African village dog

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The African village dog is a landrace of dog that is predominantly not a mix of modern European breeds, but an indigenous African dog.[1] African village dogs became the close companion of people in Africa, beginning in North Africa and spreading south.[2]

Genetic diversity[edit]

A study based on the DNA sequences of 318 African village dogs from Uganda, Egypt and Namibia indicates that dogs from most regions of Africa are genetically distinct.[1][3] There were some exceptions to the diversity in Namibia and Giza, which is proposed to be a result of European colonization or proximity to Eurasia.[4] It was then discovered that African village dogs are "a mosaic of" indigenous dogs and non-native mixed-breed dogs.[3] Another reason the African village dogs have been found to be more genetically diverse is the lack of selective breeding by people, which narrows a breed's gene pools.[1] Previous genetic studies of dogs have confirmed that the domestic dog traces its origins to Eurasian wolves 15,000 to 40,000 years ago.[3]

The information gathered from the study also suggests that breeds originally suspected to have come from Africa, such as the Pharaoh Hound and Rhodesian Ridgeback, have roots outside of Africa.[3] However, the results also indicate that African village dogs descend from indigenous ancestors that are related to the Basenji, a dog originating in the Congo Basin that has many unique traits."[5] The study also said that Afghan Hounds and Salukis appear to be indigenous to the Middle East.[6]

Due to the effects of geography, gene flow barriers and the presence of non-indigenous dogs in some packs, the African village dog has a complex social structure.[7]

Local variations[edit]

There are different local variations or types of African village dogs, which can rather be considered as a landrace rather than a specified breed:

  • Avuvi: a pariah-type village dog from Ghana[8]
  • Baganda Dog: a Lurcher-like large game hunting dog from Uganda, named after the Baganda tribe[9]
  • Bagirmi Dog: a large dog with piebald colour, named after the Baguirmi Department of Chad[9]
  • Cameroon Dog: a hunting dog from West Africa, of medium size and primitive type, with erect ears, long legs and short coat, often piebald colour, named after Cameroon[10]
  • East African Dog: a hunting dog from Kenya, large in size[11]
  • Hahoawu: a "clean" medium-sized (11 to 14 kg) watch dog from Togo, with a far sight and a coat of fawn or red colour, well adapted to city life, named after the Haho river[12]
  • Liberian Dog (a.k.a. Liberian Terrier): a terrier-like dog from West Africa, small and reddish-brown, named after Liberia[13]
  • Madagascar Hunting Dog: a hunting dog from Madagascar[13]
  • Nyam Nyam (a.k.a. Zande Dog): a small hunting dog from Central Africa with erect ears, a curly tail, and a short coat of fawn colour, though to be similar or somehow related to the Basenji, named after the Zande tribe[14]
  • Simaku: a ratter from South Africa, also used for cleaning yards (by scavenging waste), developed by crossing pariah dogs with terriers[15]
  • Sudan Greyhound: an extinct hare-hunting dog from Sudan[15]
  • West African Mouse Dog: an extinct small (36 cm) Doberman Pinscher-like ratter, with a short, smooth, and red coat[16]
  • Zulu Dog: a small guard and hunting dog with a square muzzle and fawn coat, named after the Zulu tribe[16]

Moreover, it is debatable whether the following breeds also belong or belonged to the landrace of "African village dogs".

  • Abyssinian Sand Terrier: a probably extinct hairless dog
  • Bisharin Greyhound: a hare-hunting dog from Sudan, with erect ears and a curly tail, named after the Bishari tribe[17]
  • Dinka Greyhound: a Greyhound-like pariah hunting dog from Sudan, of a rougher type than the other Sudanese breeds, with a short, fawn coat, named after the Dinka tribe[17]
  • Egyptian Hairless Dog: an extinct hairless dog, close relative of the Abyssinian Sand Terrier, small in size (41 cms), with drooping ears[18]
  • Shilluk Greyhound (a.k.a. Shilluk Dog): an antelope-hunting dog with a robust body and semi-erect (folded) ears, usually of red colour with a black mask, named after the Shilluk tribe[19]
  • Zanzibar Greyhound (a.k.a. Zanzibar Dog): a large (68 cms) hunting dog from Zanzibar, with erect ears, a robust body, and a red-white colour, believed to be developed by crossing Salukis with pariah dogs[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "African Village Dogs Are Genetically Much More Diverse Than Modern Breeds". ScienceDaily. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  2. ^ Simpson, Professor MA (8 January 2013). "Dogs do come from Africa". health24. 24.com. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d Ramanujan, Krishna (3 August 2009). "African village dogs genetically unique from all breeds". Cornell Chronicle. Cornell University. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  4. ^ "Of Mutts and Men". National Science Foundation. 3 August 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
  5. ^ Science Centric (4 August 2009). "Genetic study of African village dogs challenges the ancestral origins of several dog breeds". Science Centric. Science Centric. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
  6. ^ Viegas, Jennifer (3 August 2009). "Dog domestication likely started in N. Africa". DiscoveryNews. nbcnews.com. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
  7. ^ Byoko, Adam R.; et al. (18 August 2009). "Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. National Center for Biotechnology Information. 106 (33): 13903–13908. doi:10.1073/pnas.0902129106. PMC 2728993. PMID 19666600.
  8. ^ Avuvis. West African Dogs, Blogspot.com. Searched Feb 25th, 2019.
  9. ^ a b Morris, Desmond. Dogs - The Ultimate Dictionary of over 1,000 Dog Breeds, p. 699. Trafalgar Square, North Pomfret, Vermont: 2008.
  10. ^ Morris, Desmond. Dogs - The Ultimate Dictionary of over 1,000 Dog Breeds, p. 700. Trafalgar Square, North Pomfret, Vermont: 2008.
  11. ^ Morris, Desmond. Dogs - The Ultimate Dictionary of over 1,000 Dog Breeds, p. 702. Trafalgar Square, North Pomfret, Vermont: 2008.
  12. ^ Kärmer, Eva-Maria. Der grosse Kosmos Hundeführer, p. 114. Kosmos, Stuttgart: 2009.
  13. ^ a b Morris, Desmond. Dogs - The Ultimate Dictionary of over 1,000 Dog Breeds, p. 706. Trafalgar Square, North Pomfret, Vermont: 2008.
  14. ^ Morris, Desmond. Dogs - The Ultimate Dictionary of over 1,000 Dog Breeds, p. 322. Trafalgar Square, North Pomfret, Vermont: 2008.
  15. ^ a b Morris, Desmond. Dogs - The Ultimate Dictionary of over 1,000 Dog Breeds, p. 710. Trafalgar Square, North Pomfret, Vermont: 2008.
  16. ^ a b Morris, Desmond. Dogs - The Ultimate Dictionary of over 1,000 Dog Breeds, p. 711. Trafalgar Square, North Pomfret, Vermont: 2008.
  17. ^ a b Morris, Desmond. Dogs - The Ultimate Dictionary of over 1,000 Dog Breeds, p. 37. Trafalgar Square, North Pomfret, Vermont: 2008.
  18. ^ Morris, Desmond. Dogs - The Ultimate Dictionary of over 1,000 Dog Breeds, p. 579. Trafalgar Square, North Pomfret, Vermont: 2008.
  19. ^ Morris, Desmond. Dogs - The Ultimate Dictionary of over 1,000 Dog Breeds, p. 38. Trafalgar Square, North Pomfret, Vermont: 2008.
  20. ^ Morris, Desmond. Dogs - The Ultimate Dictionary of over 1,000 Dog Breeds, p. 39. Trafalgar Square, North Pomfret, Vermont: 2008.