Afrika Bambaataa (left) and DJ Yutaka in 2004
|Birth name||Lance Taylor|
|Born||April 17, 1957|
|Origin||The Bronx, New York, U.S.|
Afrika Bambaataa (/
Born as Lance Taylor to Jamaican and Barbadian immigrants, Bambaataa grew up in The Bronx River Projects, with an activist mother and uncle. As a child, he was exposed to the black liberation movement, and witnessed debates between his mother and uncle regarding the conflicting ideologies in the movement. He was exposed to his mother's extensive and eclectic record collection. Gangs in the area became the law, clearing their turf of drug dealers, assisting with community health programs and both fighting and partying to keep members and turf. Bambaataa was a member of the Black Spades. He quickly rose to the position of warlord of one of the divisions. As warlord, it was his job to build ranks and expand the turf of the young Spades. He was not afraid to cross turfs to forge relationships with other gang members, and with other gangs. As a result, the Spades became the biggest gang in the city in terms of both membership and turf.
After Bambaataa won an essay contest that earned him a trip to Africa, his worldview shifted. He had seen the movie Zulu and was impressed with the solidarity exhibited by the Zulu in that film. During his trip to Africa, the communities he visited inspired him to create one in his own neighborhood. He changed his name to Afrika Bambaataa Aasim, adopting the name of the Zulu chief Bhambatha, who led an armed rebellion against unfair economic practices in early 20th century South Africa. He told people that his name was Zulu for "affectionate leader." Bambaataa formed The "Bronx River Organization" as an alternative to the Black Spades.
Inspired by DJ Kool Herc and Kool DJ Dee, Bambaataa began hosting hip-hop parties beginning in 1977. He vowed to use hip-hop to draw angry kids out of gangs and form the Universal Zulu Nation. Robert Keith Wiggins, a.k.a. "Cowboy" of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, is credited with naming hip-hop; the term became a common phrase used by MCs as part of a scat-inspired style of rhyming. Writer Steven Hager claims that the first time "hip-hop" was used in print was in his Village Voice article where he was quoting Bambaataa, who had called the culture "hip-hop" in an interview.
In 1982, Bambaataa and his followers - a group of dancers, artists, and DJs - went outside the United States on the first hip-hop tour. He saw that the hip hop tours would be the key to help expand hip hop and his Universal Zulu Nation. In addition it would help promote the values of hip hop that he believed are based on peace, unity, love, and having fun. He brought peace to the gangs; many artists and gang members say that "hip hop saved a lot of lives." His influence inspired many overseas artists like the French rapper MC Solaar. He was a popular DJ in The South Bronx rap scene and became known not only as Afrika Bambaataa but also as the "Master of Records." He established two rap crews: the Jazzy 5 including MCs Master Ice, Mr. Freeze, Master Bee, Master D.E.E, and AJ Les, and the second crew referred to as Soulsonic Force including Mr. Biggs, Pow Wow and Emcee G.L.O.B.E.
In 1982, Taylor, who was inspired by Kraftwerk's futuristic electronic music, debuted at The Roxy a test cassette of EBN-OZN's ground breaking, 12-inch white rap/spoken word "AEIOU Sometimes Y". It was the first commercially released American single ever made on a computer, a Fairlight CMI, ushering in the era of music computer sampling. In that same year, Bambaataa and Soulsonic Force stopped performing with a live band, and began to use only technology. Bambaataa credited the pioneering Japanese electropop group Yellow Magic Orchestra, whose work he sampled, as an inspiration. He also borrowed a keyboard hook from German electronic pioneers Kraftwerk and was provided the electronic Roland TR-808 "beat-box" by producer Arthur Baker and synthesizer player John Robie. That resulted in "Planet Rock," which went to gold status and generated an entire school of "electro-boogie" rap and dance music. Bambaataa formed his own label to release the Time Zone Compilation. He created "turntablism" as its own subgenre and the ratification of "electronica" as an industry-certified trend in the late 1990s.
