Afaqi Khoja revolts

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Khoja revolts
Recapture of Kaschgar and capture of the rebel chief.jpg
Qing victory over the Afaqis in Kashgar
Date1826[2]–1857
Location
Result Qing victory
Belligerents
Qing Dynasty, Qara Taghlik Khojas (Ishaqi Khojas)
Hunza (princely state)[1]
Aq Taghlik Khojas (Afaqi Khojas)
Supported by:
Kokand Khanate
Commanders and leaders
Daoguang Emperor
Chang Ling[3][4]
Zhang Mingtang
Eldemboo[5]
Mir Ghazanfur Khan of Hunza[6]
Khoja Zia-ud-din Akhund
Jahangir Khoja[7] Executed
Yusuf Khoja
Ehsan Khan Khoja
Khoja Buzurg Khan
Khoja Wali Khan[2]
Khoja Kichik Khan
Khoja Tawakkul Khan
Supported by:
Muhammad Ali Khan
Strength
Eight Banners, Manchu bannerman
Green Standard Army
Han Chinese and Chinese Hui militia
Qara taghlik Ishaqiyya Turkic followers
Burusho soldiers of Hunza
Aq taghlik Afaqiyya Turkic followers
Dolan people[8]

During the early and mid-19th century in China, the Afaqi Khojas in the Khanate of Kokand (descended from Khoja Burhanuddin and ultimately from Afaq Khoja) unsuccessfully tried to invade Kashgar and regain Altishahr from the Qing dynasty.

History[edit]

Hui merchants fought for the Qing dynasty in 1826 against Turkic Muslim rebels led by the Jahangir Khoja. The Muslim Khojas and Khanate of Kokand were resisted by the Qing army and Dungan merchants. Among those who died in battle in 1826 against Jahangir Khoja's forces was Zhang Mingtang, who led the merchant militia of Kashgar.[9]

During the 1826 invasion, Jahangir Khoja's forces took six Hui Muslims as slaves (Nian Dengxi, Liu Qifeng, Wu Erqi, Ma Tianxi, Tian Guan and Li Shengzhao) and sold them in Central Asia. They escaped and returned to China via Russia.[10]

When the Khojas attacked in 1826 and 1830, the Yarkand, Kashgar, Dungan and merchant militia fought them off. The Dungan were also part of the Qing Green Standard Army.[11]

Ishaqi (Black Mountain) Khoja followers helped the Qing oppose Jahangir Khoja's Afaqi (White Mountain) Khoja faction. The Black Mountain Khojas (Qarataghliks) supported the Qing against the White Mountain (Aqtaghlik) Khoja invasions.[12] The Qing–Black Mountain Khoja alliance helped bring down Jahangir Khoja's White Mountain rule.[13]

Chinese rule in Xinjiang was supported by the Black Mountain Turkic Muslims, called Khitai-parast (China worshipers, or followers of China), who were based in Artush. The White Mountain Aqtaghlik Khojas, opposed to China, were called sayyid parast (sayyid worshipers or followers, based in Kucha) and guided by Turkic nationalism. The Qarataghliks did not say bismillah before eating melons; the Aqtaghliks did, and there was no intermarriage between the factions.[14][15]

Ishaqi followers mounted opposition to forces backed by Jahangir Khoja's Kokandi, and the Ishaqis aided Qing loyalists. Ishaqi followers opposed the "debauchery" and "pillage" of Afaqi rule under Jahangir Khoja, and allied with Qing loyalists against Jahangir.[16]

In the Kokandi and Jahangir invasions, the Qing were assisted by the Black Hat Muslims (the Ishaqiyya) against the Afaqiyya.[17] The Kokandi spread false information that the local Turkic Muslims were conspiring with them, which reached the ears of Chinese merchants in Kashgar.[18]

Yarkand was besieged by the Kokandi. The Chinese merchants and Qing military declined to battle openly, taking cover inside fortifications and killing Kokandi troops with guns and cannons. Yarkand's Turkic Muslims helped the Qing capture or drive off the remaining Kokandis, and some prisoners were executed after capture.[19]

Kokandi-supported Khoja of the White Mountain faction first launched his attack on the Qing in 1825, killing Chinese civilians and the small Chinese military force as he attacked Kashgar. They killed the Turkic Muslim pro-Chinese Governor of Kashgar, and the Jahangir took Kashgar in 1826. In Ili, the Chinese called up a large army of nomads from the northern and eastern steppes and 80,000 Dungans to fight Jahangir.[20] Jahangir brought his 50,000-strong army to fight them at Maralbashi, and the armies began the fight by challenging each other to a duel between two champions of their armies. A Kokandi with a rifle and sword was the champion of Jahangir, and a Kalmyk archer was the champion of the Chinese. The Kalmyk killed the Kokandi with an arrow, and the two armies then joined in battle. The Chinese army overwhelmed Jahangir's, which tried to escape.

