- This article is on the historical emigration from Africa. See recent African origin of modern humans for pre-historic human migration and emigration from Africa for recent migration.
The African diaspora refers to the communities throughout the world that are descended from the historic movement of peoples from Africa, predominantly to the Americas, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, among other areas around the globe. The term has been historically applied in particular to the descendants of the West and Central Africans who were enslaved and shipped to the Americas in the Atlantic slave trade, with the largest population in Brazil (see Afro-Brazilian), followed by the USA and others. Some scholars identify "four circulatory phases" of migration out of Africa.
"[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union."
- 1 History
- 2 Definitions
- 3 African diaspora and modernity
- 4 Estimated population and distribution
- 5 Largest 17 African diaspora populations
- 6 The Americas
- 7 Europe
- 8 Indian and Pacific Oceans
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Dispersal through slavery
Much of the African diaspora was dispersed throughout Asia, Europe, and the Americas during the Arab and the Atlantic slave trades. Beginning in the 8th century, Arabs took African slaves from the central and eastern portions of the continent (where they were known as the Zanj) and sold them into markets in the Middle East and eastern Asia. Beginning in the 15th century, Europeans captured or bought African slaves from West Africa and brought them to Europe and primarily, in much greater number, to the Americas. The Atlantic Slave Trade ended in the 19th century, and the Arab Slave Trade ended in the middle of the 20th century. The dispersal through slave trading represents the largest forced migrations in human history. The economic effect on the African continent was devastating, as generations of young people were taken from their communities and societies were disrupted. Some communities created by descendants of African slaves in Europe and Asia have survived to the modern day. In other cases, blacks intermarried with non-blacks, and their descendants blended into the local population.
In the Americas, the confluence of multiple ethnic groups from around the world created multi-ethnic societies. In Central and South America, most people are descended from European, indigenous American, and African ancestry. In Brazil, where in 1888 nearly half the population was descended from African slaves, the variation of physical characteristics extends across a broad range. In the United States, there was historically a greater European colonial population in relation to African slaves, especially in the Northern Tier. There was considerable racial intermarriage in colonial Virginia, and other racial mixing during the slavery and post-Civil War years. Racist Jim Crow and anti-miscegenation laws passed after the Reconstruction era in the South in the late nineteenth century, plus waves of vastly increased immigration from Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries, maintained some distinction between racial groups. In the early 20th century, to institutionalize racial segregation, most southern states adopted the "one drop rule", which defined and recorded anyone with any discernible African ancestry as black, even of obvious majority white or Native American ancestry. One of the results of this implementation was the loss of records of Indian-identified groups, who were classified only as black because of being mixed race.
Dispersal through voluntary migration
See Emigration from Africa for a general treatment of voluntary population movements since the late 20th century.
From the very onset of Spanish exploration and colonial activities in the Americas, Sub-Saharan Africans participated both as voluntary expeditionaries and as involuntary laborers. Juan Garrido was such an African conquistador. He crossed the Atlantic as a freedman in the 1510s and participated in the siege of Tenochtitlan. Africans had been present in Asia and Europe long before Columbus' travels. Beginning in the late 20th century, Africans began to emigrate to Europe and the Americas in increasing numbers, constituting new African diaspora communities not directly connected with the slave trade.
The African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union."
Between 1500 and 1900, approximately four million enslaved Africans were transported to island plantations in the Indian Ocean, about eight million were shipped to Mediterranean-area countries, and about eleven million survived the Middle Passage to the New World. Their descendants are now found around the globe. Due to intermarriage, descendants of the African diaspora are not necessarily readily identifiable.
African diaspora populations include:
- African Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, Afro-Latin Americans and Black Canadians - descendants of West African slaves brought to the United States, the Caribbean, and Latin America during the Atlantic slave trade, plus later voluntary immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa and their descendants.
- Zanj - descendants of Zanj slaves whose ancestors were brought to the Near East and other parts of Asia during the Arab slave trade.
- Siddis - descendants of Zanj slaves whose ancestors were brought to the Indian subcontinent (Pakistan and India). Also referred to as the Makrani in Pakistan.
African diaspora and modernity
Studies on the African diaspora have recently moved in the direction of understanding its role in the formation of modern times. This trend is in reaction to the traditional way in which Africans and its diasporans have been placed in history books, namely, as victims or people without much historical agency. Often Africans and their descendants are portrayed as representatives of primitive culture or slavery. The current consensus among specialists is that viewing the contribution of the African diaspora to the history of modern times gives us a more complete appreciation of global history. The effect of the African diaspora on modernity can be viewed by the history and culture of the people from the African diaspora. African descendants around the world have kept some ties to the African continent, creating a global community. They carried with them their culture, family values, views on government, and their spiritual beliefs.