Birth of the Zulu Nation
In the late 1970s, Bambaataa formed what became known as the Universal Zulu Nation, a group of socially and politically aware rappers, B-boys, graffiti artists and other people involved in hip hop culture. By 1977, inspired by DJ Kool Herc and DJ Dee, and after Disco King Mario loaned him his first equipment, Bambaataa began organizing block parties all around The South Bronx. He even faced his long-time friend, Disco King Mario in a DJ battle. He then began performing at Adlai E. Stevenson High School and formed the Bronx River Organization, then later simply "The Organization." Bambaataa had deejayed with his own sound system at The Bronx River Houses' Community Center, with Mr. Biggs, Queen Kenya, and Cowboy, who accompanied him in performances in the community. Because of his prior status in the Black Spades, he already had an established Army party crowd drawn from former members of the gang. Hip hop culture was spreading through the streets via house parties, block parties, gym dances and mix tapes.
About a year later Bambaataa reformed the group, calling it the Zulu Nation (inspired by his wide studies on African history at the time). Specifically, Bambaataa watched the 1964 film Zulu, which sparked the name for the group. Five b-boys (break dancers) joined him, whom he called the Zulu Kings, and later formed the Zulu Queens, and the Shaka Zulu Kings and Queens. As he continued deejaying, more DJs, rappers, b-boys, b-girls, graffiti writers, and artists followed him, and he took them under his wing and made them all members of his Zulu Nation. He was also the founder of the Soulsonic Force, which originally consisted of approximately 20 Zulu Nation members: Mr. Biggs, Queen Kenya, DJ Cowboy Soulsonic Force (#2), Pow Wow, G.L.0.B.E. (creator of the "MC popping" rap style), DJ Jazzy Jay, Cosmic Force, Queen Lisa Lee, Prince Ikey C, Ice Ice (#1), Chubby Chub; Jazzy Five-DJ Jazzy Jay, Mr. Freeze, Master D.E.E., Kool DJ Red Alert, Sundance, Ice Ice (#2), Charlie Choo, Master Bee, Busy Bee Starski, Akbar (Lil Starski), and Raheim. The personnel for the Soulsonic Force were groups within groups with whom he would perform and make records.
In 1980, Taylor's groups made Death Mix, their first recording with Paul Winley Records. According to Bambaata, this was an unauthorized release. Winley recorded two versions of Soulsonic Force's landmark single, "Zulu Nation Throwdown," with authorization from the musicians. Disappointed with the results of the single, Bambaataa left the company. The arranger credit on these recordings is correctly attributed to Harlem Underground Band leader, Kevin Donovan. This led to the false assumption that Bambaataa's real name was Kevin Donovan, which was widely accepted by the hip hop community until recently, following sexual abuse allegations, when Bronx River residents spoke out and revealed in oral testimonies that Bambaataa's real name was in fact Lance Taylor.
The Zulu Nation was the first hip-hop organization, with an official birth date of November 12, 1977. Bambaataa's plan with the Universal Zulu Nation was to build a movement out of the creativity of a new generation of outcast youths with an authentic, liberating worldview.
In 1981, hip hop artist Fab Five Freddy was putting together music packages in the largely white downtown Manhattan new wave clubs, and invited Bambaataa to perform at one of them, the Mudd Club. It was the first time Bambaataa had performed before a predominantly white crowd. Attendance for his parties downtown became so large that he had to move to larger venues, first to the Ritz, in a show organized by hip hop pioneer, Michael Holman, with Malcolm McLaren's group Bow Wow Wow, then to the Peppermint Lounge, The Jefferson, Negril, Danceteria and the Roxy. "Planet Rock," a popular single produced by Arthur Baker and the keyboardist John Robie, came out that June under the name Afrika Bambaataa and the Soulsonic Force. The song borrowed musical motifs from German electronic music, funk, and rock. Different elements and musical styles were used together. The song became an immediate hit and stormed the music charts worldwide. The song melded the main melody from Kraftwerk's "Trans-Europe Express" with electronic beats based on their track "Numbers" as well as portions from records by Babe Ruth and Captain Sky, thus creating a new style of music altogether, electro funk.
Afrika Bambaataa was booked on the first ever European hip hop tour presented by Europe One and Fnac France. Along with himself were rapper and graffiti artist Rammellzee, Zulu Nation DJ Grand Mixer DXT (formerly Grand Mixer D.St), B-boy and B-girl crews the Rock Steady Crew, and the Double Dutch Girls, as well as legendary graffiti artists Fab 5 Freddy, PHASE 2, Futura 2000, and Dondi.
