and a DC-10-30 were added in 1981 and in 1984. Aeroméxico, one of the launch customers of the McDonnell Douglas MD-82 (an elongated version of the DC-9), received its first two in late 1981. Between 1980 and 1981, eight more DC-9-32 aircraft were added. On 31 August 1986, the company suffered its only fatal accident outside Mexico when Aeroméxico Flight 498, a Douglas DC-9, approaching Los Angeles International Airport was struck by a light aircraft. Both aircraft then fell to earth in the Los Angeles suburb of Cerritos, California. All 64 passengers and crew on board the DC-9-32 were killed, as were the 3 people in the light aircraft and 15 people on the ground. After three years and a long trial, the aircraft's crew and the airline were found not to blame. This was because the pilot of the Piper had strayed into an air traffic control zone reserved for commercial flights. That same year, the airline acquired the charter carrier GATSA and used it for charter operations until December. In April 1988, the state-owned company was declared bankrupt and grounded for three months because of lack of organization, a fleet with an average of 20 years without a renovation plan and a depredating administration by the Mexican Government. In August, a privatization program was underway. This involved retiring the eight Douglas DC-8s along with the remaining ten DC-9-15 aircraft. Starting the privatization process included a new corporate name (Aerovias de Mexico SA de CV). The airline restarted operations with its predecessor's assets, including the headquarters building, maintenance hangar, some aircraft and some former Aeronaves de Mexico employees.

Aeroméxico Boeing 767-300 At Los Cabos International Airport

1990s[edit]

The early 1990s were turbulent times, with the rise in fuel costs due to the Gulf War, and a domestic fare war caused by start up airlines like TAESA, Servicios Aéreos Rutas Oriente, Aviacsa, among others, as well as constant labor problems. In April 1991 the first two 767-200ERs were introduced to the fleet starting to replace DC-10s in services to Europe, New York and Tijuana, another two 767-300ERs joined the fleet later that year. This was all a part of a renovation and expansion program to introduce 24 direct flights to Madrid and Paris from Mexico City with Boeing 767s as well as services to Frankfurt via Paris and Rome via Madrid.

In 1992 Grupo Aeroméxico was among other investors that failed to consummate the acquisition of Continental Airlines. After failing to invest in Continental, Aeroméxico acquired the bankrupt Aeroperú from the Peruvian government.

In 1993 Aeroméxico Group took over Mexicana, the second largest airline in the Mexican market under the same management. There was a great dispute in June 1993 with the pilot union regarding the transfer of flights to regional subsidiary Aeromonterrey, which had non-union pilots.[13] Between 1994 and 1995, the six DC-10 aircraft in the fleet were finally retired. Their last revenue flight was in 1995.

In December 1994 (three weeks after Carlos Salinas de Gortari left the office), the first of several devaluations in the next 18 months started, giving way to an economic crisis in Mexico. As a consequence, Aeroméxico had to cut capacity and flights to Frankfurt and Rome were canceled, four McDonnell Douglas MD-80s and four Boeing 767s were returned to their lessors, early retirement for pilots and other staff was underway, and a new Boeing 767 due for delivery in April 1995 was instead transferred to another airline. Flights to Madrid and Paris were operated only by two Boeing 767-300ER jets.

In 1996 Cintra was created to prevent the two main carriers from going bankrupt. Some Boeing 757s of Aeroméxico's original renovation program were transferred to Mexicana and Aeroperú. The market and the airline recovered between 1996 and 1998; eight McDonnell Douglas MD80s were leased back along with two Boeing 767-200ERs.

The sale of Grupo Cintra was scheduled after several delays in September 1999, and with the looming presidential elections in 2000, everything was delayed once again. The ruling party lost the election after 70 years in office and all the policies changed. Due to the recession in 2000, the new government put everything on hold, waiting for better economic conditions to start the stock sell-off, and just when everything was about to start, the 11 September 2001 attacks occurred and nothing materialized since the two main carriers, Mexicana and Aeroméxico, were losing large amounts of money.

