African immigration to Europe

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African immigrants in Europe are individuals residing in Europe who were born in Africa.


The Roman Emperor Septimius Severus was born in North Africa, in what is now modern-day Libya. North Africans moved to Britain during Roman rule.[1][2]

Six white British men with the same very rare surname have been found to have a Y-chromosome haplogroup originating from a Sub-Saharan African male, likely dating to the 16th century or later.[3][4][5][6][7]

Migration flows[edit]

Since the 1960s, the main source countries of migration from Africa to Europe have been Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, resulting in large diasporas with origins in these countries by the end of the 20th century. In the period following the 1973 oil crisis, immigration controls in European states were tightened. The effect of this was not to reduce migration from North Africa but rather to encourage permanent settlement of previously temporary migrants and associated family migration. Much of this migration was from the Maghreb to France, The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. From the second half of the 1980s, the destination countries for migrants from the Maghreb broadened to include Spain and Italy, as a result of increased demand for low-skilled labour in those countries.[8]

Spain and Italy imposed visa requirements on migrants from the Maghreb in the early 1990s, and the result was an increase in illegal migration across the Mediterranean. Since 2000, the source countries of this illegal migration have grown to include sub-Saharan African states.[8]

During 2000–2005, an estimated 440,000 people per year emigrated from Africa, most of them to Europe.[9] According to Hein de Haas, the director of the International Migration Institute at the University of Oxford, public discourse on African migration to Europe portrays the phenomenon as an "exodus," largely composed of illegal migrants, driven by conflict and poverty. He criticises this portrayal, arguing that the illegal migrants are often well educated and able to afford the considerable cost of the journey to Europe. Migration from Africa to Europe, he argues, "is fuelled by a structural demand for cheap migrant labour in informal sectors." Most migrate on their own initiative, rather than being the victims of traffickers. Furthermore, he argues that whereas the media and popular perceptions see irregular migrants as mostly arriving by sea, most actually arrive on tourist visas or with false documentation, or enter via the Spanish enclaves, Ceuta and Melilla. He states that "the majority of irregular African migrants enter Europe legally and subsequently overstay their visas."[8] Similarly, migration expert Stephen Castles argues that "Despite the media hysteria on the growth of African migration to Europe, actual numbers seem quite small — although there is a surprising lack of precision in the data."[10]

According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), migration from African countries to more developed states is small in comparison to overall migration worldwide. The BBC reported in 2007 that the International Organization for Migration estimates that around 4.6 million African migrants live in Europe, but that the Migration Policy Institute estimates that between 7 and 8 million illegal migrants from Africa live in the EU.[11]

Illegal immigration[edit]

Rescued migrants, October 2013

Illegal immigration from Africa to Europe is significant. Many people from underdeveloped African countries embark on the dangerous journey for Europe, in hopes of a better life. In parts of Africa, particularly North Africa (Morocco, Mauritania, and Libya), trafficking immigrants to Europe has become more lucrative than drug trafficking. Illegal immigration to Europe usually occurs by boat via the Mediterranean Sea, or in some cases by land at the Spanish Enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and has made international headlines. Many migrants risk serious injury or death during their journey to Europe and most of those whose claim for asylum were unsuccessful are deported back to Africa.[12][13] Libya is the major departure point for illegal migrants setting off for Europe.[14][15]

Between October 2013 and October 2014, the Italian government ran Operation Mare Nostrum, a naval and air operation intended to reduce illegal immigration to Europe and the incidence of migratory ship wreckages off the coast of Lampedusa. The Italian government ceased the operation as it was judged to be unsustainable, involving a large proportion of the Italian navy. The operation was replaced by a more limited joint EU border protection operation, named Operation Triton managed by the EU border agency, Frontex. Some other European governments, including Britain's, argued that the operations such as Mare Nostrum and Triton serve to provide an "unintended pull factor" encouraging further migration.[16][17]

In 2014, 170,100 illegal migrants were recorded arriving in Italy by sea (an increase from 42,925 arrivals recorded in 2013), 141,484 of them leaving from Libya.[18] Most of them came from Syria, the Horn of Africa and West Africa.[19][20]