Jahangir hid, but was turned over to the Chinese by the Kyrgyz; he was tortured and put to death. Yusuf, Jahangir's brother, invaded the Qing in 1830 and besieged Kashgar.[21] The Qing and Kokandi negotiated an end to the conflict. The Aksakal was the Kokandi representative in Kashgar after China and Kokand signed a treaty ending the conflict.[22]

The Chinese used 3,000 criminals to help crush the 1846 Revolt of the Seven Khojas, and the local Turki Muslims refused to help the Khojas because the Khojas had abducted the Chinese-supporting Muslims' daughters and wives. Wali Khan, known for his brutality and tyranny, led a rebellion in 1855 and began by attacking Kashgar.[23] The Chinese were massacred, and the daughters and wives of subordinates of the loyalist Turki governor were seized. Adolf Schlagintweit, a German, was beheaded by Wali Khan and his head put on display. Wali Khan would kill courtiers under the flimsiest of pretexts. If a call to prayer was too loud, he would kill the muezzin. A 12,000-strong Chinese army defeated Wali Khan's army of 20,000 in a 77-day battle. Wali Khan was abandoned by his "allies" because of his cruelty; the Chinese inflicted harsh reprisals on his forces, and had his son and father-in-law executed.[24] The Uyghurs of Altishahr despised Wali Khan's forcible introduction of Kokandi culture, his suppression of Kashgari culture and his brutality.[25]

China was assisted by its Hunza allies under Shah Ghazanfur Khan in its fight in 1847 against the Seven Khojas.[1]

The khojas[edit]

The disagreement with Bukhara which broke out soon after Madali's accession[clarification needed] ended peaceably in 1825; the following year he joined Jihangyr Hodja (from the Appak family) to recover Kashgar, from whose throne his ancestors were driven by the Chinese in 1756. After a few skirmishes Madali gave himself the title of Ghazi (conqueror of the infidels); following a 12-day campaign he returned home, leaving part of his troops to help Jihangyr Hodja (who took Kashgar) and making himself temporary master of the country. A Chinese army of 70,000 soon arrived, and in 1827 the Khokandians withdrew.

In 1828–29 another attempt was made on Kashgar by Yusuf Hodja, Jihangyr's elder brother. Madali Khan again supplied his army and his best generals. Again Kashgar, Yangy-Hissar and Yarkand were taken, and again the Khokandians withdrew at the approach of a Chinese army. Yusuf Hodja escaped to Khokand, where he died. Years later, thousands of Kashgarians were massacred by the Chinese; 70,000 took refuge in Khokand, where they lived in the city of Shahri-Khana (built by Omar Khan) and on the Syr Darya below Hodjent.[26]

The Muslims of eastern Turkistan follow the Naqshbandi tariqa, headed ny a pir (generally a descendant of Muhammed). He has a body of disciples (murid), consisting of a lay chief and those descended from the people originally converted (or recruited) by his ancestor's preaching. He also has a band of disciples known as khalifa.[27]

In 1828–29, Yusuf Khoja (Yehanghir's brother) requested permission from Madali to reconquer his fatherland. The khan gave him royal robes and twenty-five thousand men, and accompanied them to Ush. Twenty days after leaving Ush they reached a Chinese frontier station, garrisoned by about one hundred fifty men, which they assaulted until the garrison destroyed the station.

Ishak Beg withdrew with his supporters to another Chinese fort, which contained about thirteen hundred men, and besieged it. Four months after Yusuf left the capital, word arrived that a 100,000-strong Chinese army had reached Faizabad.[28] In 1846, there were new disturbances in Kashgar.[29]

In 1825, Jehangir (grandson of the prince of Kashgar) attempted to regain Turkestan; winter ended the campaign. The next year, the khan of Kokand made an incursion as far as Hotan. Jehangir went to Hotan from Yarkand, but was repelled by about 60,000 Chinese troops. The khoja's followers fled towards Badakhshan, and he and his family were killed.[30]

In 1842 the Khan of Khokand, Mahomed Ali, died and was succeeded by Muhammad Khudayar Khan. Although Khudayar Khan was reluctant to fight, the Khokandian chiefs went to Jehangir's seven sons and persuaded them to make another attempt to drive the Chinese out of Central Asia. The seven khojas issued a proclamation in the winter of 1845-46, rallied their adherents and made allies of the Kirghiz tribes.

