Africonus

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Africonus
Conus borgesi 2.jpg
Apertural and abapertural views of shell of Conus borgesi Trovão, 1979
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Caenogastropoda
clade Hypsogastropoda
clade Neogastropoda
Superfamily: Conoidea
Family: Conidae
Genus: Conus
Subgenus: Africonus
Petuch, 1975
Type species
Conus cuneolus Reeve, 1843
Synonyms

Lautoconus

Africonus is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conus, family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.[1]

In the new classification of the family Conidae by Puillandre N., Duda T.F., Meyer C., Olivera B.M. & Bouchet P. (2015), Africonus has become a subgenus of Conus: Conus (Lautoconus) Monterosato, 1923 (type species: Conus mediterraneus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792) represented as Conus Thiele, 1929 [2]

Distinguishing characteristics[edit]

The Tucker & Tenorio 2009 taxonomy distinguishes Africonus from Conus in the following ways:[3]

Shell characters (living and fossil species)
The basic shell shape is conical to elongated conical, has a deep anal notch on the shoulder, a smooth periostracum and a small operculum. The shoulder of the shell is usually nodulose and the protoconch is usually multispiral. Markings often include the presence of tents except for black or white color variants, with the absence of spiral lines of minute tents and textile bars.
Radular tooth (not known for fossil species)
The radula has an elongated anterior section with serrations and a large exposed terminating cusp, a non-obvious waist, blade is either small or absent and has a short barb, and lacks a basal spur.
Geographical distribution
These species are found in the Indo-Pacific region.
Feeding habits
These species eat other gastropods including cones.[3]
  • Subgenus Africonus Petuch, 1975
Shell characters (living and fossil species)
The protoconch is paucispiral, the whorl tops may be concave when viewed in cross section, with cords on the whorl tops that may be lost in middle spire whorls or persist thereafter. The shell has a shallow to moderately deep anal notch. The periostracum is smooth and thin, and the operculum is small.
Radular tooth (not known for fossil species)
The anterior section of the radula is usually shorter than the posterior section but in some species they are subequal in length, the lumen of the radular tooth is wide, a basal spur is present, the barb is short, and the blade is long and extends along most of the anterior section of the radular tooth. Serrations are usually in multiple rows with one or two rows of large serrations and rows of smaller serrations on either side, although serrations can be in a single row in juveniles or small specimens.
Geographical distribution
These species are endemic to the Cape Verde Islands in the West African Region.
Feeding habits
These species are vermivorous (meaning that they prey on marine worms).[3]

Species list[edit]

This list of species is based on the information in the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) list. Species within the genus Africonus include:[1]

The following species names are recognized as "alternate representations" (see full explanation below) in contrast to the traditional system, which uses the genus Conus for all species in the family:[1]

