African immigration to the United States
|African : 3,183,104 (Subsaharan African : 2,847,199 + North African: 335.895) (2010 US Census) |
|Regions with significant populations|
|Washington, D.C., New York, Minneapolis, California, Dallas, Atlanta, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Houston|
|English (African English, American English), Arabic, Yoruba, Igbo, Lingala, French, Wolof, Swahili, Amharic, Somali, Tigrinya, Berber, Afrikaans, Hausa, Portuguese, Cape Verdean Crioulo, Spanish, others|
|Related ethnic groups|
|other African people|
African immigration to the United States refers to immigrants to the United States who are or were nationals of Africa. The term African in the scope of this article refers to geographical or national origins rather than racial affiliation.
From the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 to 2007, an estimated total of 0.8 to 0.9 million Africans immigrated to the United States, accounting for roughly 3.3% of total immigration to the United States during this period.
African immigrants in the United States come from almost all regions in Africa and do not constitute a homogeneous group. They include people from different national, linguistic, ethnic, racial, cultural and social backgrounds.
- 1 African presence in United States immigration legislation
- 2 20th-century migration patterns
- 3 Population
- 4 Factors contributing to migration
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Educational attainment
- 7 Health
- 8 Culture
- 9 Religion
- 10 Cultural influence
- 11 Visibility
- 12 Notable African immigrants
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
African presence in United States immigration legislation
In the 1870s the Naturalization Act was extended to allow "aliens, being free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent" to acquire citizenship. Hence immigration from Africa was theoretically permitted while non-white immigration from Asia was not.
Quotas enacted between 1921-1924
Several laws enforcing national origins quotas on American immigration were enacted between 1921 and 1924 and were in effect until they were repealed in 1965. While these laws were aimed at restricting the immigration of Jews and Catholics from central and eastern Europe and immigration from Asia, they also impacted African immigrants. This legislation effectively excluded Africans from entering the country.
The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 restricted immigration from a given country to 3% of the number of people from that country living in the US according to the census of 1910. The Immigration Act of 1924 (also known as the Johnson-Reed Act) reduced that to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the US in 1890. Under this system, the quota for immigrants from Africa (excluding Egypt) totaled 1,100. (This number was increased to 1,400 under the Immigration act of 1952 or the McCarran-Walter Act.)  This is in contrast to a country like Germany whose limit was 51,227.
Immigration Act of 1965
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (also known as the Hart-Cellar Act) repealed the national quotas and subsequently there was a substantial increase in the number of immigrants from "developing" countries, particularly in Africa and Asia. This act also provided a separate category for refugees. The act also provided greater opportunity for family reunification.
20th-century migration patterns
The influx of African immigrants began in the latter part of the 20th century and is often referred to as the "fourth great migration." This trend began after decolonization, as many Africans came to the US seeking an education, and has risen steadily over time. Originally, these immigrants came with the sole purpose of advancing themselves before returning to their respective countries. However, in recent years there has been an increase in the number of African immigrants interested in gaining permanent residence in the US. This has led to a severe brain drain on the economies of African countries due to many highly skilled professionals leaving Africa to seek their economic fortunes in the US and elsewhere.