Estimated population and distribution
|Continent or region||Country population||Afro-descendants|| Black and black-mixed population|
|Haiti||9,719,932||95%||9,233,935 + 476,277|
|Dominican Republic ||10,090,000||84%||1,109,900 + 7,365,700|
|Cuba||11,239,363||34.9%||1,132,928 + 2,794,106|
|Jamaica||2,909,714||97.4%||2,653,659 + 180,402|
|Trinidad and Tobago||1,328,019||34.2% ||454,182|
|Puerto Rico||3,725,789||15.7%||461,998 + 122,951|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||118,432||85.0%||100,667|
|US Virgin Islands||108,210||79.7%||86,243|
|Dominica||71,293||95.7% (86.8% Black + 8.9% Mixed)||61,882 + 9,411|
|Antigua and Barbuda||78,000||94.9%||63,000|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||39,619||98.0%||38,827|
|British Virgin Islands||24,004||83.0%||19,923|
|Turks and Caicos islands||26,000||> 90.0%||18,000|
|Brazil||190,732,694||7.61% (black) + 20,6% (mulatto pardos)||14,517,961 (black)|
|Colombia||45,925,397||4.0% (black) + 3.0% (Zambo) + 14.0% (Mulatto)||1,837,015 + 1,377,762 + 6,429,556|
|El Salvador||7,066,403||< 0.1%||3,000|
|Europe||738,856,462||~ 1.0%||< 8,000,000|
|France||62,752,136||8.0% (inc. overseas territories)||3,800,000|
|United Kingdom||60,609,153||3.3% (inc. partial)||2,015,400|
|Republic of Ireland||4,339,000||1.1%||45,000|
|Hong Kong||7,200,000||< 0.3%||< 20,000|
(*)Note that population statistics from different sources and countries use highly divergent methods of rating the "race", ethnicity, or national or genetic origin of individuals, from observing for color and racial characteristics, to asking the person to choose from a set of pre-defined choices, sometimes with an Other category, and sometimes with an open-ended option, and sometimes not, which different national populations tend to choose in divergent ways. Color and visual characteristics were considered an invalid way to determine the genetic "racial" branch in anthropology (the field of science that original conceived of "race", as a genetic branch of people who could have a relative success together compared with other branches, now considered invalid) as of 1910, thus not fully reflecting the percentage of the population who actually are of African heritage.
Largest 17 African diaspora populations
|Brazil||55,900,000||including multiracial people, 6.84% (black) + 20,6% (mulatto pardos)|
|United States||42,020,743||including 3,091,424 citing both Black and another race|
|Trinidad and Tobago||607,472|
Autosomal genetic studies and the African contribution to Brazil
African ancestry has contributed to the formation of Brazil, along with European and Native American ancestries.
A 2015 autosomal genetic study, which also analysed data of 25 studies of 38 different Brazilian populations concluded that: European ancestry accounts for 62% of the heritage of the population, followed by the African (21%) and the Native American (17%). The European contribution is highest in Southern Brazil (77%), the African highest in Northeast Brazil (27%) and the Native American is the highest in Northern Brazil (32%).
An autosomal study from 2013, with nearly 1300 samples from all of the Brazilian regions, found a pred. degree of European ancestry combined with African and Native American contributions, in varying degrees. "Following an increasing North to South gradient, European ancestry was the most prevalent in all urban populations (with values up to 74%). The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution. Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. At an intrapopulation level, all urban populations were highly admixed, and most of the variation in ancestry proportions was observed between individuals within each population rather than among population."