Bambaataa's second release around 1983 was "Looking for the Perfect Beat," then later, "Renegades of Funk," both with the same Soulsonic Force. He began working with producer Bill Laswell at Jean Karakos's Celluloid Records, where he developed and placed two groups on the label: Time Zone and Shango. Bambaataa recorded "Wildstyle" with Time Zone, and he recorded a collaboration with punk rocker John Lydon and Time Zone in 1984, titled "World Destruction." Shango's album, Shango Funk Theology, was released by the label in 1984. That same year, Bambaataa and other hip hop celebrities appeared in the movie Beat Street. He also made a landmark recording with James Brown, titled "Unity." It was billed in music industry circles as "the Godfather of Soul meets the Godfather of Hip Hop."
Around October 1985, Bambaataa and other music stars worked on the anti-apartheid album Sun City with Little Steven Van Zandt, Joey Ramone, Run–D.M.C., Lou Reed, U2, and others. During 1988, he recorded "Afrika Bambaataa and Family" for Capitol Records, titled The Light, featuring Nona Hendryx, UB40, Boy George, George Clinton, Bootsy Collins, and Yellowman. He had recorded a few other works with Family three years earlier, one titled "Funk You" in 1985, and the other titled "Beware (The Funk Is Everywhere)" in 1986. In 1986 he discovered an artist in Atlanta. (Through MC SHY D) by the name of Kenya Miler a.k.a. MC Harmony (Known producer now as Kenya Fame Flames Miller), that was later signed to Criminal Records and Arthur Baker. The group was Harmony and LG. The first single, 1987's "Dance To The Drums/No Joke," was produced by Bambaataa and Baker with musicians Keith LeBlanc and Doug Wimbish. Bambaataa was involved in the Stop the Violence Movement, and with other hip hop artists recorded "Self Destruction", a 12" single which hit number one on the Hot Rap Singles Chart in March 1989. The single went gold and raised $400,000 for the National Urban League to be used for community anti-violence education programs.
In 1990, Bambaataa made Life magazine's "Most Important Americans of the 20th Century" issue. He was also involved in the anti-apartheid work "Hip Hop Artists Against Apartheid" for Warlock Records. He teamed with the Jungle Brothers to record the album Return to Planet Rock (The Second Coming).
Gee Street Records, Bambaataa and John Baker organized a concert at Wembley Stadium in London in 1990 for the African National Congress (ANC), in honor of Nelson Mandela's release from prison. The concert brought together performances by British and American rappers, and also introduced both Nelson and Winnie Mandela and the ANC to hip hop audiences. In relation to the event, the recording Ndodemnyama (Free South Africa) helped raise approximately $30,000 for the ANC.
From the mid-1990s, Bambaataa returned to his electro roots. In 1998, he produced a remix of "Planet Rock" combining electro and house music elements, called "Planet Rock '98," which is regarded as an early example of the electro house genre. In 2000, Rage Against the Machine covered his song "Renegades of Funk" for their album, Renegades. The same year, he collaborated with Leftfield on the song "Afrika Shox," the first single from Leftfield's Rhythm and Stealth. "Afrika Shox" also appeared on soundtrack to Vanilla Sky. In 2004, he collaborated with WestBam, a group that was named after him, on the 2004 album Dark Matter Moving at the Speed of Light which also featured Gary Numan. In 2006, he was featured on the British singer Jamelia's album Walk With Me on a song called "Do Me Right," and on Mekon's album Some Thing Came Up, on the track "D-Funktional." He performed the lyrics on the track "Is There Anybody Out There" by The Bassheads (Desa Basshead). As an actor, he has played a variety of voice-over character roles on Kung Faux.
Bambaataa was a judge for the 6th annual Independent Music Awards to support independent artists' careers. On September 27, 2007, it was announced that Afrika Bambaataa was one of the nine nominees for the 2008 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Inductions. On December 22, 2007, he made a surprise appearance performing at the First Annual Tribute Fit For the King of King Records, Mr. Dynamite James Brown in Covington, Kentucky.
On August 14, 2012, Bambaataa was given a three-year appointment as a visiting scholar at Cornell University. The appointment was made in collaboration between Cornell University Library's Hip Hop Collection, the largest collection of historical hip hop music in North America, and the University's department of Music. His archives, including his vinyl collection, original audio and video recordings, manuscripts, books, and papers arrived at the Cornell University Hip Hop Collection in December 2013.