2000s[edit]

A Boeing 737-700 in old livery

Between 2000 and 2005, Aeroméxico had an average fleet of 60 aircraft in mainline operation, plus 20 in Aerolitoral, as well as five CEOs during this time. After 9/11 and the Iraq War, it pursued a fleet renovation program. In 2003, the airline acquired its first Boeing 737-700 instead of the Boeing 717 as a replacement for its aging DC-9 aircraft. On 29 March 2006 Aeroméxico CEO, Andrés Conesa announced the inauguration of direct flights between Japan and Mexico City via Tijuana. This was after the purchase of two Boeing 777-200ERs, making Aeroméxico the third airline in Latin America to fly regularly to Asia, after Varig and the now defunct VASP. Since Varig's demise, Aeroméxico is currently the only airline with this service. Aeroméxico resumed its Mexico City-Tijuana-Shanghai route twice a week as of 30 March 2010. Suspension of this flight was due to the 2009 flu pandemic.

On 29 June 2006, the International Lease Finance Corporation (ILFC) and Aeroméxico announced that the airline would operate three Boeing 787 Dreamliners. Aeroméxico's deliveries were scheduled to begin in early 2012. From 2006, Consorcio Aeroméxico S.A. de C.V., the parent company of Aeroméxico at the time, faced large debts and had no profits to pay them off, so it offered Aeroméxico for sale in 2007. In early October, a week-long auction was held, with Grupo Financiero Banamex, a unit of Citigroup, competing against the Saba family. On October 17, 2007, Banamex offered the highest bid and purchased the airline for US$249.1 million. In October 2010, Aeroméxico's largest competitor, Mexicana de Aviacion, filed for bankruptcy and was placed in administration.

2010s[edit]

Delta/Aeroméxico alliance[edit]

A newly delivered 787-8 taxiing at London Heathrow Airport

In 2011, Delta Air Lines and Aeroméxico signed an enhanced commercial alliance, building on an original agreement from 1994.[14] The 2011 agreement provided for codeshare on all the carriers' Mexico–US flights; Delta investing 65 million USD in Aeroméxico shares; and Delta gaining a seat on the Aeroméxico board of directors.

  • In March 2014, the airlines opened Tech Ops Mexico, a 55 million USD joint maintenance, repair and overhaul facility in Queretaro City, Mexico.[15]
  • In March 2015, the airlines filed applications for antitrust immunity, a first step in the creation of a 1.5 billion USD joint cooperation agreement (JCA) that will allow Delta and Aeroméxico to jointly sell, and share costs and profits on all Mexico–U.S. routes.[14]
  • In May 2015, Mexican regulator approved the JCA; and in the same month the Mexican Senate approved Open Skies between the U.S. and Mexico.
  • In November 2016, the DOT approved the joint venture under strict conditions that the airlines give up slots
  • In December 2016 the two airlines made the final agreement to go forward with the JV and antitrust immunity was granted.[10]
  • In February 2017, Delta announced an offer to acquire additional shares of Aeroméxico, up to 49%.[16]

Dreamliners[edit]

On 25 July 2012, Aeroméxico CEO Andrés Conesa announced the purchase of six Boeing 787-9 Dreamliners. The new order was added to the package of 20 aircraft that the company had announced in 2011 and nine more Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner already provided. The delivery of the Dreamliners began in the summer of 2013. The total investment is US$11 billion and includes the acquisition of 90 Boeing 737-8 MAX which will be delivered from 2018.[17][18] The airline took delivery of its first Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner (sourced from the ILFC order book) in early August 2013 and officially launched commercial service on 1 October 2013. Between 2013 and 2015, the remaining eight were delivered (seven leased---two on sale-leasebacks, and two owned by Aeroméxico outright).[19]

In September 2016, Aeroméxico received its first Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner. This particular frame, registered XA-ADL, is named after and painted in a unique commemorating Quetzalcoatl, a major figure in Aztec culture of pre-Hispanic Mexico, as the result of a "Design in the Air" competition hosted by the airline inviting students at select universities in Mexico to submit a potential design to be painted on the airframe.[20]