A 2011 autosomal DNA study, with nearly 1000 samples from all over the country ("whites", "pardos" and "blacks"), found out a major European contribution, followed by a high African contribution and an important Native American component. "In all regions studied, the European ancestry was predominant, with proportions ranging from 60.6% in the Northeast to 77.7% in the South". The 2011 autosomal study samples came from blood donors (the lowest classes constitute the great majority of blood donors in Brazil ), and also public health institutions personnel and health students. The study showed that Brazilians from different regions are more homogenous than previously thought by some based on the census alone. "Brazilian homogeneity is, therefore, a lot greater between Brazilian regions than within Brazilians region".
|Northeast of Brazil||60,10%||29,30%||8,90%|
According to an autosomal DNA study from 2010, "a new portrayal of each ethnicity contribution to the DNA of Brazilians, obtained with samples from the five regions of the country, has indicated that, on average, European ancestors are responsible for nearly 80% of the genetic heritage of the population. The variation between the regions is small, with the possible exception of the South, where the European contribution reaches nearly 90%. The results, published by the scientific magazine American Journal of Human Biology by a team of the Catholic University of Brasília, show that, in Brazil, physical indicators such as skin colour, colour of the eyes and colour of the hair have little to do with the genetic ancestry of each person, which has been shown in previous studies (regardless of census classification). "Ancestry informative SNPs can be useful to estimate individual and population biogeographical ancestry. Brazilian population is characterized by a genetic background of three parental populations (European, African, and Brazilian Native Amerindians) with a wide degree and diverse patterns of admixture. In this work we analyzed the information content of 28 ancestry-informative SNPs into multiplexed panels using three parental population sources (African, Amerindian, and European) to infer the genetic admixture in an urban sample of the five Brazilian geopolitical regions. The SNPs assigned apart the parental populations from each other and thus can be applied for ancestry estimation in a three hybrid admixed population. Data was used to infer genetic ancestry in Brazilians with an admixture model. Pairwise estimates of F(st) among the five Brazilian geopolitical regions suggested little genetic differentiation only between the South and the remaining regions. Estimates of ancestry results are consistent with the heterogeneous genetic profile of Brazilian population, with a major contribution of European ancestry (0.771) followed by African (0.143) and Amerindian contributions (0.085). The described multiplexed SNP panels can be useful tool for bioanthropological studies but it can be mainly valuable to control for spurious results in genetic association studies in admixed populations". It is important to note that "the samples came from free of charge paternity test takers, thus as the researchers made it explicit: "the paternity tests were free of charge, the population samples involved people of variable socioeconomic strata, although likely to be leaning slightly towards the "pardo" group".
An autosomal DNA study from 2009 found a similar profile "all the Brazilian samples (regions) lie more closely to the European group than to the African populations or to the Mestizos from Mexico".
According to another autosomal DNA study from 2008, by the University of Brasília (UnB), European ancestry dominates in the whole of Brazil (in all regions), accounting for 65,90% of heritage of the population, followed by the African contribution (24,80%) and the Native American (9,3%).
- African Americans – There are an estimated 40 million people of Black African descent in the United States.
- Afro-Latin American – There are an estimated 100 million people of African descent living in Latin America, making up 28% of Brazil's population, if including multiracial mulatto pardo Brazilians. Many also have European and Native American ancestry, and are also known as pardo, or mixed race. (Brazilian "blacks" are mixed to a significant degree). There are also sizeable African-descended populations in Cuba, Haiti, Colombia and Dominican Republic, often with ancestry of other major ethnic groups.
- The population in the Caribbean is approximately 23 million. Significant numbers of African-descended people include Haiti – 8 million, Dominican Republic – 7.9 million, and Jamaica – 2.7 million,
The archipelagos and islands of the Caribbean were the first sites of African dispersal in the western Atlantic during the post-Columbian era. Specifically, in 1492, Pedro Alonso Niño, a black Spanish seafarer, piloted one of Columbus's ships. He returned in 1499, but did not settle. In the early 16th-Century, more Africans began to enter the population of the Spanish Caribbean colonies, sometimes as freedmen, but most often as enslaved servants and workers. Demand for African labour increased in the Caribbean because of the massive deaths among the Taino and other indigenous populations, resulting primarily from Eurasian infectious diseases to which they had no immunity, as well as conflict with the Spanish, and harsh working conditions. By the mid-16th century, slave trade from Africa to the Caribbean was so profitable that the Englishmen Francis Drake and John Hawkins engaged in piracy and violated Spanish colonial laws, in order to forcibly transport approximately 1500 enslaved people from Sierra Leone to Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic).
During the 17th and 18th centuries, European colonialism in the Caribbean became increasingly reliant on plantation slavery, so that, by the end of the 18th century, on many islands, enslaved Afro-Caribbeans far outnumbered their European masters. A total of 1,840,000 slaves arrived at other British colonies, chiefly the West Indies in the Caribbean.
