Afonso Pena

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His Excellency
Afonso Pena
Afonso Pena.jpg
6th President of Brazil
In office
15 November 1906 – 14 June 1909
Vice President Nilo Peçanha
Preceded by Rodrigues Alves
Succeeded by Nilo Peçanha
4th Vice President of Brazil
In office
17 June 1903 – 15 November 1906
President Rodrigues Alves
Preceded by Rosa e Silva
Succeeded by Nilo Peçanha
President of the Bank of Brazil
In office
19 October 1895 – 14 November 1898
Preceded by Francisco Rangel Pestana
Succeeded by Luís Martins do Amaral
4th Governor of Minas Gerais
In office
14 July 1892 – 7 September 1894
Preceded by Gama Cerqueira
Succeeded by Bias Fortes
Personal details
Born (1847-11-30)30 November 1847
Santa Bárbara, Minas Gerais Empire of Brazil
Died 14 June 1909(1909-06-14) (aged 61)
Catete Palace, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Political party Empire:
Conservative Party
Minas Gerais Republican
Spouse(s) Maria Guilhermina de Oliveira (m. 1875–1909); his death
Children 12
Alma mater University of São Paulo

Afonso Augusto Moreira Pena (Portuguese: [aˈfõsu awˈɡustu moˈrejrɐ ˈpenɐ]; 30 November 1847 – 14 June 1909) was a Brazilian politician who served as President of Brazil between 1906 and 1909. Before his political career, Pena had been an attorney, legal scholar and member of the Brazilian Supreme Court.[1] He was the first President to die in office.

Pena began his political career in 1874 with an election to the Imperial General Assembly. In the succeeding years, Pena reconciled legislative work with some periods occupying secretariats—secretary of Agriculture (1882), Commerce and Public Issues (1883) and Justice (1885). Pena then presided over the provincial assembly of Minas Gerais.

After the proclamation of the Republic, he was governor of Minas Gerais between 1892 and 1894. It was during his administration that Belo Horizonte was set for the future state capital (which at that time was Ouro Preto). He ran in the presidential election of 1894, but lost by a large margin to Prudente de Morais.

In 1902 Pena became Vice President to Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves. He was elected president in 1906 and served until his death in 1909, a few days after the passing of his son Álvaro Pena.

Afonso Pena was the first Brazilian president to advocate intervening in the coffee economy. The federal government started to buy production surplus, thus maintaining the high price of coffee in international markets. Pena also promoted the expansion of railroads.

The reorganization of the Brazilian army was done by Hermes Rodrigues da Fonseca during the Pena administration. The president also supported Cândido Rondon's expeditions in the Amazon Rainforest.



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Political offices
Preceded by
Eduardo Ernesto da Gama Cerqueira
Governor of Minas Gerais
Succeeded by
Chrispim Jaques Bias Fortes
Preceded by
Francisco de Assis Rosa e Silva
Vice President of Brazil
Succeeded by
Nilo Peçanha
Preceded by
Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves
President of Brazil