|Ancestry||2000||2000 (% of US population)||2010||2010 (% of US population)|
|Nigerian||162,938||negligible (no data)||264,550||negligible (no data)|
|Egyptian||142,832||negligible (no data)||197,000||negligible (no data)|
|Cape Verdean||77,103||negligible (no data)||95,003||negligible (no data)|
|Ethiopian||68,001||negligible (no data)||202,715||negligible (no data)|
|Ghanaian||49,944||negligible (no data)||91,322||negligible (no data)|
|South African||44,991||negligible (no data)||57,491||negligible (no data)|
|Moroccan||38,923||negligible (no data)||82,073||negligible (no data)|
|Somali||36,313||negligible (no data)||120,102||negligible (no data)|
|Eritrean||18,917||negligible (no data)||negligible (no data)|
|Kenyan||17,336||negligible (no data)||51,749||negligible (no data)|
|Sudanese||14,458||negligible (no data)||42,249||negligible (no data)|
|Sierra Leonean||12,410||negligible (no data)||16,929||negligible (no data)|
|Algerian||8,752||negligible (no data)||14,716||negligible (no data)|
|Cameroonian||8,099||negligible (no data)||16,894||negligible (no data)|
|Senegalese||6,124||negligible (no data)||11,369||negligible (no data)|
|Congolese||More than 5,488||negligible (no data)||11,009||negligible (no data)|
|Tunisian||4,735||negligible (no data)||negligible (no data)|
|Ugandan||4,707||negligible (no data)||12,549||negligible (no data)|
|Zimbabwean||4,521||negligible (no data)||7,323||negligible (no data)|
|Ivorian||3,110||negligible (no data)||negligible (no data)|
|Gambian||3,035||negligible (no data)||negligible (no data)|
|Guinea||3,016||negligible (no data)||negligible (no data)|
|Libyan||2,979||negligible (no data)||negligible (no data)|
|Tanzanian||2,921||negligible (no data)||negligible (no data)|
|Malian||1,790||negligible (no data)||negligible (no data)|
|Togolese||1,716||negligible (no data)||negligible (no data)|
|Angolan||1,642||negligible (no data)||negligible (no data)|
|Zambian||1,500||negligible (no data)||negligible (no data)|
|Rwandan||1,480||negligible (no data)||negligible (no data)|
|"African"||1,183,316||negligible (no data)||1,676,413||negligible (no data)|
|"Western African"||6,810||negligible (no data)||negligible (no data)|
|"North African/Berber"||4,544 ("North Africans": 3,217; "Berbers":1,327)||negligible (no data)||negligible (no data)|
|TOTAL||940,000||0.2%||NA||NA|
Factors contributing to migration
One major factor that contributes to migration from Africa to the United States is inadequate planning of labor supply in certain African countries. This has led to an oversupply of specialized workers and a system that is incapable of supporting them. Furthermore, education in African countries tends to be modeled after educational sysions and are not very accommodating of local realities. Subsequently, it has been relatively easy for African immigrants to leave and enter international labor markets. In addition, many Africans come to the United States for advanced training. However, this tends to lead a training that is too specialized to be adequately used in their respective home countries. Since promotions in Africa are often based on seniority, young professionals eager to jumpstart their careers feel forced to migrate.
|Metropolitan area||African population||% of total metro population|
|Washington, DC, MD-VA-WV||80,281||1.6|
|New York, NY||73, 851||0.8|
|Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN||27,592||0.9|
|Greater Los Angeles Area||25,829||0.3|
|Dallas–Fort Worth, TX||19,134||0.5|
It is estimated that the current population of African immigrants to the United States is about 881,300. Countries with the most immigrants to the US are Nigeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, South Africa, Somalia, Eritrea, and Kenya. Seventy five percent (75%) of the African immigrants to the USA come from 12 of the 55 countries, namely Nigeria, Egypt, Ghana, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Liberia, Somalia, Morocco, Cape Verde, Sierra Leone and Sudan (including what is now the independent country of South Sudan), which is based on the 2000 census data.
Additionally, according to the US Census, 55% of immigrants from Africa are male, while 45% are female. Age groups with the largest cohort of African-born immigrants are 25-34, 35-44, and 45-54 with 24.5%, 27.9%, and 15.0% respectively.
Africans typically congregate in urban areas, moving to suburban areas over time. They are also one of the least likeliest groups to live in racially segregated areas. The goals of Africans vary tremendously. While some look to create new lives in the US, some plan on using the resources and skills gained to go back and help their countries of origin. Either way, African communities contribute millions to the economies of Africa through remittances.
Immigrants from Africa typically settle in heavily urban areas upon arrival into the US. Areas such as Washington, D.C., New York, Houston, Columbus, Ohio, Atlanta and Minneapolis have heavy concentrations of African immigrant populations. Often there are clusters of nationalities within these cities. The longer African immigrants live in the United States, the more likely they are to live in suburban areas.
African immigrants like many other immigrant groups are likely to establish and find success in small businesses. Many Africans that have seen the social and economic stability that comes from ethnic enclaves such as Chinatowns have recently been establishing ethnic enclaves of their own at much higher rates to reap the benefits of such communities. Such examples include Little Ethiopia in Los Angeles and Little Senegal in New York City.
African immigrants to the US are among the most educated groups in the United States. Some 48.9 percent of all African immigrants hold a college diploma. This is more than double the rate of native-born white Americans, and nearly four times the rate of native-born African Americans. According to the 2000 Census, the rate of college diploma acquisition is highest among Egyptian Americans at 59.7 percent, followed closely by Nigerian Americans at 58.6 percent.