Sexual abuse allegations
In April 2016, Bronx political activist Ronald Savage accused Bambaataa of molesting him in 1980, when Savage was 15. Following Savage's allegations, three more men accused Bambaataa of sexual abuse. Bambaataa issued a statement to Rolling Stone denying the allegations. In early May 2016, the Universal Zulu Nation disassociated themselves from Bambaataa as part of an organizational restructuring that saw the group removing "all accused parties and those accused of covering up the current allegations of child molestation" from their current roles in the organization.
On May 6, 2016, Bambaataa left his position as head of The Zulu Nation.
In June 2016, The Universal Zulu Nation issued an open letter apologizing to the alleged victims of sexual abuse perpetrated by Bambaataa.
"On behalf of the members of the Universal Zulu Nation worldwide, who have made their voices heard through their chapter leaders, we extend our deepest and most sincere apologies to the many people who have been hurt by the actions of Afrika Bambaataa and the subsequent poor response of our organization to allegations levelled against him," the Zulu Nation said in a statement signed by dozens of UZN chapter leaders worldwide.
"To the survivors of apparent sexual molestation by Bambaataa, both those who have come forward and others who have not, we are sorry for what you endured and extend our thanks to those who have spoken out for your bravery in bringing to light that which most of us were sadly unaware of, and others chose not to disclose."
The apology was signed by nearly three dozen members of the Zulu Nation, including leaders from as far as New Zealand. The organization also apologized to Ronald "Bee Stinger" Savage and Hassan "Poppy" Campbell, two of Bambaataa's accusers, who they said were "subjected to unjust and inexcusable attacks on their characters in official statements by our organization when they chose to speak their truths. ... We hear you, we believe you, and we stand with you."
In October 2016, Vice published an in-depth article titled "Afrika Bambaataa Allegedly Molested Young Men For Decades" and reported the stories and testimonies of the alleged victims and witnesses. The article stated the accusers "claim that these accounts of alleged abuse have been common knowledge in the Bronx River community and beyond since the early 1980s, including among many of Bambaataa's closest friends and Zulu soldiers."
Despite the multiple allegations and testimonies of victims and witnesses, to date no charges have been brought upon Afrika Bambaataa and he has not been prosecuted for these alleged crimes.
This is due to New York state statute of limitations which provide that actions for civil damages for defined sexual crimes, including sexual abuse of a minor, must be brought within five years of the acts constituting the sexual offense.
|1983||Death Mix||Paul Winley Records|
|1986||Planet Rock: The Album||Tommy Boy/Warner Bros. Records|
|Beware (The Funk Is Everywhere)||Tommy Boy/Warner Bros. Records|
|1987||Death Mix Throwdown||Blatant|
|1988||The Light||EMI America Records|
|1991||The Decade of Darkness 1990–2000||EMI Records|
|1992||Don't Stop... Planet Rock (The Remix EP)||Tommy Boy/Warner Bros. Records|
|1996||Jazzin (Khayan album)||ZYX Music|
|Warlocks and Witches, Computer Chips, Microchips and You||Profile/Arista/BMG Records|
|1997||Zulu Groove (Compilation)||Hudson Vandam|
|1999||Electro Funk Breakdown||DMC|
|Return to Planet Rock||Berger Music|
|2000||Hydraulic Funk||Strictly Hype|
|Theme of the United Nations w/ DJ Yutaka||Avex Trax|
|2003||Electro Funk Breakdown (Compilation)||DMX|
|Looking for the Perfect Beat: 1980–1985 (Compilation)||Tommy Boy/Rhino/Atlantic Records|
|2004||Dark Matter Moving at the Speed of Light||Tommy Boy Entertainment|
|2005||Metal||Tommy Boy Entertainment|
|Metal Remixes||Tommy Boy Entertainment|
|2006||Death Mix "2"||Paul Winley Records|
|1980||"Zulu Nation Throwdown"||Winley Records|
|1981||"Jazzy Sensation"||Tommy Boy/Warner Bros. Records|
|1982||"Planet Rock"||53||Tommy Boy/Warner Bros. Records|
|"Looking for the Perfect Beat"||86||Tommy Boy/Warner Bros. Records|
|1983||"Renegades of Funk"||30||Tommy Boy/Warner Bros. Records|
|1984||"Unity" (with James Brown)||49||Tommy Boy/Warner Bros. Records|
|"Frantic Situation" (with Shango)||89||Atlantic Records|
|"World Destruction" (with John Lydon)||Celluloid Records|
|1986||"Bambaataa's Theme"||Tommy Boy/Warner Bros. Records|
|1988||"Reckless" (with UB40)||17||EMI|
|1990||"Just Get up and Dance"||45||EMI|
|1991||"Is There Something Out There?" (with Bassheads)||05|
|1993||"Zulu War Chant"||Profile/Arista/BMG Records|
|"What's the Name of this Nation?...Zulu"||Profile/Arista/BMG Records|
|"Feel the Vibe" (with Khayan)|
|1998||"Agharta – The City of Shamballa" (with WestBam)||Low Spirit Recordings|
|"Got To Get Up" (vs. Carpe Diem)||22|
|1999||"Afrika Shox" (with Leftfield)||07|
|2001||"Planet Rock" (with Paul Oakenfold)||47|
- Shapiro, Peter, ed. (2000). Modulations: A History of Electronic Music. New York: Caipirinha Productions Inc. p. 152. ISBN 9781891024061.