New technology[edit]

In 2016, Aeroméxico added 2Ku WiFi service by Gogoto some 737-800 aircraft,[21] including access to Netflix. On its 787-8 and 787-9 Dreamliners it added Panasonic broadband Internet, and on Embraer narrowbody aircraft, streaming entertainment via Gogo's Gogo Vision.[22]

In July 2016, the airline launched a completely new website, new check-in kiosks at Mexico City airport, and announced plans to launch a completely new mobile app in the Autumn of that year.[23] That same year, the airline also co-sponsored the launch of startup accelerator MassChallenge in Mexico.[24]

In September 2016, Aeromexico became the first airline in the Americas to launch a chatbot, that enables customers to ask questions, search, track and book flights interacting with a virtual assistant on Facebook Messenger.[25]

Corporate affairs[edit]

The company is run from its landmark headquarters at Paseo de la Reforma 445, Colonia Cuauhtémoc, Cuauhtémoc borough, Mexico City.[26] There is small U.S.administrative office in Houston.[27]

Destinations[edit]

New destinations[edit]

In an attempt to gain more worldwide presence and strengthen its network and to make connections easier and more frequent, Aeroméxico has started to develop new international markets. From 2006 it started operations to Tokyo from Mexico City via Tijuana. Service to Shanghai from Mexico City via Tijuana began in May 2008. New destinations in 2014-2016 included Panama City (Panama), Santo Domingo, Vancouver, Toronto, Boston, Medellín, Amsterdam, Cozumel, and Austin (Texas).[28] The airline is launching service to Seoul from Mexico City (with a stop in Monterrey only on the outbound flight) on May 27, 2017.[29]

Codeshare agreements[edit]

Aeroméxico codeshares with the following airlines:[30]

Bus services from Tijuana[edit]

Aeroméxico contracts with Intercalifornias to offer bus service from Tijuana to cities in California. In order to board the bus, a passenger must have a ticket to or from Tijuana Airport on Aeroméxico.[31]

Fleet[edit]

Boeing 787-9 in Quetzalcoatl special livery

As of January 2017 the Aeroméxico all-Boeing mainline fleet consists of the following aircraft:[32][33][34]

Aircraft In Fleet Orders Passengers[35] Notes
C W Y Total
Boeing 737-700 19 0 12 18 94 124 Being replaced by 737-800[citation needed]
Boeing 737-800 34 0 16 18 126 160
Boeing 737 MAX 8 0 60
TBA
First delivery in October 2017[citation needed]
Boeing 777-200ER 3 0 49 0 228 277 Being replaced by Boeing 787-9[citation needed]
Boeing 787-8 9 0 32 0 211 243
Boeing 787-9 4 6 36 0 238 274 XA-ADL is painted in a special Quetzalcóatl livery[33]
Total 69 66

Retired fleet[edit]

Subsidiaries[edit]

Former Subsidiaries[edit]

Slogans[edit]

  • 1960s-1970s - Mexico's largest airline
  • 1990s - La linea aerea mas puntual del mundo [39]
  • Before 2009 - Travel the world (Vamos por el mundo) [40]
  • 2010–2012 - A donde te lleven tus sueños
  • 2012–2013 - Nunca nos detenemos
  • 2013–2015 - La linea que nos une
  • 2016–present - La linea de los mexicanos y del mundo
  • English slogan: "Mexico's Global Airline"[2]

Incidents, accidents and Hijackings[edit]

Aeronaves de México[edit]