  • Africonus anthonyi Petuch, 1975 : synonym of Conus anthonyi (Petuch, 1975)
  • Africonus antoniaensis Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014: synonym of Conus antoniaensis (Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus antonioi Cossignani, 2014 : synonym of Conus antonioi (Cossignani, 2014)
  • Africonus antoniomonteiroi (Rolán, 1990): synonym of Conus antoniomonteiroi Rolán, 1990
  • Africonus bellulus (Rolán, 1990): synonym of Conus bellulus Rolán, 1990
  • Africonus bernardinoi Cossignani, 2014: synonym of Conus bernardinoi (Cossignani, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus boavistensis (Rolán & Fernandes, 1990): synonym of Conus boavistensis Rolán & Fernandes, 1990
  • Africonus borgesi (Trovão, 1979): synonym of Conus borgesi Trovão, 1979
  • Africonus cabraloi Cossignani, 2014: synonym of Conus cabraloi (Cossignani, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus cagarralensis Cossignani, 2014: synonym of Conus cagarralensis (Cossignani, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus calhetae (Rolán, 1990): synonym of Conus calhetae Rolán, 1990 (alternate representation)
  • Africonus calhetinensis Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014: synonym of Conus calhetinensis (Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus claudiae (Tenorio & Afonso, 2004): synonym of Conus claudiae Tenorio & Afonso, 2004
  • Africonus condei Afonso & Tenorio, 2014: synonym of Conus condei (Afonso & Tenorio, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus cossignanii Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014: synonym of Conus cossignanii (Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus crioulus (Tenorio & Afonso, 2004): synonym of Conus crioulus Tenorio & Afonso, 2004
  • Africonus crotchii (Reeve, 1849): synonym of Conus crotchii Reeve, 1849
  • Africonus cuneolus (Reeve, 1843): synonym of Conus cuneolus Reeve, 1843
  • Africonus curralensis (Rolán, 1986): synonym of Conus curralensis Rolán, 1986
  • Africonus damioi Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2015: synonym of Conus damioi (Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2015) (alternate representation, original combination)
  • Africonus damottai (Trovão, 1979): synonym of Conus damottai Trovão, 1979
  • Africonus decoratus (Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980): synonym of Conus decoratus Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980
  • Africonus delanoyae (Trovão, 1979): synonym of Conus delanoyae Trovão, 1979
  • Africonus denizi Afonso & Tenorio, 2011:[4] synonym of Conus denizi (Afonso & Tenorio, 2011) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus derrubado (Rolán & Fernandes, 1990): synonym of Conus derrubado Rolán & Fernandes, 1990
  • Africonus diegoi Cossignani, 2014: synonym of Conus diegoi (Cossignani, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus diminutus (Trovão & Rolán, 1986): synonym of Conus diminutus Trovão & Rolán, 1986
  • Africonus docensis Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014: synonym of Conus docensis (Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus evorai (Monteiro, Fernandes & Rolán, 1995): synonym of Conus evorai Monteiro, Fernandes & Rolán, 1995
  • Africonus fantasmalis (Rolán, 1990): synonym of Conus fantasmalis Rolán, 1990
  • Africonus felitae (Rolán, 1990): synonym of Conus felitae Rolán, 1990
  • Africonus fernandesi (Tenorio, Afonso & Rolán, 2008): synonym of Conus fernandesi Tenorio, Afonso & Rolán, 2008
  • Africonus fiadeiroi Tenorio, Afonso, Cunha & Rolán, 2014: synonym of Conus fiadeiroi (Tenorio, Afonso, Cunha & Rolán, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus fontonae (Rolán & Trovão, 1990): synonym of Conus fontonae Rolán & Trovão, 1990
  • Africonus fuscoflavus (Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980): synonym of Conus fuscoflavus Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980
  • Africonus gonsalensis Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014: synonym of Conus gonsalensis (Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus gonsaloi Afonso & Tenorio, 2014: synonym of Conus gonsaloi (Afonso & Tenorio, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus grahami (Röckel, Cosel & Burnay, 1980): synonym of Conus grahami Röckel, Cosel & Burnay, 1980
  • Africonus infinitus (Rolán, 1990): synonym of Conus infinitus Rolán, 1990
  • Africonus irregularis (G.B. Sowerby II, 1858): synonym of Conus irregularis G. B. Sowerby II, 1858
  • Africonus isabelarum (Tenorio & Afonso, 2004): synonym of Conus isabelarum Tenorio & Afonso, 2004
  • Africonus josephinae (Rolán, 1980): synonym of Conus josephinae Rolán, 1980
  • Africonus joserochoi Cossignani, 2014: synonym of Conus joserochoi (Cossignani, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus kersteni (Tenorio, Afonso & Rolán, 2008): synonym of Conus kersteni Tenorio, Afonso & Rolán, 2008
  • Africonus longilineus (Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980): synonym of Conus longilineus Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980
  • Africonus lugubris (Reeve, 1849): synonym of Conus lugubris Reeve, 1849
  • Africonus luquei (Rolán & Trovão, 1990): synonym of Conus luquei Rolán & Trovão, 1990
  • Africonus maioensis (Trovão, Rolán & Félix-Alves, 1990): synonym of Conus maioensis Trovão, Rolán & Félix-Alves, 1990
  • Africonus marcocastellazzii Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014: synonym of Conus marcocastellazzii (Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus melissae (Tenorio, Afonso & Rolán, 2008): synonym of Conus melissae Tenorio, Afonso & Rolán, 2008
  • Africonus messiasi (Rolán & Fernandes, 1990): synonym of Conus messiasi Rolán & Fernandes, 1990
  • Africonus miruchae (Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980): synonym of Conus miruchae Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980
  • Africonus mordeirae (Rolán & Trovão, 1990): synonym of Conus mordeirae Rolán & Trovão, 1990
  • Africonus morroensis Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014: synonym of Conus morroensis (Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus navarroi (Rolán, 1986): synonym of Conus navarroi Rolán, 1986
  • Africonus nelsonandradoi Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2015: synonym of Conus nelsonandradoi (Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2015) (alternate representation, original combination)
  • Africonus nelsontiagoi Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014: synonym of Conus nelsontiagoi (Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus pedrofiadeiroi Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2015: synonym of Conus pedrofiadeiroi (Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2015) (alternate representation, original combination)
  • Africonus pseudocuneolus (Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980): synonym of Conus pseudocuneolus Röckel, Rolán & Monteiro, 1980
  • Africonus raulsilvai (Rolán, Monteiro & Fernandes, 1998): synonym of Conus raulsilvai Rolán, Monteiro & Fernandes, 1998
  • Africonus regonae (Rolán & Trovão, 1990): synonym of Conus regonae Rolán & Trovão, 1990
  • Africonus roeckeli (Rolán, 1980): synonym of Conus roeckeli Rolán, 1980
  • Africonus salletae Cossignani, 2014: synonym of Conus salletae (Cossignani, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus salreiensis (Rolán, 1980): synonym of Conus salreiensis Rolán, 1980
  • Africonus santanaensis Afonso & Tenorio, 2014: synonym of Conus santanaensis (Afonso & Tenorio, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus saragasae (Rolán, 1986): synonym of Conus saragasae Rolán, 1986
  • Africonus serranegrae (Rolán, 1990): synonym of Conus serranegrae Rolán, 1990
  • Africonus silviae Cossignani, 2014: synonym of Conus silviae (Cossignani, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus swinneni Tenorio, Afonso, Cunha & Rolán, 2014: synonym of Conus swinneni (Tenorio, Afonso, Cunha & Rolán, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus teodorae (Rolán & Fernandes, 1990): synonym of Conus teodorae Rolán & Fernandes, 1990
  • Africonus umbelinae Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014: synonym of Conus umbelinae (Cossignani & Fiadeiro, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus verdensis (Trovão, 1979): synonym of Conus verdensis Trovão, 1979
  • Africonus vulcanus (Tenorio & Afonso, 2004): synonym of Conus vulcanus Tenorio & Afonso, 2004
  • Africonus wandae Cossignani, 2014: synonym of Conus wandae (Cossignani, 2014) (alternate representation)
  • Africonus zinhoi Cossignani, 2014: synonym of Conus zinhoi (Cossignani, 2014) (alternate representation)