- "Afrika Bambaataa". rockarchive.com. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
- "Afrika Bambaataa [Aasim, Kevin Donovan] in Oxford Music Online". www.oxfordmusiconline.com. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
- Bogdanov, Vladimir (2001). All Music Guide to Electronica: The Definitive Guide to Electronic Music (4th ed.). Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Backbeat Books. p. 38. ISBN 978-0879306281.
- Chang, Jeff (2005). Can't Stop, Won't Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation (1st ed.). New York City: Picador St. Martin's Press. pp. 63, 89, 91, 94–101, 141, 170, 182–183. ISBN 9780312425791.
- "Afrika Bambaataa". zulunation.com. Universal Zulu Nation. Archived from the original on July 7, 2013. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
- Willis, Kiersten (May 9, 2016). "Afrika Bambaataa Steps Down as Zulu Nation Leader Amid Reports of Child Sexual Assault". Atlanta Black Star.
- Iton, Richard (2006). In Search of the Black Fantastic: Politics and Popular Culture in the Post-Civil Rights Era. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 250. ISBN 9780199720835.
- Knopper, Steve (May 5, 2011). "Afrika Bambaataa: Crate-digger, collector, creator". Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois: Tribune Publishing. Retrieved October 23, 2014.
- Chang, Jeff (October 12, 2009). "It's a Hip-Hop World". Foreign Policy. pp. 58–65.
- Pabon, Jorge (2007). "Physical Graffiti: the History of Hip Hop Dance". In Chang, Jeff (ed.). Total Chaos: The Art and Aesthetics of Hip Hop. New York City: Civitas Books. p. 19. ISBN 978-0465009091.
- Mahadevan, Tara (April 29, 2016). "Introducing Special Delivery, a New Village Voice Column About Rap". Village Voice. New York City: Voice Media. Retrieved May 8, 2019.
- George, Nelson (2005). Hip Hop America. New York City: Penguin Books. pp. 16, 18, 57. ASIN B001R9DHYE.
- Gardner, Eriq (February 12, 2016). "Africa Bambaataa and Soulsonic Force Seek to Reclaim 'Planet Rock' from Record Label". Hollywood Reporter. Los Angeles, California: Eldridge Industries. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
- Fink, Robert (October 2005). "The Story of ORCH5, or, the Classical Ghost in the Hip-Hop Machine". Popular Music. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 24 (3): 339–356.
- Lewis, John (4 July 2008). "Back to the future: Yellow Magic Orchestra helped usher in electronica – and they may just have invented hip-hop, too". The Guardian. London, England: Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
- "The Wire, Volumes 143-148". The Wire. 1996. p. 21. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
- Hyman, Eve (29 April 2013). "Afrika Bambaataa is hip-hop". Metro. London, England: DMG Media. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
- Forman, Murray (2002). The Hood Comes First: Race, Space, and Place in Rap and Hip Hop. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. p. 69. ISBN 9780819563972.
- "YouTube". www.youtube.com.
- Hager, Steven (September 21, 1982). "Afrika Bambaataa's Hip-Hop". The Village Voice. New York City.
- "The Beat Box Bites Back". Face Magazine. Global Darkness. 1984. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- Orange, Karim (July 8, 2013). "Hip-Hop Dance History: 10 Reasons You Should Check Out the Rock Steady Crew". Huffington Post. New York City: Huffington Post Media Group. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
In 1982, their manager Ruza "Kool Lady" Blue organized The Roxy Tour, which featured Grandmixer D.S.T now Rock Steady Crew, Afrika Bambaataa, Cold Crush Brothers, Double-Dutch Girls, and Fab 5 Freddy. This tour traveled to Europe, which spread hip-hop culture to many countries.
