Afridi

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Afridis at Jamrūd Fort (1866) by Charles Shepherd (photographer). Jamrūd Fort was strategically located at the eastern entrance to the Khyber Pass in present-day Pakistan
For other uses, see Afridi (disambiguation).
Afridis
اپريدي
آفریدی
Total population
~60,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Pakistan ~50,000[2]
 Afghanistan ~10,000[1]
Languages
Vernacular: Pashto
Diaspora: Urdu
Religion
Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups
Khattaks · Orakzais · Wazirs · Mehsuds
and other Karlani Pashtun tribes

The Afridi (Pashto: اپريدیApriday, plur. اپريدي Afridi; Urdu: آفریدی‎) is a Karlani Pashtun tribe present in Pakistan, with substantial numbers in Afghanistan. The Afridis are most dominant in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas, inhabiting about 1,000 square miles (3,000 km²) of rough hilly area in the eastern Spin Ghar range west of Peshawar, covering most of Khyber Agency, FR Peshawar and FR Kohat.[2] Their territory includes the Khyber Pass and Maidan in Tirahin Kurram agency . Afridi migrants are also found in India, mostly in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Jammu and Kashmir.[3]

The Afridis are historically known for the strategic location they inhabit, and for belligerence against outside forces; battling the Mughal dynasty's armies throughout Mughal rule.[1] Their later clashes against British expeditions comprised the most savage fighting of the Anglo-Afghan Wars.[4] After independence, Afridi tribesmen also helped attack Jammu and Kashmir for Pakistan during the Indo-Pakistani war of 1947.[5] Today, Afridis make use of their dominant social position in FATA and areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by controlling transport and various businesses, including trade in arms, munitions, and other goods.[1]

The Afridi are Pashtun Afghans, part of the Karlani tribal confederacy, who both fought against and with the British in Afghanistan during all three Anglo-Afghan wars. The British frequently classified the peoples that they conquered with fixed personality or “racial” traits. They regarded both the Punjabi Sikhs and the Afghan Afridi tribesmen as “warlike” peoples. Different Afridi clans cooperated with the British forces in exchange for subsidies, and some even served with the Khyber Rifles, an auxiliary force of the British Indian Army.[6]

Etymology and origins[edit]

The Afridis, classically called the Abaörteans (/ˌæbə.ɔrˈtənz/; Latin: Abaortae), have their original homeland in the Spin Ghar, a mountain range on both sides of the Durand line, located east of Kabul and west of Peshawar. The Sanskrit grammarian and historian Pāṇini, who himself hailed from the nearby Shalatur, a village located near the confluence of the Kabul and Indus rivers, mentioned the names of tribes such as the Aprits (identified with the modern Afridis) and the Madhumants (identified with modern Mohmands) who inhabited the northwestern areas, in his Ashtadhyayi in the 5th century BC.[7]

According to Pashtun folklore, the Afridi tribe traces its origin back to the eponymous ancestor of all Pashtuns, Qais Abdur Rashid, through his youngest son, Karlan. Thus, the Afridi tribe are one of the Karlani tribes, who had a formidable reputation as warriors.

A Tribe of Ancient Pashtuns[edit]

Herodotus mentions a Tribe of the Pactyans as Aparytai (Ἀπαρύται).[8] Scholars Grierson, Stein and Olaf Caroe equate these with modern Afridis based on linguistic and geographic analysis.[9]

Theory of Afridi descent from Israelites[edit]

The Afridis and other Pashtuns of Afghanistan and Pakistan have also been alleged to be the descendants of the lost Jewish tribes such as the Efraim[citation needed]. However, DNA and other research towards validating such claims has been inconclusive.[10][11][12]

Clans[edit]

The British classified the Afridi in 8 different clans, with many subtribes in a hierarchical structure:[13]

  • Kuki Khel
  • Malik din Khel
  • Qambar Khel
  • Kamar Khel
  • Zakha Khel
  • Aka Khel
  • Sepáh
  • Adam Khel

All of the Afridi clans have their own areas in the Tirah, and most of them extend down into the Khyber Pass over which they have always exercised the right of toll. The Malikdin Khel live in the center of the Tirah and hold Bagh, the traditional meeting place of Afridi jirgas or assemblies. The Aka Khel are scattered in the hills south of Jamrud. All of this area is included in the Khyber Agency. The Adam Khel live in the hills between Peshawar and Kohat. Their preserve is the Kohat Pass. In which several of the most important Afridi gun factories are located.