Beginning in the late eighteenth century, harsh conditions, constant inter-imperial warfare, and growing human rights goals resulted in the Haitian Revolution in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, led by Toussaint L'Ouverture and Jean Jacques Dessalines. In 1804, Haiti, with what had been an overwhelmingly black slave population and leadership, became the second nation in the Americas to win independence from a European state and create a republic. Continuous waves of rebellion, such as the Baptist War led by Sam Sharpe in Jamaica, created the conditions for the incremental abolition of slavery in the region, with Great Britain abolishing it in 1838. Cuba (under the Spanish Crown) was the last island to emancipate its slaves.
During the 20th century, Afro-Caribbean people began to assert their cultural, economic and political rights on the world stage. The Jamaican Marcus Garvey formed the UNIA movement in the U.S., continuing with Aimé Césaire's négritude movement, which was intended to create a pan-African movement across national lines. From the 1960s, the former slave populations in the Caribbean began to win their independence from British colonial rule. They were pre-eminent in creating new cultural forms such as calypso, reggae music, and rastafarianism within the Caribbean. Beyond the region, a new Afro-Caribbean diaspora, including such figures as Stokely Carmichael and DJ Kool Herc in the United States, was influential in the creation of the black power and Hip Hop movements. Influential political theorists such as Walter Rodney, Frantz Fanon and Stuart Hall contributed to anti-colonial theory and movements in Africa, as well as cultural developments in Europe.
Several migration waves to the Americas, as well as relocations within the Americas, have brought people of African descent to North America. According to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, the first African populations came to North America in the 16th century via Mexico and the Caribbean to the Spanish colonies of Florida, Texas and other parts of the South. Out of the 12 million people from Africa who were shipped to the Americas during the transatlantic slave trade, 645,000 were shipped to the British colonies on the North American mainland and the United States. In 2000, African Americans comprised 12.1 percent of the total population in the United States, constituting the largest racial minority group. The African-American population is concentrated in the southern states and urban areas.
In the establishment of the African diaspora, the transatlantic slave trade is often considered the defining element, but people of African descent have engaged in eleven other migration movements involving North America since the 16th century, many being voluntary migrations, although undertaken in exploitative and hostile environments.
In the 1860s, people from sub-Saharan Africa, mainly from West Africa and the Cape Verde Islands, started to arrive in a voluntary immigration wave to seek employment as whalers in Massachusetts. This migration continued until restrictive laws were enacted in 1921 that in effect closed the door on non-Europeans. By that time, men of African ancestry were already a majority in New England’s whaling industry, with African Americans working as sailors, blacksmiths, shipbuilders, officers, and owners. The internationalism of whaling crews, including the character Daggoo, an African harpooneer, is recorded in the 1851 novel Moby-Dick. They eventually took their trade to California.
Today 1.7 million people in the United States are descended from voluntary immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa, most of whom arrived in the late twentieth century. African immigrants represent 6 percent of all immigrants to the United States and almost 5 percent of the African-American community nationwide. About 57 percent immigrated between 1990 and 2000. Immigrants born in Africa constitute 1.6 percent of the black population. People of the African immigrant diaspora are the most educated population group in the United States — 50 percent have bachelor's or advanced degrees, compared to 23 percent of native-born Americans. The largest African immigrant communities in the United States are in New York, followed by California, Texas, and Maryland.
The states with the highest percentages of people of African descent are Mississippi (36.3%), and Louisiana (32.5%). While not a state, the District of Columbia is 60.0% black. Recent African immigrants represent a minority of blacks in these three jurisdictions. The U.S. Bureau of the Census categorizes the population by race based on self-identification. The census surveys have no provision for a "multiracial" or "biracial" self-identity, but since 2000, respondents may check off more than one box and claim multiple ethnicity that way.
Much of the earliest black presence in Canada came from the newly independent United States (US) after the American Revolution; the British resettled African Americans (known as Black Loyalists) primarily in Nova Scotia. These were primarily former slaves who had escaped to British lines for promised freedom during the Revolution.
Later during the antebellum years, other individual African Americans escaped to Canada, mostly to locations in Southwestern Ontario, via the Underground Railroad, a system supported by both blacks and whites to assist fugitive slaves. After achieving independence, northern states in the US had begun to abolish slavery as early as 1793, but slavery was not abolished in the South until 1865, following the American Civil War.