In 1997, 19.4 percent of all adult African immigrants in the United States held a graduate degree, compared to 8.1 percent of adult white Americans and 3.8 percent of adult black Americans in the United States, respectively. According to the 2000 Census, the percentage of Africans with a graduate degree is highest among Nigerian Americans at 28.3 percent, followed by Egyptian Americans at 23.8 percent.
Of the African-born population in the US age 25 and older, 87.9% reported having a high school degree or higher, compared with 78.8% of Asian-born immigrants and 76.8% of European-born immigrants, respectively. Africans from Kenya (90.8 percent), Nigeria (89.1 percent), Ghana (85.9 percent), Botswana (84.7 percent), and Malawi (83 percent) were the most likely to report having a high school degree or higher.
American immigrants from predominantly black nations in Africa and South America are generally healthier than black immigrants from predominantly white nations in Europe. A study conducted by Jen’nan Ghazal Read, a sociology professor at the UC Irvine, and Michael O. Emerson, a sociology professor at Rice University, studied the health of more than 2,900 black immigrants from top regions of emigration: the West Indies, Africa, South America and Europe. Blacks born in Africa and South America have been shown to be healthier than American born Blacks.
African immigrants tend to retain their culture once in the United States. Instead of abandoning their various traditions, they find ways to reproduce and reinvent themselves. Cultural bonds are cultivated through shared ethnic or national affiliations. Some organizations like the Ghanaian group Fantse-Kuo and the Sudanese Association organize by country, region, or ethnic group. Other nonprofits like the Malawi Washington Association organize by national identity, and are inclusive of all Malawians. Other groups present traditional culture from a pan-African perspective. Using traditional skills and knowledge, African-born entrepreneurs develop services for immigrants and the community at large. In the Washington area, events such as the annual Ethiopian soccer tournament, institutions such as the AME Church African Liberation Ministry, and "friends" and "sister cities" organizations bring together different communities. The extent to which African immigrants engage in these activities naturally varies according to the population.
The religious traditions of African immigrants tend to be pluralistic; they are seen not only as religious institutions, but in many cases also as civic centers. These organizations are central to persevering ethnic identity among these communities. African immigrant religious communities are also central networks and provide services such as counseling, shelter, employment, financial assistance, health services, and real estate tips.
African immigrants practice a diverse array of religions, including Christianity, Islam, and various traditional faiths. Of these adherents, the largest number are Penetcostal/Charismatic Christians. This form of Christianity is a "primarily evangelical, born-again Pentecostal sect that emphasizes holiness, fervent prayer, charismatic revival, proximate salvation, speaking in tongues, baptism of the Holy Spirit, faith healing, visions, and divine revelations."
Among popular church denominations are the Brotherhood of the Cross and Star, Seventh Day Adventist Church, Celestial Church of Christ, Cherubim and Seraphim, Christ Apostolic Church, the Church of Pentecost, Deeper Life Bible Church, Mountain of Fire and Miracle Ministries (MFM), the Presbyterian Church of Ghana, the Redeemed Christian Church of God and  Christ Embassy.
Additionally, Ethiopians and Eritreans have their own churches wherever there is a significant Ethiopian or Eritrean population. Their churches are mainly Ethiopian or Eritrean Orthodox and a few Catholic churches.
Continental African churches
Many African communities have created their own churches in the United States modeled on continental African churches. One example is the Bethel Church in Silver Spring, Maryland, which has a Pan-African congregation. It also conducts services in English and French. Many African churches are Pan-African, but some consist only of nationals from the country of origin. This allows for worship in the languages of the congregation.
Muslim immigrants from nations in Africa adhere to diverse Islamic traditions. These include various Sunni, Shia and Sufi mainstream orders and schools (madhhab) from West Africa, the Swahili Coast, the Indian Ocean islands, the Horn of Africa and North Africa.
Many local cable channels are now purchasing programming channels operated by various African communities. For example, Channel Africa is now available in some TV networks in the US. The channel is a showcase for outstanding travel, lifestyle and cultural series, specials and documentaries. These programs feature people of African descent and their stories.