- Dracoulis, Nicola (29 March 2010). "Ready your ropes: Pick up your feet". Holy Roller Productions. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
the Double Dutch crew who traveled with Fab 5 Freddy, Rammellzee, Afrika Bambaataa, Rock Steady Crew, Phase 2, Futura and Dondi to Europe for 1982 The Roxy Tour (also known as The New York City Rap tour) in the first ever international hip hop tour.
- Leeds, Alan; Weinger, Harry (1991). Star Time: Song by Song (CD booklet). James Brown, Afrika Bambaataa. New York City: PolyGram Records. pp. 46–53.
- "Afrika Bambaataa & Family – The Light". Discogs.com. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- Discogs.com listing for the album.
- Cook, Davey 'D.' (December 1991). "On The Line With....Africa Bambaataa". www.daveyd.com. KMEL Beat Report. Retrieved October 23, 2014.
- "Electro House". EurodanceHits.com. Polystar. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
- "kungfauxsite". Kungfaux.com. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
- Past Judges of the Independent Music Awards Archived 2011-07-13 at the Wayback Machine.
- "The 2008 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Nominees". Future Rock Hall. September 27, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-12-13. Retrieved September 28, 2007.
- Jambands.com review of the show, mentioning the surprise appearance.
- "Afrika Bambaataa Named Visiting Professor at Cornell". Rolling Stone. New York City: Wenner Media Ltd. August 14, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
- Opening the Afrika Bambaataa Master of Records Vinyl Archive at Cornell University. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- Jacobs, Shayna; Kochman, Ben; Schapiro, Rich; O'Keeffe, Michael (April 9, 2016). "EXCLUSIVE: Afrika Bambaataa sex abuse accuser Ronald Savage details years of torment following hip-hop icon's molestation: 'He damaged me'". New York Daily News. New York City: Tronc. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
- Golding, Sheniqua (April 17, 2016). "Afrika Bambataa Accused of Sex Abuse By Three More Men". Vibe Magazine. Los Angeles, California: Eldridge Industries. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
- Platon, Adele (April 13, 2016). "Afrika Bambaataa Calls Sexual Abuse Allegations 'A Cowardly Attempt to Tarnish My Reputation'". Billboard. Los Angeles, California: Eldridge Industries. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
- Kreps, Daniel (June 1, 2016). "Zulu Nation Apologizes to Alleged Afrika Bambaataa Abuse Victims". Rolling Stone. New York City: Wenner Media, LLC. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
- Willis, Kiersten (May 9, 2016). "Afrika Bambaataa Steps Down as Zulu Nation Leader Amid Reports of Child Sexual Assault". AtlantaBlackstar.com. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
- Ivey, Justin (May 31, 2016). "Zulu Nation Releases Letter Apologizing to Victims accusing Afrika Bambaataa of Sexual Abuse". XXL. New York City: Townsquare Media. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
- Josephs, Brian (June 1, 2016). "Zulu Nation Apologizes to Afrika Bambaataa's Alleged Molestation Victims". Spin. Los Angeles, California: SPINMedia. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
- Wedge, Dave (October 16, 2016). "Afrika Bambaataa Allegedly Molested Young Men For Decades. Why Are the Accusations Only Coming out Now?". Vice. New York City: Vice Media. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
- Caplan-Bricker, Nora (19 April 2016). "How the Afrika Bambaataa Allegations Could Help Change Child Sex Abuse Laws". Slate Magazine.
- "State Civil Statutes of Limitations in Child Sexual Abuse Cases". National Confrence of State Legislatures.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Afrika Bambaataa|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Afrika Bambaataa.|
- Afrika Bambaataa biography at hiphop.sh
- Afrika Bambaataa discography at MusicBrainz
- Afrika Bambaataa at Allmusic
- Afrika Bambaataa on IMDb
- Bambaataa, Afrika (November 12, 2012). "DJ Afrika Bambaataa". NAMM.org (Interview). Oral History Library. National Association of Music Merchants. Retrieved October 11, 2016. – talks about bringing in more of the breakbeats which many hip hop DJs still use today and his favorite DJ battle
- Afrika Bambaataa Interview at Elementality
- Afrika Bambaataa at WhoSampled