Black immigration to Canada of the later nineteenth and twentieth centuries came primarily from the Caribbean, in such numbers that fully 70 per cent of all blacks now in Canada are of Caribbean origin. As a result of the prominence of Caribbean immigration, the term "African Canadian", while sometimes used to refer to the minority of Canadian blacks who have direct African or African-American heritage, is not normally used to denote black Canadians. Blacks of Caribbean origin are usually denoted as "West Indian Canadian", "Caribbean Canadian" or more rarely "Afro-Caribbean Canadian", but there remains no widely used alternative to "Black Canadian" which is considered inclusive of the African, Afro-Caribbean, and African-American black communities in Canada.
At an intermediate level, in Latin America and in the former plantations in and around the Indian Ocean, descendants of enslaved people are a bit harder to define because many people are mixed in demographic proportion to the original slave population. In places that imported relatively few slaves (like Argentina or Chile), few if any are considered "black" today. In places that imported many enslaved people (like Brazil or Dominican Republic), the number is larger, though most identify themselves as being of mixed, rather than strictly African, ancestry.
In Peru, the African population was very mixed with the other white, Indian and mestizo population; so someone is identified as negro if he or she has visible African features. Some mestizos and whites have a degree of African admixture.
In Colombia, the African slaves were first brought to work in the gold mines of the Department of Antioquia. After this was no longer a profitable business, these slaves slowly moved to the Pacific coast, where they have remained unmixed with the white or Indian population until today. The whole Department of Chocó remains a black area. Mixture with white population happened mainly in the Caribbean coast, which is a mestizo area until today. There was also a greater mixture in the south-western departments of Cauca and Valle del Cauca. In these mestizo areas the African culture has had a great influence.
Some European countries make it illegal to conduct censuses on the basis of skin colour or race (e.g. France), but some others do query along racial lines (e.g. the UK). Of 42 countries surveyed by a European Commission against Racism and Intolerance study in 2007, it was found that 29 collected official statistics on country of birth, 37 on citizenship, 24 on religion, 26 on language, 6 on country of birth of parents, and 22 on nationality or ethnicity.
Estimates of 2 to 3 million of African descent, although one quarter of the Afro-French or French African population live in overseas territories. This number is difficult to estimate because the French census does not use race as a category for ideological reasons.
There are an estimated 1 million to 1.5 million immigrants from Africa in Italy, with only a minority of Sub-Saharan Africans. Most of the latter come from West African countries such as Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, and Côte d'Ivoire.
There are an estimated 500,000 black people in the Dutch Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles. They mainly live in the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao and Saint Martin, the latter of which is also partly French-controlled. Many Afro-Dutch people reside in the Netherlands.
As of 2005, there were approximately 500,000 Afro-Germans (not including those of mixed ethnicity). This number is difficult to estimate because the German census does not use race as a category.
The first blacks in Russia were the result of the slave trade of the Ottoman Empire and their descendants still live on the coasts of the Black Sea. Czar Peter the Great was advised by his friend Lefort to bring in Africans to Russia for hard labor. Alexander Pushkin's great grandfather was the African princeling Abram Petrovich Gannibal, who became Peter's protégé, was educated as a military engineer in France, and eventually became general-en-chef, responsible for the building of sea forts and canals in Russia.
During the 1930s fifteen Black American families moved to the Soviet Union as agricultural experts. As African states became independent in the 1960s, the Soviet Union offered their citizens the chance to study in Russia; over 40 years, 400,000 African students came, and many settled there.
Some blacks of unknown origin once inhabited southern Abkhazia; today, they are assimilated into the Abkhaz population.
Beginning several centuries ago, a number of sub-Saharan Africans, usually via Zanzibar and from places like Kenya, Tanzania and Sudan, were brought by Turkish slave traders during the Ottoman Empire to plantations around Dalaman, Menderes and Gediz valleys, Manavgat, and Çukurova.
Indian and Pacific Oceans
There are a number of communities in South Asia that are descended from African slaves, traders or soldiers. These communities are the Siddi, Sheedi, Makrani and Sri Lanka Kaffirs. In some cases, they became very prominent, such as Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut, Hoshu Sheedi or the rulers of Janjira State. The Mauritian creole people are the descendants of African slaves similar to those in the Americas.