The network's premiere on September 1, 2005, marked a milestone in US television history. For the first time, American audiences were able to experience the successes, celebrations and challenges of people living throughout Africa and the Diaspora, all via a general entertainment network. The network is broadcast in the US through national distribution deals with the largest cable MSOs in the country, including Comcast, Time Warner, and Cox. The Africa Channel is also available in Jamaica, the Bahamas, Trinidad & Tobago, St. Lucia, Barbados, Bermuda, Grenada and other islands in the Caribbean. Partners include former United Nations Ambassador Andrew Young and his company, GoodWorks International; NBA stars Dikembe Mutombo and Theo Ratliff; Williams Group Holdings; and former US Senator Donald Stewart.
TV news services such as the Nigerian Television Authority, South African Broadcasting Channel and Ethiopian Television Programming are also available in some areas.
Nigerian Nollywood films and Ghanaian films can now be rented or purchased from Nigerian and Ghanaian stores and the like in Africa. They are very popular among Africans in the US from many different countries.
Immigrants from Africa have opened restaurants in urban areas. The DC and NYC Metro areas host many eateries belonging to the Nigerian, Senegalese, Liberian, Ethiopian, Kenyan, South African and other communities.
Notable African academics in the US include full tenured professors at the nation's top universities, including, at MIT, Elfatih A.B. Eltahir from Sudan; at Caltech, 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Winner Ahmed Zewail from Egypt; at Yale, professor Lamin Sanneh  from Gambia; at Pennsylvania State University, professor Augustin Banyaga, from Rwanda; at Harvard, professors Jacob Olupona, from Nigeria, Barack Obama Sr. from Kenya, Emmanuel K. Akyeampong from Ghana, Biodun Jeyifo from Nigeria, and John Mugane from Kenya; and at Princeton, Adel Mahmoud  from Egypt, Wole Soboyejo  from Nigeria, Simon Gikandi  from Kenya, V. Kofi Agawu from Ghana, and Kwame Anthony Appiah from Ghana.
In the arts, Academy Award-winning actress Charlize Theron and Grammy Award-winning musician Dave Matthews, both white South Africans; and two-time Academy Award-nominated actor Djimon Hounsou and Grammy-winning musician Angelique Kidjo, both from Benin; and recently Lupita Nyong'o and Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, are most notable.
Notable African immigrants
The following is a list of notable African nationals who have immigrated to and now at least partially reside in the US.
Academia and science
- Claude Ake, Nigerian, professor at Yale University
- Emmanuel K. Akyeampong, Ghanaian, Professor of History at Harvard University
- Kwame Anthony Appiah, British-born Ghanaian national, half Ghanaian and half British, philosopher and writer, Professor of Philosophy at Princeton University, 2012 National Humanities Medal winner 
- Augustin Banyaga, Rwandan, professor at Pennsylvania State University
- Kwabena Boahen, Ghanaian, Professor of Bioengineering, Stanford University 
- Kitaw Ejigu, Ethiopian, former NASA chief engineer
- Mohammed Adam El-Sheikh, Sudanese, executive director of the Fiqh Council of North America
- Bisi Ezerioha, Nigerian, automotive engineer, racecar driver and industrialist
- Simon Gikandi, Kenyan, professor at Princeton University
- Sossina M. Haile, Ethiopian, fuel cell engineer
- Fatima Jibrell, Somalian, environmentalist
- Abdul Kallon, Sierra Leonean, US District Judge for the Northern District of Alabama 
- Ave Kludze, Ghanaian, Senior NASA Spacecraft Systems Engineer
- Nawal M. Nour, Sudanese, obstetrician and gynecologist, 2003 Genius Award winner
- John Ogbu, Nigerian, professor at University of California at Berkeley
- Niyi Osundare, Nigerian, professor at University of New Orleans
- Said Sheikh Samatar, Somalian, historian
- Lamin Sanneh, Gambian, professor at Yale University
- Jem Spectar, Cameroonian, President of the University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown
- Victor Ukpolo, Nigerian, Chancellor of Southern University at New Orleans