Religion[edit]

All modern Afridis follow Islam. Their conversion to Islam is attributed to Sultan (Emperor) Mahmud of Ghazni by sources such as Ibbetson[14] and Haroon Rashid.[15]

History[edit]

Resistance against the Mughals[edit]

The Afridis and theire ally the Khalils were first mentioned in the memoirs of Mughal Emperor Babar, as violent tribes in need of subduing.[16] The Afridis controlled the Khyber Pass, which has historically served as a corridor connecting the Indian subcontinent with Afghanistan and Central Asia. Its strategic value was not lost on the Mughals, to whom the Afridis were implacably hostile.[17] Over the course of Mughal rule, Emperors Akbar and Jahangir both dispatched punitive expeditions to suppress the Afridis, to little success.[18]

The Afridis once destroyed two large Mughal armies of Emperor Aurangzeb: in 1672 in a surprise attack between Peshawar and Kabul, and in the winter of 1673 in an ambush in the mountain passes.[19] The emperor himself had to lead an army into the mountains to suffocate the revolt and liberate the mountain passes, and even then another large army was "badly mauled" in Bajaur.[19][20] Allegedly, only five Mughals made it out of the battle alive.[21][22][23]

Resistance against the British[edit]

Afridi fighters photographed by John Burke in 1878.
The Khyber Rifles in 1895 comprising an all Afridi personnel.

The British connection with the Adam Khel Afridis commenced immediately after the annexation of the Peshawar and Kohat districts. Following the example of all previous rulers of the country, the British agreed to pay the tribe a subsidy to protect the pass. But in 1850 a thousand Afridis attacked a body of British sappers engaged in making a road, killing twelve and wounding six. It was supposed that they disliked the making of a road which would lay open their fastnesses to regular troops. An expedition of 3200 British troops was despatched, which traversed the country and punished them.

When the Afridis of the Kohat Pass resisted in 1850, the Jowaki Afridis offered the use of their route instead; but they turned out more aggressive than the others, and in 1853 a force of 1700 British traversed their country and destroyed their stronghold at Bori.

In 1854 the Aka Khels Afridis, not finding themselves admitted to a share of the allowances of the Kohat Pass, commenced a series of raids on the Peshawar border and attacked a British camp. An expedition of 1500 troops entered the country and inflicted severe punishment on the tribe, who made their submission and paid a fine.

In 1877 the British government proposed to reduce the Jowaki allowance for guarding the Kohat Pass, and the tribesmen showed their resentment of this by cutting the telegraph wire and raiding into British territory. A force of 1500 troops penetrated their country in three columns, and did considerable damage by way of punishment. However, the attitude of the Jowakis continued the same and their raids into British territory went on. A much stronger force, therefore, of 7400 British troops, divided into three columns, in 1877–78 destroyed their principal villages and occupied their country for some time, until the tribe submitted and accepted government terms. The Kohat Pass was afterwards practically undisturbed.

At the time of the British advance into Afghanistan in 1878, during the Second Afghan War, the Zakka Khel opposed the British advance and attacked their outposts. A force of 2500 British troops traversed their country, and the tribesmen made their submission. The Afridis of the Khyber Pass continued to cause the British trouble during the progress of the Second Afghan War, so another force of 3750 British troops traversed their country, and after suffering some loss the tribesmen made their submission.

In 1897 suddenly Afridis rose, captured all the posts in the Khyber held by their own countrymen, and attacked the forts on the Samana Range near the city of Peshawar. Tirah Expedition of the British forces followed and negotiations for peace were then begun with the Afridis, who under the threat of another expedition into Tirah in the spring of 1898 at length agreed to pay the fines and to surrender the rifles demanded.

In the February 1908 the restiveness of the Zakka Khel again made a British expedition necessary, but the campaign was speedily ended, though in the following April he had again to proceed against the Mohmands, the situation being complicated by an incursion from Afghanistan.

Cuisine[edit]

See also: Pashtun cuisine

Meat is an important part of their diet which they eat in the form of kabab (minced meat fried in oil), lamb curry, chicken curry, goat curry and much more. The hotels in Peshawar Namak Mandi Bazar represent the traditional food of Afridis, especially Lamb Karahi. In vegetable cuisine bindi (okra), rajma (kidney beans), dal (lentils) and sag (spinach) are notable. Their desserts include kheer (rice pudding), meenchai (sugared noodles).