Some Pan-Africanists also consider other peoples as diasporic African peoples. These groups include, among others, Negritos, such as in the case of the peoples of the Malay Peninsula (Orang Asli); New Guinea (Papuans); Andamanese; certain peoples of the Indian subcontinent, and the aboriginal peoples of Melanesia and Micronesia. Most of these claims are rejected by mainstream ethnologists as pseudoscience and pseudoanthropology, as part of ideologically motivated Afrocentrist irredentism, touted primarily among some extremist elements in the United States who do not reflect on the mainstream African-American community. Mainstream anthropologists determine that the Andamanese and others are part of a network of Proto-Australoid and Paleo Mediterranean ethnic groups present in South Asia that trace their genetic ancestry to a migratory sequence that culminated in the Australian aboriginals rather than from African peoples directly.
- List of topics related to the African diaspora
- African Diaspora Archaeology Newsletter
- Afro-Anglo American
- Afro-Latin American
- Afro-Hispanic people
- Theory of the recent African origin of modern humans
- Ade Ajayi, J. F; International Scientific Committee For The Drafting Of a General History Of Africa, Unesco (1998-07-01). General History of Africa. pp. 305–315. ISBN 978-0-520-06701-1.
- Warren, J. Benedict (1985). The Conquest of Michoacán. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1858-X.
- Harris, J. E. (1993). "Introduction" In J. E. Harris (ed.), Global Dimensions of the African Diaspora, pp. 8-9.
- Akyeampong, E. (2000). "Africans in the Diaspora: The Diaspora and Africans," African Affairs 99 (395), 183-215.
- In an article published in 1991, William Safran set out six rules to distinguish "diasporas" from general migrant communities. While Safran's definitions were influenced by the idea of the Jewish diaspora, he recognised the expanding use of the term. Rogers Brubaker (2005) also noted that use of the term "diaspora" was in the process of being used in an increasingly general sense. He suggests that one element of this expansion in use "involves the application of the term diaspora to an ever-broadening set of cases: essentially to any and every nameable population category that is to some extent dispersed in space". An early example of the use of "African diaspora" is in the title of Sidney Lemelle, Robin D. G. Kelley, Imagining Home: Class, Culture and Nationalism in the African Diaspora (1994).
- "Historical survey > The international slave trade > Slavery". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-30.
- Olson, Steve (2003). Mapping Human History: Genes, Race, and Our Common Origins. Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 54–69. ISBN 0-618-35210-4.
- Krippner-Martínez, James (October 1990). "The Politics of Conquest: An Interpretation of the Relación de Michoacán". The Americas 47 (2): 177–197. doi:10.2307/1007371. JSTOR 1007371.
- Kwame Anthony Appiah; Henry Louis Gates. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. p. 327.
- Larson, Pier M. (1999). "Reconsidering Trauma, Identity, and the African Diaspora: Enslavement and Historical Memory in Nineteenth-Century Highland Madagascar" (PDF). William and Mary Quarterly 56 (2): 335–362. doi:10.2307/2674122. JSTOR 2674122.
- "A Legacy Hidden in Plain Sight", The Washington Post, 10 January 2004.
- Manning, Patrick. The African Diaspora: A History Through Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009, Kindle.
- "CIA – The World Factbook>". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 20 February 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
- "U.S. Library of Congress". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
- http://www.informaworld.com/index/902542287.pdf Inter-American Dialogue
- "CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
- 2010 U.S. Census – Puerto Rico
- -People Archived August 12, 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Joshua Project. "Joshua Project – Ethnic People Groups of Turks and Caicos Islands". Joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
-  Archived September 27, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Resultado Basico del XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2011, (p. 14).
- "CIA – The World Factbook – United States". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
- "Visible minority population, by province and territory (2001 Census)". 0.statcan.ca. 2009-09-11. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
- http://paceebene.org/pace/nvns/nonviolence-news-service-archive/in-officially-colorblind-f[dead link]
- globeandmail.com: World Archived November 29, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "ISTAT (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica), stranieri 2011 Africa". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
- http://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyers/2DAFB377-8622-4A6f-9700- 8E9EB8EDD61/0/pb01e067.pdf
- "Statistics Norway – Persons with immigrant background by immigration category, country background and sex. 1 January 2010" (in Norwegian). Ssb.no. 2010-01-01. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
- "Ireland: People". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-20.
- "Мймй Зпмдео Й Мймй Дйлупо. Фемертпелф "Юетоще Тхуулйе": Уйопруйу". Africana.ru. Archived from the original on 15 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
- "Federal Office of Statistics". Retrieved 2011-02-22.
- "Hungarian census 2001". Nepszamlalas.hu. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
- "Music Earns Black Hebrews Some Acceptance". Archived from the original on 2006-04-08. Retrieved 2013-05-20.