- Kwasi Wiredu, Ghanaian, Distinguished University Professor of Philosophy at the Department of Philosophy in the University of South Florida
- Ahmed Zewail, Egyptian, winner of 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry; professor at California Institute of Technology
TV and film
- Cynthia Addai-Robinson, Ghanaian
- Michael Blackson, Ghanaian, actor and comedian
- Monica Owusu-Breen, Ghanaian, American TV producer and screenwriter; work includes Lost, Brothers & Sisters, Alias and Fringe
- Akosua Busia, Ghanaian, played Nettie in Academy-Award-nominated film The Color Purple
- Edi Gathegi, Kenyan
- Djimon Hounsou, Beninese, two-time Academy Award-nominated actor
- Peter Mensah, Ghanaian
- Lupita Nyong'o, Kenyan
- Omar Sharif, Egyptian, Golden Globe-winning actor
- Cliff Simon, South African
- Charlize Theron, South African, Academy Award-winning actress
- Arnold Vosloo, South African
- Gale Agbossoumonde, Togo by way of Benin, soccer
- Joshua Clottey, Ghanaian, professional boxer
- Luol Deng, South Sudanese, NBA basketball
- Ebenezer Ekuban, Ghanaian, NFL football
- Festus Ezeli, Nigerian, NBA basketball
- Serge Ibaka, Republic of the Congo, NBA basketball
- Meb Keflezighi, Eritrean, runner
- Kofi Kingston, Ghanaian, professional wrestling
- Mathias Kiwanuka, Ugandan, NFL Football
- Nana Kuffour, Ghanaian, soccer
- Bernard Lagat, Kenyan, runner
- Luc Mbah a Moute, Cameroonian, NBA basketball
- Dikembe Mutombo, D.R. Congo, NBA basketball
- Danny Mwanga, D.R. Congo, soccer player
- Betty Okino, Ugandan, gymnastics
- Amobi Okoye, Nigerian, football player
- Hakeem Olajuwon, Nigerian, NBA basketball player
- Henry Rono, Kenyan, professional runner
- Robbie Russell, Ghanaian, soccer player
- Tony Tchani, Cameroonian, soccer player
- Hasheem Thabeet, Tanzanian, NBA basketball player
- Jean-Pierre Tokoto, Cameroonian, soccer player
- Masai Ujiri, Nigerian, NBA basketball (general manager)
- Madieu Williams, Sierra Leonean, NFL football player
- Gedion Zelalem, Ethiopian, soccer player
- Roelof Botha, South African, former Chief Financial Officer of PayPal
- Kase Lukman Lawal, Nigerian, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, CAMAC Holdings
- Elon Musk, South African, co-founder of PayPal, SpaceX and Tesla Motors; CEO and CTO of SpaceX; CEO and Product Architect of Tesla Motors; Chairman of SolarCity
- Amsale Aberra, Ethiopian, fashion designer
- Iman, Somalian, fashion and cosmetics entrepreneur; former supermodel
- Kiara Kabukuru, Ugandan, supermodel
- Liya Kebede, Ethiopian, supermodel, actress and philanthropist
- Nana Meriwether, South African-born, half South African and half African American, Miss Maryland USA 2012, Miss USA 2012 first runner-up
- Oluchi Onweagba, Nigerian, model
- Alek Wek, Sudanese, supermodel and designer
Journalism and literature
- Chimamanda Adichie, Nigerian, author; winner of 2008 MacArthur Fellowship "Genius Grant", 2007 Orange Prize and 2005 Commonwealth Writer's Prize
- Selamawi Asgedom, Ethiopian and Eritrean, author
- Folasade Olayinka Baderinwa, known professionally as Sade Baderinwa
- Teju Cole, Nigerian-American, novelist, writer, photographer and art historian
- Dinaw Mengestu, Ethiopian, author
- Charles Mudede, Zimbabwean, filmmaker and film critic
- Micere Mugo, Kenyan, poet and writer
- Tunde Adebimpe, Nigerian, lead singer for band experimental rock band TV on the Radio
- Akon, Senegalese, musician and rapper
- Richard Bona, Cameroonian
- Jean Grae, South African, hip-hop artist
- Kem, Nigerian
- Kenna, Ethiopian, alternative rock musician
- Angelique Kidjo, Beninese, Grammy Award-winning musician
- Disashi Lumumba-Kasongo, DR Congolese, guitarist for band Gym Class Heroes, grandnephew of Patrice Lumumba
- Dave Matthews, South African
- "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- Yoku Shaw-Taylor, Steven A. Tuch, The other African Americans: contemporary African and Caribbean immigrants in the United States, Rowman & Littlefield, 2007, ISBN 978-0-7425-4088-0.
- David E. Kyoso, Immigrants in the United States, (Godfrey Mwakikagile: 2010), p.110.
