Affluenza, a portmanteau of affluence and influenza, is a term used by critics of consumerism. The 2001 book Affluenza: The All-Consuming Epidemic defines it as "a painful, contagious, socially transmitted condition of overload, debt, anxiety, and waste resulting from the dogged pursuit of more." The term "affluenza" has also been used to refer to an inability to understand the consequences of one's actions because of financial privilege, notably in the case of Ethan Couch.
In 2007, British psychologist Oliver James asserted that there was a correlation between the increasing nature of affluenza and the resulting increase in material inequality: the more unequal a society, the greater the unhappiness of its citizens. Referring to Vance Packard's thesis The Hidden Persuaders on the manipulative methods used by the advertising industry, James related the stimulation of artificial needs to the rise in affluenza. To highlight the spread of affluenza in societies with varied levels of inequality, James interviewed people in several cities including Sydney, Singapore, Auckland, Moscow, Shanghai, Copenhagen and New York.
In 2008 James wrote that higher rates of mental disorders were the consequence of excessive wealth-seeking in consumerist nations. In a graph created from multiple data sources, James plotted "Prevalence of any emotional distress" and "Income inequality," attempting to show that English-speaking nations have nearly twice as much emotional distress as mainland Europe and Japan: 21.6 percent vs 11.5 percent. James defined affluenza as 'placing a high value on money, possessions, appearances (physical and social) and fame', which was the rationale behind the increasing mental illness in English-speaking societies. He explained the greater incidence of affluenza as the result of 'selfish capitalism', the market liberal political governance found in English-speaking nations as compared to the less selfish capitalism pursued in mainland Europe. James asserted that societies can remove the negative consumerist effects by pursuing real needs over perceived wants, and by defining themselves as having value independent of their material possessions.
Clive Hamilton and Richard Denniss' book, Affluenza: When Too Much is Never Enough, poses the question: "If the economy has been doing so well, why are we not becoming happier?" (p vii). They argue that affluenza causes over-consumption, "luxury fever," consumer debt, overwork, waste, and harm to the environment. These pressures lead to "psychological disorders, alienation and distress" (p 179), causing people to "self-medicate with mood-altering drugs and excessive alcohol consumption" (p 180).
They note that a number of Australians have reacted by "downshifting" — they decided to "reduce their incomes and place family, friends and contentment above money in determining their life goals." Their critique leads them to identify the need for an "alternative political philosophy," and the book concludes with a "political manifesto for wellbeing."
As a legal defense
In December 2013, State District Judge Jean Boyd sentenced a North Texas teenager, Ethan Couch to 10 years probation for drunk driving and killing four pedestrians and injuring 11 after his attorneys successfully argued that the teen suffered from affluenza (though in this case, the lawyer used the term 'affluenza' to mean that Couch was unable to understand the consequences of his actions because of his financial privilege) and needed rehabilitation, and not prison. The defendant was witnessed on surveillance video stealing beer from a store, driving with seven passengers in a Ford F-350 stolen from his father, speeding (70 MPH in a 40 MPH zone), and had a blood alcohol content of .24%, three times the legal limit for an adult in Texas, when he was tested 3 hours after the accident. Traces of Valium were also in his system. G. Dick Miller, a psychologist hired as an expert by the defense, testified in court that the teen was a product of affluenza and was unable to link his bad behavior with consequences due to his parents teaching him that wealth buys privilege. The rehabilitation facility near Wichita Falls, Texas that the teen will be attending will cost roughly $700 a day, however Couch will be paying only a portion of that. At a February 5, 2014 hearing, Eric Boyles, whose wife and daughter were killed in the crash, said "Had he not had money to have the defense there, to also have the experts testify, and also offer to pay for the treatment, I think the results would have been different."
In September 2015, Marco Muzzo of King, Ontario, Canada, aged 29 at the time of the incident, drove drunk and crashed his SUV onto a minivan carrying six members of a family on the intersection of Kipling Avenue and Kirby Road north of Kleinburg in Vaughan, Ontario, Canada, a suburb north-northwest of Toronto, killing three grandchildren and their grandfather inside the minivan. Muzzo faced 18 charges, including impaired driving causing death and dangerous driving causing death. He belonged to one of Canada's richest families, with a net worth of approximately C$1.7 billion in 2015. He is listed as a director of Marel Contractors, a part of the Muzzo Group of Companies, which has projects across Toronto, including Liberty Village and the Trump International Hotel and Tower. This incident caught Canada-wide media attention amid the 2015 federal election.
B.I.M. Imaging holds a trademark for stickers, clothing, eyewear, and sticker albums bearing the word "affluenza".
- Affluenza: The All-Consuming Epidemic, John de Graaf, David Wann & Thomas H. Naylor, 2001 ISBN 1-57675-199-6
- Dart, Tom (6 February 2014). "Texas teenager suffering 'affluenza' avoids jail for second time". The Guardian.
- James, Oliver (2007). Affluenza: How to Be Successful and Stay Sane. Vermilion. ISBN 978-0-09-190011-3.
- James, Oliver (2008). The Selfish Capitalist. Vermilion. ISBN 978-0-09-192381-5.
- James, Oliver (2007). "Appendix 2: Emotional Distress and Inequality: Selfish vs Unselfish Capitalist Nations". Affluenza: How to be Successful and Stay Sane. London: Vermilion. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-09-190010-6.
1. The mean prevalence of emotional distress for the six English-speaking nations combined was 21.6%. The mean for the other nations, mainland Western Europe plus Japan, was 11.5%.
- Payne, Will (16 December 2013). "EXCLUSIVE - Sins of the 'affluenza' boy's parents: Millionaire father and mother of teen let off despite killing four in DUI crash have been accused of more than TWENTY crimes and traffic violations". Daily Mail (London).
- "What's the future for 'affluenza' defenses?".
- Caulfield, Philip (2013-12-11). "Texas rich kid who killed 4 in drunken car crash spared jail". New York Daily News (NYDailyNews.com). Retrieved 2013-12-17.
- Neil, Martha (6 February 2014). "‘Affluenza’ teen on probation for fatal crash is sent to pricey rehab". American Bar Association. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- "Troubled teen is being treated at a state hospital in Vernon" http://www.star-telegram.com/2014/04/11/5730989/troubled-teen-is-being-treated.html?rh=1
- Plushnick-Masti, Ramit. "Affluenza' isn't a recognized diagnosis, experts say after 'brat' spared from jail in drunk driving case". Associated Press via National Post. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- Muskal, Michael (12 December 2013). "Texas teen's probation for killing 4 while driving drunk stirs anger". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
- The Circle of Simplicity, Cecile Andrews, ISBN 0-06-092872-7
- The Golden Ghetto: The Psychology of Affluence, Jessie H. O'Neill, ISBN 978-0-9678554-0-0
- Voluntary Simplicity, Duane Elgin, ISBN 0-688-12119-5
- Voluntary Simplicity, Daniel Doherty & Amitai Etzioni, ISBN 0-7425-2066-8
- How Much Is Too Much? Raising Likeable, Responsible, Respectful Children-From Toddler to Teens- In an Age of Overindulgence, Clarke, Jean Illsly, Bredehoft, David & Dawson, Connie, ISBN 978-0-7382-1681-2
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