The issue returned to international headlines with a series of migrant shipwrecks, part of the 2015 Mediterranean migration crisis. The International Organization for Migration (IOM) estimates suggest that between the start of 2015 and the middle of April, 21,000 migrants had reached the Italian coast and 900 migrants had died in the Mediterranean.[21] Critics of European policy towards illegal migration in the Mediterranean argue that the cancellation of Operation Mare Nostrum failed to deter migrants and that its replacement with Triton "created the conditions for the higher death toll."[22]

European migration policies[edit]

Satellite image at night of Europe and Africa

The European Union does not have a common immigration policy regarding nationals of third countries. Some countries, such as Spain and Malta, have called for other EU member states to share the responsibility of dealing with migration flows from Africa. Spain has also created legal migration routes for African migrants, recruiting workers from countries including Senegal.[23] Other states, such as France under the presidency of Nicolas Sarkozy, have adopted more restrictive policies, and tried to offer incentives for migrants to return to Africa. While adopting a more liberal approach than France, Spain has also, according to a Council on Foreign Relations report, "attempted to forge broad bilateral accords with African countries that would exchange repatriation for funding to help the returned migrants."[23]

Spain has also run regularisation programmes in order to grant employment rights to previously irregular immigrants, most notably in 2005,[24] but this has been the subject of criticism from other EU governments, which argue that it encourages further irregular migration and that regularised migrants are likely to move within the EU to richer states once they have status in Spain.[25][26]

De Haas argues that restrictive European immigration policies have generally failed to reduce migration flows from Africa because they do not address the underlying structural demand for labour in European states.[8] Dirk Kohnert argues that EU countries' policies on migration from Africa are focused mainly on security and the closing of borders. He is also skeptical that the EU's programmes that are designed to promote economic development in West Africa will result in reduced migration.[27] Stephen Castles argues that there is a "sedentary bias" in developed states' migration policies towards Africa. He argues that "it has become the conventional wisdom to argue that promoting economic development in the Global South has the potential to reduce migration to the North. This carries the clear implication that such migration is a bad thing, and poor people should stay put."[10] Julien Brachet argues that while "irregular migration from sub-Saharan Africa to Europe is very limited in absolute and relative numbers", "none" of the European migration policies implemented in northern and western Africa "has ever led to a real and sustainable decrease in the number of migrants" travelling towards Europe, but they have "directly fostered the clandestine transport of migrants".[28]


Some of the larger populations of immigrants from Africa living in Europe are:

Country African Population Population centres Description
 France 3.5–8 million approx (2014)[29][30] Paris, Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Marseille, Nantes, Lille, Montpellier Includes anyone who was born in Africa or had at least one parent from the continent. Most have ties to former French colonies. According to the INSEE, there are 4.6 million people who were born in North Africa or had North African ancestry, mainly from Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia. There are about as many Sub-Saharan African immigrants and descendants, mainly from Senegal, Mali, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of the Congo.
 United Kingdom 1.387 million (2016)[31] London, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield, Bristol, Nottingham, Newcastle upon Tyne 2016 ONS estimates of population born in Sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa; includes only foreign-born population. Most have ties to former British colonies in Africa. Largest groups from South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Somalia, Ghana, Uganda, Egypt, The Gambia, Zambia, Sudan, Sierra Leone and Morocco. See also: Black British
 Spain 1,120,639 (2019)[32] Barcelona, Madrid, Málaga, Murcia, Palma, Seville, Valencia Some are from former Spanish colonies, such as Equatorial Guinea, but also includes many from Morocco as well as Senegal, Algeria, Nigeria, and Cape Verde. Many sub-Saharan Africans are contract labor workers. See also: Afro-Spaniard
 Italy 1.096.089 (2018)[33] Rome, Milan, Turin, Palermo, Brescia, Bologna, Lecce, Florence, Ferrara, Genoa, Venice Mainly from North-African countries such as Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt and Algeria, but also from West Africa (Nigeria, Senegal, Mali, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, and Ghana) and the former Italian colonies (Eritrea, Somalia). Includes irregular migrants from Mediterranean Crossings since the 1990s. See also: African immigrants to Italy
 Belgium 750,000–800,000 (2018) Brussels, Liege, Antwerp, Charleroi Most have roots in the former Belgian Congo and other French-speaking African countries. Mostly from Morocco, Rwanda, Algeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Senegal, Ghana, Guinea, Cameroon, and Angola See also: Afro-Belgian
 Germany 570.115