List of notable Afridis[edit]

Shahid Afridi at the County Ground, Taunton, during Pakistan's 2010 tour of England

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Afridi demographics in Pakistan and Afghanistan The excessive figure sometimes mentioned in Afghanistan reflects in a particular way the Afghan claim to Pashtunistan and actually represents an estimate of the whole of the Afridi tribe on both sides of the frontier.
  2. ^ a b Afridi demographics in FATA and FR Kohat
  3. ^ Study of the Pathan Communities in Four States of India, Khyber.org (retrieved 30 January 2008)
  4. ^ L. Thomas, Beyond Khyber Pass, London, n.d. (ca. 1925)
  5. ^ M.K. Teng (2001) Kashmir: The Bitter Truth Kashmir Information Network
  6. ^ Library of Congress
  7. ^ page 64 India and Central Asia By J. N. Roy, J.N. Roy And B.B. Kumar, Astha Bharati (Organization), Indian Council for Cultural Relations
  8. ^ "The History of Herodotus Chapter 3, Verse 91; Written 440 B.C.E, Translated by G. C. Macaulay". sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2015-02-21. 
  9. ^ Caroe, Olaf (1957). The Pathans. Oxford University Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-19-577221-0. 
  10. ^ Amir Mizroch (9 January 2010). "Are Taliban descendants of Israelites?". The Jerusalem Post. 
  11. ^ Sachin Parashar (11 January 2010). "Lucknow Pathans have Jewish roots?". Times of India. 
  12. ^ Rory McCarthy (17 January 2010). "Pashtun clue to lost tribes of Israel". The Observer. 
  13. ^ H.A. Rose, IBBETSON, Maclagan (1996). Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province (re-edition, first edited in 1919, 1911,1914 ed.). Asian Educational Services. pp. 252–253. ISBN 978-81-206-0505-3. 
  14. ^ Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1911 AD, Page 217, Vol III,Published by Asian Educational Services
  15. ^ History of the Pathans By Haroon Rashid Published by Haroon Rashid, 2002 Item notes: v. 1 Page 45 Original from the University of Michigan
  16. ^ A. S. Beveridge, Babor-nama London, 1922 [repr. 1969], p. 412
  17. ^ History of Khyber Agency: Gateway to the Subcontinent, Office of the Political Agent, Khyber Agency
  18. ^ C.M. Kieffer, Afridi, Encyclopaedia Iranica
  19. ^ a b Richards, John F. (1996), "Imperial expansion under Aurangzeb 1658–1869. Testing the limits of the empire: the Northwest.", The Mughal Empire, New Cambridge history of India: The Mughals and their contemporaries 5 (illustrated, reprint ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 170–171, ISBN 978-0-521-56603-2 
  20. ^ Khyber Agency Khyber.org, 3 July 2005
  21. ^ Geoffrey Powell, J. S. W. Powell (1983), Famous regiments (illustrated ed.), Secker & Warburg, p. 69, ISBN 978-0-436-37910-9, The 
  22. ^ Robert E. L. Masters, Eduard Lea (1963). Perverse crimes in history: evolving concepts of sadism, lust-murder, and necrophilia from ancient to modern times. Julian Press. p. 211. Retrieved 5 April 2011. 
  23. ^ Robert E. L. Masters, Eduard Lea (1963). Sex crimes in history: evolving concepts of sadism, lust-murder, and necrophilia, from ancient to modern times. Julian Press. p. 211. Retrieved 5 April 2011. 
  24. ^ Farhat Taj Orientalism in civilisational narcissism "The fieriest clashes were led by Khushhal Khan Khattak, Aimal Khan Afridi and Darya Khan Afridi against the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb."
  25. ^ Helen Ellis (July 2009) The Assassination of Lord Mayo: The 'First' Jihad? Australian National University
  26. ^ Michael Lambert (2009), The Kidnapping of Mollie Ellis by Afridi Tribesmen, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  27. ^ Sharma, Vishwamitra (2007). Famous Indians of the 21st century. Pustak Mahal. p. 60. ISBN 81-223-0829-5. Retrieved 18 September 2010
  28. ^ Foreign Policy Centre (2006), On the Margins of History: The Baloch of Pakistan
  29. ^ ODI Records:- Fastest 100s

External[edit]

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