- "colaco.net". colaco.net. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
- Lisa Goh (May 6, 2012). "Fear and prejudice". The Star. Retrieved 2013-02-20.
- Fenn, Andrea, The pride, passion and purpose of HK's Africans, China Daily, 6 July 2010
- ">". Cbc.ca. 2005-06-30. Archived from the original on 20 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-22.[dead link]
- POP AFRICA(Nagoya University) from the statictics at 2005 by the Immigration Bureau of Japan
- Flavia C. Parra et al., "Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100 (2003). Second paragraph. Accessed 12 December 2009.
- Denise R. Carvalho-Silva et al., "The Phylogeography of Brazilian Y-Chromosome Lineages", American Journal of Human Genetics 68 (2001): 281–286. Accessed 13 December 2009.
- "Pardo category includes Castizos, Mestizos, Caboclos, Gypsies, Eurasians, Hafus and Mulattoes Cafuzos". www.nacaomestica.org/. 2015. Retrieved 2015-04-15.
- Mwangi, Jane (19 July 2012). "Berlin exhibition exposes plight of Africa migrants". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-08-10.
- "Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels", Plos One, September 2013, Volume 8, Issue 9.
- "The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil Is More Uniform Than Expected", Plos One.
- Profile of the Brazilian blood donor.
- "Nossa herança europeia", Ciencia Hoje.
- Reinaldo José Lopes, "DNA de brasileiro é 80% europeu, indica estudo, 'Folha de S. Paulo, 05/10/2009
- Genetic composition of Brazilian population samples based on a set of twenty-eight ancestry informative SNPs.
- Laboratorio Alvaro.
- Forensic Science International: Genetics. Allele frequencies of 15 STRs in a representative sample of the Brazilian population (inglés) basandos en estudios del IBGE de 2008. Se presentaron muestras de 12.886 individuos de distintas etnias, por regiones, provenían en un 8,26% del Norte, 23,86% del Nordeste, 4,79% del Centro-Oeste, 10,32% del Sudeste y 52,77% del Sur.
- Neide Maria de Oliveira Godinho, 2008.
- CIA World Factbook.
- World Population 2004 chart, UN.
- Stephen D. Behrendt, David Richardson, and David Eltis, W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research, Harvard University. Based on "records for 27,233 voyages that set out to obtain slaves for the Americas". Stephen Behrendt (1999). "Transatlantic Slave Trade". Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. New York: Basic Civitas Books. ISBN 0-465-00071-1.
- Dodson, Howard, and Sylviane A. Diouf, eds (2005). In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library. Retrieved 24 November 2007.
- Ronald Segal (1995). The Black Diaspora: Five Centuries of the Black Experience Outside Africa. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 4. ISBN 0-374-11396-3.
It is now estimated that 11,863,000 slaves were shipped across the Atlantic. [Note in original: Paul E. Lovejoy, "The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on Africa: A Review of the Literature," in Journal of African History 30 (1989), p. 368.] ... It is widely conceded that further revisions are more likely to be upward than downward.
- United States African-American Population. CensusScope, Social Science Data Analysis Network. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
- "Heroes in the Ships: African Americans in the Whaling Industry". Old Dartmouth Historical Society / New Bedford Whaling Museum, 2001.
- Dodson, Howard and Sylviane A. Diouf, eds (2005). "The Immigration Waves: The numbers", In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library. Retrieved 24 November 2007.
- Dodson, Howard and Sylviane A. Diouf, eds (2005). "The Brain Drain".
- "Reversing Africa's 'brain drain'", In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library. Retrieved 24 November 2007.
- U.S. Census Bureau. State & County QuickFacts. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
- Harry Hoetink, Caribbean Race Relations: A Study of Two Variants (Lon-don, 1971), xii.
- Clara E. Rodriguez, "Challenging Racial Hegemony: Puerto Ricans in the United States," in Race, ed. Steven Gregory and Roger Sanjek (New Brunswick NJ, 1994), 131–45, 137. See also Frederick P. Bowser, "Colonial Spanish America," in Neither Slave Nor Free: The Freedmen of African Descent in the Slave Societies of the New World, ed. David W. Cohen and Jack P. Greene (Baltimore, 1972), 19–58, 38.