The following species were synonymized:[1]

  • Africonus echinophilus Petuch, 1975 was accepted as Conus echinophilus (Petuch, 1975). This species should not be placed in Africonus; it: synonym of Lautoconus echinophilus[5]

Significance of "alternative representation"[edit]

Prior to 2009, all species within the family Conidae were placed in one genus, Conus. In 2009 however, J.K. Tucker and M.J. Tenorio proposed a classification system for the over 600 recognized species that were in the family. Their classification proposed 3 distinct families and 82 genera for the living species of cone snails. This classification was based upon shell morphology, radular differences, anatomy, physiology, cladistics, with comparisons to molecular (DNA) studies.[3] Published accounts of genera within the Conidae that include the genus Africonus include J.K. Tucker & M.J. Tenorio (2009), and Bouchet et al. (2011).[6]

Testing in order to try to understand the molecular phylogeny of the Conidae was initially begun by Christopher Meyer and Alan Kohn,[7] and is continuing, particularly with the advent of nuclear DNA testing in addition to mDNA testing.

However, in 2011, some experts still prefer to use the traditional classification, where all species are placed in Conus within the single family Conidae: for example, according to the current November 2011 version of the World Register of Marine Species, all species within the family Conidae are in the genus Conus. The binomial names of species in the 82 cone snail genera listed in Tucker & Tenorio 2009 are currently recognized by the World Register of Marine Species as "alternative representations." [8] Debate within the scientific community regarding this issue continues, and additional molecular phylogeny studies are being carried out in an attempt to clarify the issue.[3][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]