  • 26 March 1954 near Monterrey, México - XA-GUN a Douglas DC-3.[41][42]
  • 2 June 1958 near Guadalajara, México - XA-MEV, a Lockheed L-749A Constellation operating as Flight 111, crashed into La Latilla Mountain, 16 kilometers (10 miles) from the Guadalajara Airport, shortly after takeoff for a flight to Mexico City after the airliner′s crew failed to follow the established climb-out procedure for Guadalajara Airport. The crash killed all 45 people on board, and two prominent American scientists – oceanographer Townsend Cromwell and fisheries scientist Bell M. Shimada – were among the dead. It was the deadliest aviation accident in Mexican history at the time.[43][44][45][46][47]
  • 19 January 1961 in New York, New York (Idlewild) - XA-XAX a Douglas DC-8-21[48]
  • 13 August 1966 near Acapulco, Mexico - XA-PEI a Douglas DC-8-51.[49]
  • 24 December 1966 Lake Texcoco, Mexico - XA-NUS a Douglas DC-8-51[50]
  • 12 June 1967 near La Paz, México - XA-FUW a Douglas DC-3A[51]

AeroMexico[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "About Us", Aeromexico website, retrieved 2015-09-03
  2. ^ a b aeromexico.com
  3. ^ a b "Grupo Aeromexico S.A.B. De C.V. Releases Results for the Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2011". Reuters. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2012. 
  4. ^ "Report on Actions of Social Responsibility." Aeroméxico. 41 (43/44). Retrieved on 4 December 2010. "Paseo de la Reforma 445, Col. Cuauhtémoc. C.P. 06500 México D.F."
  5. ^ "Aeroméxico, la línea bandera del país", El Universal, 10 December 2010
  6. ^ Aeroméxico. "Aeroméxico - Destinos Aeroméxico". Aeroméxico. Retrieved 7 January 2016. 
  7. ^ "Edificio Centro Olímpico", Una Vida Moderna
  8. ^ "Aeroméxico, edemx.com". Retrieved 24 April 2015. 
  9. ^ "Aeromexico outlines its revenue and network strategy in an uncertain Mexican market". Retrieved 24 April 2015. 
  10. ^ a b Painter, Kristen Leigh (21 December 2016). "Delta to move forward with Aeromexico joint venture". Startribune.com. Star Tribune Media Company LLC. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  11. ^ Aeromexico Reports December 2016 Traffic Results
  12. ^ a b "Directory: World Airlines". Flight International. 27 March 2007. p. 49. 
  13. ^ ITF News. Retrieved 24 April 2015. 
  14. ^ a b "Delta and Aeroméxico: A 21-year partnership", Delta Air Lines News Hub, November 18, 2015
  15. ^ "Delta and Aeromexico Create Enhanced Commercial Alliance", PR Newswire, August 10, 2011
  16. ^ http://news.delta.com/delta-announces-launch-cash-tender-offer-acquire-additional-shares-grupo-aeromexico
  17. ^ "Boeing, Aeromexico Announce Commitment for 100 Airplanes - Jul 25, 2012". Boeing.mediaroom.com. 25 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  18. ^ "Finanzas - Aeroméxico invertirá 11 mil mdd para comprar 100 aviones". El Universal. 25 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  19. ^ Linda Blachly (14 June 2013). "Aeromexico to take delivery of first 787 in August". ATWOnline. Retrieved 2013-06-30. 
  20. ^ "AeroMexico unveils its first Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner, named "Quetzalcoatl" in a special livery". World Airline News. September 7, 2016. Retrieved December 19, 2016. 
  21. ^ "Gogo's 2Ku Technology Takes Flight on Aeromexico", PR Newswire, April 21, 2016
  22. ^ "Inflight Entertainment and WiFi", Aeroméxico website
  23. ^ Álvarez, Domingo (August 2016). "Las puertas del cielo (The gates to heaven)". Aire. Grupo Expansión: 82. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  24. ^ "Aeroméxico apoya la iniciativa de MassChallenge" [Aeroméxico supports the MassChallenge initiative] (Press release) (in Spanish). Aeroméxico. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  25. ^ "Aeroméxico comienza a utilizar Aerobot, el primer chatbot de una aerolínea en el continente" [Aeroméxico begins to use Aerobot, the first airline chatbot in the continent]. prnewswire.com (in Spanish). Aeroméxico. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  26. ^ "Report on Actions of Social Responsibility." Aeroméxico. 4/44. Retrieved on 4 December 2010. "Paseo de la Reforma 445, Col. Cuauhtémoc. C.P. 06500 México D.F."