Berlin, Hamburg, Frankfurt, Cologne,


Mainly from Ghana, Nigeria, Eritrea, Somalia, Senegal, Cameroon, the Maghreb countries and Ethiopia. Includes students, workers, and other skilled and unskilled legal immigrants as well as some asylum seekers and irregular migrants, but not those with a German passport, of African decent or from the diaspora in other coubtries. See also: Afro-Germans
 Portugal 700,000 [35] Lisbon metropolitan area, Algarve Mostly from former Portuguese colonies in Africa, particularly Cape Verde, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, and São Tomé (see Afro-Brazilian). 47% of foreign legal residents in 2001 were originally from an African country.[36]
 Turkey "At least 50,000 African migrants"[37] Istanbul, İzmir, Muğla, Ankara, Antalya Mainly nationals from Cameroon, Libya, Algeria, Somalia, Niger, Nigeria, Kenya, Sudan, Egypt and Ethiopia. See also: Afro Turks
  Switzerland 93,800 (2015)[38] Geneva, Basel, Vevey, Berne, Fribourg, Lausanne Mainly nationals of Algeria, Eritrea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cameroon and Angola (excluding people of African ancestry from other parts of the world: Dominican Republic, Brazil, United States, Cuba etc.). See also: African immigrants to Switzerland


Since 2010, most years have seen a rising tide of migrants from sub-Saharan African countries into European Union countries, Norway and Switzerland and the United States.

Asylum applicants to Europe

Note: Asylum applicants to Europe are first-time applicants after the removal of withdrawn applications. Sub Saharan African migrant may enter each destination by other than the means displayed in this chart. Consequently, these flow figures are incomplete and likely represent minimums. Increases in migrant stocks and inflows are not the same.[39] Source: Pew Research Center.

Sub-Saharan African
asylum applicants to Europe, in thousands.[39]
2010 58 000
2011 84 000
2012 74 000
2013 91 000
2014 139 000
2015 164 000
2016 196 000
2017 168 000
Origin countries of sub-Saharan migrants living in Europe

Top countries of birth of sub-Saharan migrants living in the European Union, Norway and Switzerland in 2017, in thousands.[39] Source: Pew Research Center.

European Union, Norway and Switzerland[39]
Nigeria 390 000
South Africa 310 000
Somalia 300 000
Senegal 270 000
Ghana 250 000
Angola 220 000
Kenya 180 000
D. C. Congo 150 000
Cameroon 150 000
Ivory Coast 140 000

