Afoxolaner

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Afoxolaner
Afoxolaner structure.svg
Clinical data
Pronunciation/ˌfɒksˈlænər/ ay-FOK-soh-LAN-ər
Trade namesNexGard, Frontpro
Other names4-[(5RS)-5-(5-Chloro-α,α,α-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2-oxazol-3-yl]-N-[2-oxo-2-(2,2,2-trifluoroethylamino)ethyl]naphthalene-1-carboxamide
License data
Routes of
administration
By mouth (chewables)
ATCvet code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability74% (Tmax = 2–4 hours)[1]
Elimination half-life14 hours[1]
ExcretionBile duct (major route)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC26H17ClF9N3O3
Molar mass625.88 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
ChiralityRacemic mixture

Afoxolaner (INN)[2] is an insecticide and acaricide that belongs to the isoxazoline chemical compound group.

It acts as an antagonist at ligand-gated chloride channels, in particular those gated by the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-receptors). Isoxazolines, among the chloride channel modulators, bind to a distinct and unique target site within the insect GABA-gated chloride channels, thereby blocking pre-and post-synaptic transfer of chloride ions across cell membranes. Prolonged afoxolaner-induced hyperexcitation results in uncontrolled activity of the central nervous system and death of insects and acarines.[3]

Marketing[edit]

Afoxolaner is the active principle of the veterinary medicinal products NexGard (alone) and Nexgard Spectra (in combination with milbemycin oxime).[4][5][6] They are indicated for the treatment and prevention of flea infestations, and the treatment and control of tick infestations in dogs and puppies (8 weeks of age and older, weighing 4 pounds (~1.8 kilograms) of body weight or greater) for one month.[7] These products are administered orally and poisons fleas once they start feeding.

The marketing authorization was granted by the European Medicines Agency in February 2014, for NexGard and January 2015, for Nexgard Spectra, after only 14[8] and 12[9] months of quality, safety and efficacy assessment performed by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use (CVMP).[10] Therefore, long-term effects are not known.

List of excipients[edit]

In NexGard[11] and NexGard Spectra:[3]

Additionally in NexGard Spectra:

  • Citric acid monohydrate (E330)
  • Butylated hydroxytoluene (E321)

Safety[edit]

Dosage[edit]

Afoxolaner is recommended to be administered at a dose of 2.7-7 mg/kg dog's bodyweight.[11]

Toxicity for mammals[edit]

According to clinical studies performed prior marketing:

According to post-marketing safety experience:

Selectivity insects over mammalians[edit]

In vivo studies (repeat-dose toxicology in laboratory animals, target animal safety, field studies) provided by MERIAL, the company that produces afoxolaner-derivative medicines, did not show evidence of neurological or behavioural effects suggestive of GABA-mediated perturbations in mammals. The Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use (CVMP) therefore concluded that binding to dog, rat or human GABA receptors is expected to be low for afoxolaner.[9]

Selectivity for insect over mammalian GABA-receptors has been demonstrated for other isoxazolines.[15] The selectivity might be explained by the number of pharmacological differences that exist between GABA-gated chloride channels of insects and vertebrates.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Frontline NexGard (afoxolaner) for the Treatment and Prophylaxis of Ectoparasitic Diseases in Dogs. Full Prescribing Information" (PDF) (in Russian). Sanofi Russia. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  2. ^ "International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN). Recommended International Nonproprietary Names: List 70" (PDF). World Health Organization. pp. 276–7. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d "NexGard Spectra product information - Annex I "Summary of product characteristics"" (PDF). European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  4. ^ Shoop WL, Hartline EJ, Gould BR, Waddell ME, McDowell RG, Kinney JB, et al. (April 2014). "Discovery and mode of action of afoxolaner, a new isoxazoline parasiticide for dogs". Veterinary Parasitology. 201 (3–4): 179–89. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.02.020. PMID 24631502.
  5. ^ Beugnet F, deVos C, Liebenberg J, Halos L, Fourie J (25 August 2014). "Afoxolaner against fleas: immediate efficacy and resultant mortality after short exposure on dogs" (PDF). Parasite. 21: 42. doi:10.1051/parasite/2014045. PMC 4141545. PMID 25148564.
  6. ^ Beugnet F, Crafford D, de Vos C, Kok D, Larsen D, Fourie J (August 2016). "Evaluation of the efficacy of monthly oral administration of afoxolaner plus milbemycin oxime (NexGard Spectra, Merial) in the prevention of adult Spirocerca lupi establishment in experimentally infected dogs". Veterinary Parasitology. 226: 150–61. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2016.07.002. PMID 27514901.
  7. ^ "Boehringer-Ingelheim companion-animals-product NexGard (afoxolaner)". Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  8. ^ "CVMP Assessment Report for NEXGARD SPECTRA(EMEA/V/C/003842/0000)" (PDF). European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 14 November 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d "CVMP assessment report for NexGard (EMEA/V/C/002729/0000)" (PDF). European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 14 November 2019.
  10. ^ "Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use (CVMP) - Section "Role of the CVMP"". European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 14 November 2019.
  11. ^ a b c "NexGard product information - Annex I "Summary of product characteristics"" (PDF). European Medicines Angency. Retrieved 14 November 2019.
  12. ^ Medicine, Center for Veterinary. "CVM Updates - Animal Drug Safety Communication: FDA Alerts Pet Owners and Veterinarians About Potential for Neurologic Adverse Events Associated with Certain Flea and Tick Products". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-22.
  13. ^ Smith, Joe S.; Berger, Darren J.; Hoff, Sarah E.; Jesudoss Chelladurai, Jeba R. J.; Martin, Katy A.; Brewer, Matthew T. (2020). "Afoxolaner as a Treatment for a Novel Sarcoptes scabiei Infestation in a Juvenile Potbelly Pig". Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 7: 473. doi:10.3389/fvets.2020.00473. PMC 7505946. PMID 33102538.
  14. ^ Bernigaud, C.; Fang, F.; Fischer, K.; Lespine, A.; Aho, L. S.; Mullins, A. J.; Tecle, B.; Kelly, A.; Sutra, J. F.; Moreau, F.; Lilin, T.; Beugnet, F.; Botterel, F.; Chosidow, O.; Guillot, J. (2018). "Efficacy and Pharmacokinetics Evaluation of a Single Oral Dose of Afoxolaner against Sarcoptes scabiei in the Porcine Scabies Model for Human Infestation". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 62 (9). doi:10.1128/AAC.02334-17. PMC 6125498. PMID 29914951.
  15. ^ Casida JE (April 2015). "Golden age of RyR and GABA-R diamide and isoxazoline insecticides: common genesis, serendipity, surprises, selectivity, and safety". Chemical Research in Toxicology. 28 (4): 560–6. doi:10.1021/tx500520w. PMID 25688713.
  16. ^ Hosie AM, Aronstein K, Sattelle DB, ffrench-Constant RH (December 1997). "Molecular biology of insect neuronal GABA receptors". Trends in Neurosciences. 20 (12): 578–83. doi:10.1016/S0166-2236(97)01127-2. PMID 9416671. S2CID 5028039.