Afrikaans language movement
First language movement
The Afrikaans language movement began in 1875, with the effort by Stephanus Jacobus du Toit to have Afrikaans recognised as a separate language from the Dutch language. Die Patriot, the first Afrikaans newspaper, was first published in 1876.
Second language movement
The Second Afrikaans Language Movement arose after the defeat of the Boers in the Second Anglo-Boer War, which ended in 1902. The movement, spreading from the Cape Province, led to the ascendancy of Afrikaans over the Dutch language, replacing the latter as the medium of instruction in schools, as the language of the Dutch Reformed churches, and ultimately as the co-official language of South Africa, in 1925.
Third language movement
After apartheid ended in 1994, the status of Afrikaans within South Africa was much reduced. Afrikaans went from having equal status with English to being just one of 11 official languages, leading to a renewed dominance of English in the public sphere. Attempts to reverse the marginalisation of Afrikaans have been described as a third language movement.
- Hein Willemse, "More than an oppressor’s language: reclaiming the hidden history of Afrikaans", theconversation.com, April 27, 2017.
- "African literature: Literatures in European and European-derived languages". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 9 September 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- "South African literature: In Afrikaans". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- Webb, Vic. "Constructing an inclusive speech community from two mutually excluding ones: The third Afrikaans language movement" (PDF). University of Pretoria. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2014.