In 2015, in the Journal of Molluscan Studies, Puillandre, Duda, Meyer, Olivera & Bouchet presented a new classification for the old genus Conus. Using 329 species, the authors carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses. The results suggested that the authors should place all cone snails in a single family, Conidae, containing four genera: Conus, Conasprella, Profundiconus and Californiconus. The authors group 85% of all known cone snail species under Conus, They recognize 57 subgenera within Conus, and 11 subgenera within the genus Conasprella.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Africonus Petuch, 1975.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 04/16/10.
  2. ^ a b Puillandre N., Duda T.F., Meyer C., Olivera B.M. & Bouchet P. (2015). One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23
  3. ^ a b c d e Tucker J.K. & Tenorio M.J. (2009), Systematic Classification of Recent and Fossil Conoidean Gastropods, ConchBooks, Hankenheim, Germany, 295 pp.
  4. ^ Africonus denizi Afonso & Tenorio, 2011.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 3 October 2011.
  5. ^ Lautoconus echinophilus (Petuch, 1975).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 2 July 2011.
  6. ^ Bouchet P., Kantor Yu.I., Sysoev A. & Puillandre N. (2011). "A new operational classification of the Conoidea". Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273-308.
  7. ^ Interview of Professor Alan Kohn, Professor Emeritus, Zoology "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-27. Retrieved 2011-12-04. 
  8. ^ http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=14107 Classification: Traditionally, all cone shells have been included in the Linnaean genus Conus. Tucker & Tenorio (2009) have recently proposed an alternative shell- and radula-based classification that recognizes 4 families and 80 genera of cones. In WoRMS, we currently still recognize a single family Conidae (following Puillandre et al. 2011), but Tucker & Tenorio's 80 genera classification is presented as "alternative representation". [P. Bouchet, 14 Aug. 2011]
  9. ^ C.M.L. Afonso & M.J. Tenorio (August 2011), A new, distinct endemic Africonus species (Gastropoda, Conidae) from Sao Vicente Island, Cape Verde Archipelago, West Africa, Gloria Maris 50(5): 124-135
  10. ^ P. Bouchet, Yu I. Kantor, A. Sysoev, and N. Puillandre (March 2011), A New Operational Classification of the Conoidea, Journal of Molluscan Studies 77:273-308, at p. 275.
  11. ^ N. Puillandre, E. Strong, P. Bouchet, M. Boisselier, V. Couloux, & S. Samadi (2009), Identifying gastropod spawn from DNA barcodes: possible but not yet practicable, Molecular Ecology Resources 9:1311-1321.
  12. ^ P.K. Bandyopadhyay, B.J. Stevenson, J.P. Ownby, M.T. Cady, M. Watkins, & B. Olivera (2008), The mitochondrial genome of Conus textile, coxI-conII intergenic sequences and conoidean evolution. Mollecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46: 215-223.
  13. ^ S.T. Williams & T.F. Duda, Jr. (2008), Did tectonic activity stimulate Oligo-Miocene speciation in the Indo-West Pacific? Evolution 62:1618-1634.
  14. ^ R.L. Cunha, R. Castilho, L. Ruber, & R. Zardoya (2005), Patterns of cladogenesis in the venomous marine gastropod genus Conus from the Cape Verde Islands Systematic Biology 54(4):634-650.
  15. ^ T.F. Duda, Jr. & A.J. Kohn (2005), Species-level phylogeography and evolutionary history of the hyperdiverse marine gastropod genus Conus, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34:257-272.
  16. ^ T.F. Duda, Jr. & E. Rolan (2005), Explosive radiation of Cape Verde Conus, a marine species flock, Molecular Ecology 14:267-272.
  17. ^ B. Vallejo, Jr. (2005), Inferring the mode of speciation in the Indo-West Pacific Conus (Gastropoda: Conidae), Journal of Biogeography 32:1429-1439.
  18. ^ Monteiro A., Tenorio M. J. & Poppe G. T., 2004. The Family Conidae: The West African and Mediterranean species of Conus

Further reading[edit]

  • Kohn A. A. (1992). Chronological Taxonomy of Conus, 1758-1840". Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
  • Monteiro A. (ed.) (2007). The Cone Collector 1: 1-28.
  • Berschauer D. (2010). Technology and the Fall of the Mono-Generic Family The Cone Collector 15: pp. 51-54
  • Puillandre N., Meyer C.P., Bouchet P., and Olivera B.M. (2011), Genetic divergence and geographical variation in the deep-water Conus orbignyi complex (Mollusca: Conoidea), Zoologica Scripta 40(4) 350-363.

External links[edit]