Notable individuals[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Wuyts, Ann (22 October 2011). "Evidence of 'upper class' Africans living in Roman York". The Independent.
  2. ^ Kennedy, Maev (26 February 2010). "African origin of Roman York's rich lady with the ivory bangle". The Guardian.
  3. ^ Khamsi, Roxanne (24 January 2007). "Genes reveal West African heritage of white Brits". New Scientist.
  4. ^ "Rare African DNA Discovered in White British Males".
  5. ^ Roger Highfield, Science Editor (24 January 2007). "Yorkshire name reveals roots in Africa". Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  6. ^ "BBC NEWS - Science/Nature - Yorkshire clan linked to Africa". 24 January 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  7. ^ King, T. E.; Parkin, E. J.; Swinfield, G.; Cruciani, F.; Scozzari, R.; Rosa, A.; Lim, S. K.; Xue, Y.; Tyler-Smith, C.; Jobling, M. A. (28 September 2015). "Africans in Yorkshire? - the deepest-rooting clade of the Y phylogeny within an English genealogy". European Journal of Human Genetics : Ejhg. 15 (3): 288–293. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201771. PMC 2590664. PMID 17245408.
  8. ^ a b c d de Haas, Hein (2008). "The Myth of Invasion: the inconvenient realities of African migration to Europe". Third World Quarterly. 29 (7): 1305–1322. doi:10.1080/01436590802386435.
  9. ^ World migration 2008: Managing labour mobility in the evolving global economy Volume 4 of IOM world migration report series, International Organization for Migration, Hammersmith Press, 2008 ISBN 978-92-9068-405-3, pp. 38, 407.
  10. ^ a b Castles, Stephen (2009). "Development and Migration — Migration and Development: What Comes First? Global Perspective and African Experiences". Theoria. 56 (121): 1–31. doi:10.3167/th.2009.5512102.
  11. ^ "Key facts: Africa to Europe migration". BBC News. 2 July 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  12. ^ "Missing Migrants: Tracking Migrants Along Migratory Routes". International Organization for Migration. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  13. ^ Mbugua, Nganga. "Tough life of illegal immigrants in Germany". Afro Articles. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  14. ^ Williams, Martin (15 September 2014). "200 migrants feared drowned after boat sinks off Libya coast". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  15. ^ Attir, Mustafa O. (18 September 2012). "Illegal Migration in Libya after the Arab Spring". Middle East Institute. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  16. ^ Travis, Alan (27 October 2014). "UK axes support for Mediterranean migrant rescue operation". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  17. ^ Davies, Lizzy; Neslen, Arthur (31 October 2014). "Italy: end of ongoing sea rescue mission 'puts thousands at risk'". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  18. ^ "Eventi migratori illegali registrati in ambito nazionale". Fondazione ISMU. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
  19. ^ "Migrant Arrivals by Sea in Italy Top 170,000 in 2014". International Organization for Migration. 16 January 2015.
  20. ^ "Analisi: Paolo Gentiloni". Pagella Politica. 22 February 2015.
  21. ^ Peter, Laurence (20 April 2015). "Why is EU struggling with migrants and asylum?". BBC News. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
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  24. ^ Miguélez, Fausto; Recio, Albert (2008). "Spain: large-scale regularisation and its impacts on labour market and social policy". Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research. 14 (4): 589–606. doi:10.1177/102425890801400406.
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  26. ^ "Let them stay". The Economist. 12 May 2005. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  27. ^ Kohnert, Dirk (May 2007). "African Migration to Europe: Obscured Responsibilities and Common Misconceptions" (PDF). German Institute of Global and Area Studies. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  28. ^ Brachet, Julien (2018). "Manufacturing Smugglers: From Irregular to Clandestine Mobility in the Sahara'". The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 676 (1): 16–35. doi:10.1177/0002716217744529.
  29. ^ Être né en France d’un parent immigré Archived 3 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Insee Première, n°1287, mars 2010, Catherine Borrel et Bertrand Lhommeau, Insee
  30. ^ Répartition des immigrés par pays de naissance 2008, Insee, October 2011
  31. ^ "Table 1.1: Population in the United Kingdom, excluding some residents in communal establishments, by country of birth, January 2016 to December 2016". Office for National Statistics. 24 August 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
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  33. ^ Dati ISTAT 2018. "Cittadini stranieri in Italia - 2018".
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  35. ^ Estatísticas da Imigração (in Portuguese), Alto Comissariado para a Imigração e Minorias Étnicas, 2005, archived from the original (PDF) on 23 December 2008, retrieved 14 December 2007
  36. ^ Malheiros, Jorge. "Portugal Seeks Balance of Emigration, Immigration". Migration Information Source. Universidade de Lisboa. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  37. ^ "As Erdogan Meets With Obama, Africans In Turkey Face Racism, Discrimination". International Business Times. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  38. ^ "Ausländische Bevölkerung.
  39. ^ a b c d Connor, Philip (18 March 2018), "At Least a Million Sub-Saharan Africans Moved to Europe Since 2010. Sub-Saharan migration to the United States also growing", Pew Research Center

Further reading[edit]