The Muslim forces advanced to Kashgar and besieged it for two weeks. They gained part of the town, but the citadel held out until the Chinese expelled the invaders.[31][32][33]

A decade later another attempt was made by Wali Khan, who occupied Kashgar in 1857 and massacred the Chinese. Imposing Islam on the population, he forbade plaiting the hair and murdered German traveler Adolf Schlagintweit. The Chinese army attacked, and the khoja fled back to Andijan.[34]

Legacy[edit]

The Turkistan Islamic Party mentioned the war in issue 1 of its magazine, Islamic Turkistan, in an article about the region's history.[35] and in issue 19 of its magazine, Islamic Turkistan, in an article about the region's history.[36]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b John Biddulph (1880). Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh. Office of the superintendent of government printing. pp. 28–.
  2. ^ a b Rian Thum (13 October 2014). The Sacred Routes of Uyghur History. Harvard University Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-674-59855-3.
  3. ^ http://www.dartmouth.edu/~qing/WEB/CH'ANG-LING.html
  4. ^ http://www.dartmouth.edu/~qing/WEB/NA-YEN-CH'ENG.html
  5. ^ http://www.dartmouth.edu/~qing/WEB/E-LE-TENG-PAO.html
  6. ^ Woodman, Dorothy (1969). Himalayan Frontiers. Barrie & Rockcliff. pp. 90ff.
  7. ^ Michael Dillon (1 August 2014). Xinjiang and the Expansion of Chinese Communist Power: Kashgar in the Early Twentieth Century. Routledge. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-1-317-64721-8.
  8. ^ Bellér-Hann 2008, pp. 21 ff..
  9. ^ Millward 1998, pp. 171 ff..
  10. ^ Millward 1998, pp. 167 f..
  11. ^ Pamela Kyle Crossley; Helen F. Siu; Donald S. Sutton (1 January 2006). Empire at the Margins: Culture, Ethnicity, and Frontier in Early Modern China. University of California Press. pp. 125–. ISBN 978-0-520-23015-6.
  12. ^ Liu & Faure 1996, pp. 75 ff..
  13. ^ Liu & Faure 1996, pp. 79 ff..
  14. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (9 October 1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. CUP Archive. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-0-521-25514-1.
  15. ^ Bellér-Hann 2008, pp. 237 ff..
  16. ^ L. J. Newby (2005). The Empire And the Khanate: A Political History of Qing Relations With Khoqand C1760-1860. BRILL. pp. 99–100. ISBN 90-04-14550-8.
  17. ^ Millward 1998, pp. 216 ff..
  18. ^ Millward 1998, pp. 220 ff..
  19. ^ Millward 1998, pp. 224 ff..
  20. ^ Tyler 2003, p. 66.
  21. ^ Tyler 2003, p. 67.
  22. ^ Huw Thomas; Monica Whitlock; Markus Hauser (2008). Tajikistan and the High Pamirs: A Companion and Guide. Odyssey Books & Guides. p. 612. ISBN 978-962-217-773-4.
  23. ^ Tyler 2003, p. 68.
  24. ^ Tyler 2003, p. 69.
  25. ^ Bellér-Hann 2008, pp. 19 ff..
  26. ^ Eugene Schuyler; Vasilīĭ Vasilʹevich Grigorʹev (1877). Turkistan: Notes of a Journey in Russian Turkistan, Khokand, Bukhara, and Kuldja. Scribner, Armstrong & Company. pp. 342–343.
  27. ^ Muḥammad Amīn ibn ʻUmar Ibn ʻĀbidīn (1897). al-Juzʾ al-awwal[-al-thānī] min majmūʻat rasāʾil Ibn ʻĀbidīn. Şirket-i Sahafiye-yi Osmaniye Matbaası. pp. 1–.
  28. ^ Howorth 1880, pp. 824 f..
  29. ^ Ernst Faber (1897). China in the Light of History. American Presbyterian mission Press. pp. 26–.
  30. ^ Samuel Wells Williams (1871). The Middle Kingdom: A Survey of the Geography, Government, Education, Social Life, Arts, Religion, Etc. of the Chinese Empire and Its Inhabitants, with a New Map of the Empire. Wiley. pp. 187–.
  31. ^ Demetrius Charles de Kavanagh Boulger; Mayo Williamson Hazeltine (1898). China. Peter Fenelon Collier. pp. 312–.
  32. ^ The Nations of the World: China. Peter Fenelon Collier. 1898. pp. 312–.
  33. ^ http://www.travelbooksonline.com/asia/0022asiapage402_250.html
  34. ^ Sykes & Sykes 1920 pp. 272–274.
  35. ^ "ماذا تعرف عن تركستان الشرقية". تركستان الإسلامية. No. العددالأول. July 2008. p. ١٧.
  36. ^ الشيخ علي العرجاني أبو حسن الكويتي (2016). "تركستان الشرقية تاريخ زاهر وجرح ينزف" (PDF). تركستان الإسلامية. No. العدد 19. p. 46.

Bibliography[edit]