- 1/4 of the French African population comes from the Caribbean islands. in French
- ISTAT (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica), stranieri africani 2010
- "Лили Голден и Лили Диксон. Телепроект "Черные русские": синопсис. Info on "Black Russians" film project in English". Africana.ru. Archived from the original on 15 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
- Gnammankou, Dieudonné. Abraham Hanibal – l’aïeul noir de Pouchkine, Paris, 1996.
- "Barnes, Hugh. ''Gannibal: The Moor of Petersburg''". London: Profile Books. 2005. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
- Eric Foner, "Three Very Rare Generations" review of Yelena Khanga's family memoir Soul To Soul: A Black Russian American Family 1865-1992, in The New York Times, December 13, 1992.
- "Film: Black Russians". MediaRights. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
- The Unmaking of Soviet Life: Everyday Economies After Socialism By Caroline Humphrey Cornell University 2002 p36-37
- Shanti Sadiq Ali, The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times, Orient Blackswan, 1996.
- Runoko Rashidi (2000-11-04). "Black People in the Philippines". Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
- "West Papua New Guinea: Interview with Foreign Minister Ben Tanggahma". 2007-07-25. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
- Iniyan Elango (2002-08-08). "Notes from a Brother in India: History and Heritage". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
- Horen Tudu (2002-08-08). "The Blacks of East Bengal: A Native's Perspective". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
- Runoko Rashidi (1999-11-19). "Blacks in the Pacific". Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
- Mary Lefkowitz, Not Out Of Africa: How "Afrocentrism" Became An Excuse To Teach Myth As History, New Republic Press, ISBN 0-465-09838-X, ISBN 978-0-465-09838-5
- "Status of Austro-Asiatic groups in the peopling of India: An exploratory study based on the available prehistoric, linguistic and biological evidences", Journal of Biosciences, Springer,0250-5991, Vol. 28, Number 4 / June 2003, doi:10.1007/BF02705125, pp. 507–522, Subject Collection: Biomedical and Life Sciences, September 20, 2007.
- "Multiple origins of the mtDNA 9-bp deletion in populations of South India", W. S. Watkins 1 *, M. Bamshad 2, M. E. Dixon 1, B. Bhaskara Rao 3, J. M. Naidu 3, P. G. Reddy 4, B. V. R. Prasad 3, P. K. Das 5, P. C. Reddy 6, P. B. Gai 7, A. Bhanu 8, Y. S. Kusuma 3, J. K. Lum 1, P. Fischer 2, L. B. Jorde 1, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 109, Issue 2, pp. 147–58, 2 June 1999.
- P. Endicott, "The Genetic Origins of the Andaman Islanders". The American Journal of Human Genetics, Vol. 72 , Issue 1, pp. 178–84.
- Genetic testing has shown the Andamani to belong to the Y-Chromosome Haplogroup D-M174, which is in common with Australian Aboriginals and the Ainu people of Japan rather than the actual African diaspora, 
- Okpewho, Isidore; Nzegwu, Nkiru (2009). The New African Diaspora. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-35337-5.
- Olaniyan, Tejumola; Sweet, James H (2010). The African Diaspora and the Disciplines. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-35464-8.
- Hine, Darlene Clark; Danielle Keaton, Trica; Small, Stephen (2009). Black Europe and the African Diaspora. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07657-2.
- Davies, Carole Boyce (2008). Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora: origins, experiences and culture, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-700-5.
- Wisdom, Tettey; Puplampu, Korbla P (2005). The African Diaspora in Canada: negotiating identity & belonging. University of Calgary Press. ISBN 1-55238-175-7.
- Olliz-Boyd, Antonio (2010). The Latin American Identity and the African Diaspora: Ethnogenesis in Context. Cambria Press. ISBN 978-1-60497-704-2.
- Carter, Donald Martin (2010). Navigating the African Diaspora: The Anthropology of Invisibility. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4777-4.
- Conyers, Jr, James L (2009). Racial Structure and Radical Politics in the African Diaspora. London: Transaction. ISBN 1-4128-1045-0.
- Curry, Dawne Y; Duke;, Eric D; Smith, Marshanda A (2009). Extending the Diaspora: New histories of Black people. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-03459-6.
- Arthur, John A (2008). The African Diaspora in the United States and Europe: the Ghanaian experience. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-4841-3.
- "The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean World", Omar H. Ali, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
- The History of Black People in Britain
- M. Stewart, "Negrito and Negrillo".
- "Museum of the African Diaspora", Online exhibits and other resources from the San Francisco-based museum.
- The African Diaspora Policy Centre (ADPC)
- African Diaspora, DiasporaEngager