- [Bashi, V. (2004, July 4). Globalizing Anti-Blackness: Transnationalzing Western Immigration law, policy and practice. Retrieved May 1, 2010, from Ethnic and Racial Studies: http://www.arts.yorku.ca/soci/goldring/4390/readings/pdf/bashi_globalized_anti-blackness.pdf]
- George Mason University. (1998). Who was Shut Out?: Immigration Quotas, 1925-1927. Retrieved May 1, 2010, from History Matters: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5078/
- "Table 1. First, Second, and Total Responses to the Ancestry Question by Detailed Ancestry Code: 2000". US Census Bureau. Retrieved 2010-12-02.
- "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- "CITIZENSHIP STATUS IN THE UNITED STATES: Total population in the United States. 2006–2010 American Community Survey Selected Population Tables.". US Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-12-06.
- "PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES, Universe: Foreign-born population excluding population born at sea, 2007-2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- Apraku, K. K. (1991). African Emigres in the United States: A Missing Link in Africa's Social and Economic Development. New York: Praeger.
- (Apraku, 1991)
- US Census Bureau - People Born in Africa
- Otiso, Kefa (06/11/2007). "African Immigrants a Successful Bunch, But Not Overall". MShale news. Retrieved 1 August 2011. Check date values in:
- Segregation Stats
- "How African-Americans and African Immigrants Differ". The Globalist. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "African immigrants hope for a Chicago community of their own", Chicago Tribune, 14 January 2013, retrieved 14 July 2013
- African Immigrants in the United States are the Nation's Most Highly Educated Group. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, No. 26 (Winter, 1999-2000), pp. 60-61 doi:10.2307/2999156
- "Table FBP-1. Profile of Selected Demographic and Social Characteristics:2000; Population Universe: People Born in Nigeria; Geographic Area: United States" (PDF). census.gov.
- "Table FBP-1. Profile of Selected Demographic and Social Characteristics:2000; Population Universe: People Born in Egypt; Geographic Area: United States" (PDF). census.gov.
- African Immigrants in the United States have the highest rate of education. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, No. 26 (Winter, 1999-2000), pp. 60-61 doi:10.2307/2999156
- "Demographics and Statistics of Immigrants : Asian-Nation :: Asian American History, Demographics, & Issues". Asian-Nation. Retrieved 2010-11-08.
- Characteristics of the African Born in the United States. Migration Policy Institute. January, 2006
- Dixon, D. (2006). Characteristics of the African Born in the United States. Migration Policy Institute. January, 2006
- "Black immigrants from Africa arrive healthier than those from Europe: From MedicineWorld.Org". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Today@UCI: Press Releases:
- "Project MUSE - Login". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Olupona, J. K., & Gemignani, R. (Eds.). (2007). African Immigrant Religion in America. New York: New York University Press.
- Malawi Washington Association
- (Olupona & Gemignani, 2007)
- "Eltahir CV". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Welcome". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Jacob K. Olupona". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Princeton University. "Adel Mahmoud". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Princeton University. "Soboyejo — Princeton University — Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "COMPARATIVE LITERATURE". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- Princeton University. "Display Person - The Department of Music at Princeton University - Display Person". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Princeton University - Appiah awarded National Humanities Medal". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Kwabena Boahen". Stanford.edu. Retrieved 2010-11-08.
- "Faculty - Department of Bioengineering - Stanford University School of Medicine and School of Engineering". Bioengineering.stanford.edu. 2008-06-20. Retrieved 2010-11-08.
- "Leader Named at Mosque". Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Abdul Kallon". Fjc.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-14.
- "A CONVERSATION WITH/NAWAL NOUR; A Life Devoted to Stopping The Suffering of Mutilation", The New York Times, Claudia Dreifus, July 11, 2000
- President of the University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown
- "Kwasi Wiredu". Usf.edu. Retrieved 2015-07-14.
- "More on Miss USA Maryland Nana Meriwether". tribunedigital-baltimoresun. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Nana Meriwether, Sidwell Friends grad, is first runner-up at Miss USA (updated)". The Washington Post. 4 June 2012.
- New York Times: Tastes of Nigeria, Sounds of Sierra Leone
- New York Times: Bronx: Beyond the Yankees and the Zoo
- New York Times: Solace From a Multiethnic Tapestry
- Oakland Tribune: Black immigrants: The invisible model minority