  27. ^ "Contact Us." Aeroméxico United States. Retrieved on 18 September 2014. "Aeromexico Consumer Relations 3663 N. Sam Houston Parkway E. Ste. #500 Houston, Texas 77032"
  28. ^ Aeromexico Press Room
  29. ^ http://www.marketwatch.com/story/aeromexico-announces-seoul-south-korea-as-its-new-destination-in-asia-2017-01-19-15160446
  30. ^ "Profile on Aeromexico". CAPA. Centre for Aviation. Archived from the original on 2016-10-30. Retrieved 2016-10-30. 
  31. ^ "Tijuana - California Cities." Aeroméxico. Retrieved on 19 April 2014.
  32. ^ "Aeroméxico Fleet Details and History". Planespotters.net. 13 January 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2017. 
  33. ^ a b "Quetzalcóatl, el nuevo embajador de Aeroméxico en el mundo" [Quetzalcóatl, Aeroméxico's new ambassador to the world] (in Spanish). El Universal. 12 October 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  34. ^ http://www.seatguru.com/airlines/AeroMexico/information.php
  35. ^ "Aeromexico: Our Fleet". Aeromexico.com. Retrieved 2014-04-16. 
  36. ^ http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/aeromexico-announces-launch-of-new-aeromexico-contigo-product-211882931.html
  37. ^ http://aeromexico.com/us/promotions/fare-sales-and-special-offers/am-contigo.html
  38. ^ http://www.ch-aviation.com/portal/news/26699-aeromar-airlines-to-operate-its-atr72-600s-for-aeromxico-express
  39. ^ http://aeromexico.com/en/about-us/history-advertising/?site=us
  40. ^ http://www.slogans.de/slogans.php?BSelect%5B%5D=29320
  41. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas C-53-DO (DC-3) XA-GUN Monterrey". Aviation-safety.net. 25 March 1954. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  42. ^ "Accident Database: Accident Synopsis 03251954". Airdisaster.com. 25 March 1954. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  43. ^ Aviation Safety Network Accident Description
  44. ^ preserveamerica.noaa.gov Bell Masayuki Shimada (1922-1958)
  45. ^ nvcfoundation.org "NOAA Honors Nisei with Launch of Fisheries Vessel 'Bell M. Shimada,'" Japanese American Veterans Association, December 2008, Volume 58, Issue 11.
  46. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Lockheed L-749A Constellation XA-MEV Guadalajara Airport (GDL)". Aviation-safety.net. 2 June 1958. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  47. ^ "Accident Database: Accident Synopsis 06021958". Airdisaster.com. 2 June 1958. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  48. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas DC-8-21 XA-XAX New York-Idlewild International Airport, NY (IDL)". Aviation-safety.net. 19 January 1961. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  49. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas DC-8-51 XA-PEI Acapulco". Aviation-safety.net. 13 August 1966. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  50. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas DC-8-51 XA-NUS Lake Texcoco". Aviation-safety.net. 24 December 1966. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  51. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas DC-3A-197D XA-FUW La Paz". Aviation-safety.net. 12 June 1967. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  52. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-9-15 XA-SOC Puerto Vallarta Airport (PVR)". Aviation-safety.net. 20 June 1973. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  53. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-9-15 XA-SOF Léon Airport (BJX)". Aviation-safety.net. 2 September 1976. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  54. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32 XA-DEN Chihuahua Airport (CUU)". Aviation-safety.net. 27 July 1981. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  55. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32 XA-DEO Zihuatanejo". Aviation-safety.net. 8 November 1981. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 
  56. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident McDonnell Douglas DC-9-31 N936ML Reynosa-Gen Lucio Blanco Airport (REX)". Aviation-safety.net. 6 October 2000. Retrieved 2012-10-06. 

External links[edit]