Afriqiyah Airways Flight 771
The Airbus A330-202, 5A-ONG, involved in the accident
|Date||12 May 2010|
|Summary||Controlled flight into terrain caused by spatial disorientation, pilot error, and lack/insufficient use of crew resource management|
On approach to runway 09 at Tripoli International Airport in Tripoli, Libya |
|Aircraft type||Airbus A330-202|
|Flight origin||OR Tambo International Airport, Johannesburg, South Africa|
|Destination||Tripoli International Airport, Tripoli, Libya|
|Survivors||1 (Initially 2)|
Afriqiyah Airways Flight 771 was a scheduled international Afriqiyah Airways passenger flight that crashed on 12 May 2010 at about 06:01 local time (04:01 UTC) on approach to Tripoli International Airport. Of the 104 passengers and crew on board, the sole survivor was a 9-year-old Dutch boy named Ruben van Assouw.[B]
The accident is the second deadliest involving an Airbus A330 (after Air France Flight 447), and the second deadliest accident to have occurred in Libya. It also was the first fatal accident for Afriqiyah Airways.
Aircraft and crew
The aircraft was an Airbus A330-200, registration 5A-ONG, manufactured in 2009, manufacturer's serial number (MSN) 1024. It was delivered in September 2009 and at the time of the accident it had approximately 1,600 hours total flying time and about 420 take-off and landing cycles. The aircraft was powered by two General Electric CF6-80E1 engines. It was configured for a capacity of 253 passengers. This particular flight carried 93 passengers and 11 crew. Most of the passengers were Dutch citizens returning from holiday in South Africa. An airport official stated that 13 Libyans, both passengers and crew, as well 70 Dutch nationals had lost their lives in the crash.
The crew consisted of the following
- The Captain was 57-year-old Yousef Bashir Al-Saadi (Arabic: يوسف بشير الساعدي) (PNF-Pilot Not Flying). He was hired by Afriqiyah Airways in 2007 and had 17,016 flying hours, including 516 hours on the Airbus A330.
- The first officer was 42-year-old Tareq Mousa Abu Al-Chaouachi (Arabic: طارق موسي أبو الشواشي) (PF-Pilot Flying). He had 4,216 flying hours, including 516 hours on the Airbus A330.
- The relief first officer was 37-year-old Nazim Al-Mabruk Al-Tarhuni (Arabic: ناظم المبروك الترهوني) (PNF-Pilot Not Flying). He had 1,866 flying hours, including 516 hours on the Airbus A330.
The flight originated at OR Tambo International Airport, serving Johannesburg, South Africa. Its destination was Tripoli International Airport, Libya. During the final approach and up to the moment of the accident the pilot had not reported any problems to the control tower. The aircraft crashed about 1,200 metres (1,300 yd) short of Runway 09, outside the airport perimeter. The aircraft was destroyed by the impact and post-crash fire. The METAR in force at the time of the crash was HLLT 120350Z VRB01KT 6000 NSC 19/17 Q1008.[A] The main runway of the airport (Runway 09/27) is 3,600 metres (11,800 ft) long. Libyan Transport Minister Mohammed Ali Zidan ruled out terrorism as a cause. During the accident, the aircraft damaged a house on the ground. The homeowner, his wife, and their five children escaped unharmed. The house and a nearby mosque are scheduled to be demolished as part of the airport expansion plans. The first body of a non-Libyan passenger was repatriated to the Netherlands on 27 May 2010. On 21 June 2010 the Libyan authorities began clearing the accident site of Afriqiyah 771.
The Libyan Civil Aviation Authority (LYCAA) opened an investigation into the accident. Airbus stated that it would provide full technical assistance to the authorities investigating the crash, and would do so via the French Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile (BEA). The South African Civil Aviation Authority sent a team to assist with the investigation. The BEA assisted in the investigation with an initial team of two investigators, accompanied by five advisors from Airbus. The Dutch Safety Board (Onderzoeksraad voor de Veiligheid "Research Council for Safety") sent an observer. The flight recorders were recovered and sent to Paris for analysis soon after the incident.
Authorities reviewed the recordings made by the Flight Data Recorder In August 2010, it was reported that preliminary investigations were complete. There was no evidence of any technical problems nor was there any fuel shortage. No technical or medical problems had been reported by the crew and they had not requested any assistance. Due to the 2011 Libyan civil war, the investigation was being hampered, with the Nederlandse Omroep Stichting unable to get any response from the LYCAA. The data from the Cockpit Voice Recorder and Flight Data Recorder had been extracted, and the results given to the LYCAA, the Dutch Safety Board, and the Nederlandse Omroep Stichting.
On 28 February 2013, the Libyan Civil Aviation Authority announced that they had determined that the cause of the crash was pilot error. Crew resource management lacked/was insufficient, sensory illusions, and the first officer's inputs to the aircraft side stick were a contributing factor in the crash. Also fatigue could have played a role in the accident.
The final report stated that the accident resulted from the pilots’ lack of a common action plan during the approach, the final approach being continued below the Minimum Decision Altitude without ground visual reference being acquired, the inappropriate application of flight control inputs during the go-around and after the activation of the Terrain Awareness and Warning System, and the flight crew’s lack of monitoring and controlling of the flight path.
The flight crew did not acquire any visual ground references before the approach was started. The aircraft started its final descent for landing too early. The aircraft had descended to 280 feet above ground when the terrain awareness and warning system sounded a "too low terrain" in the cockpit. The captain ordered a go-around and the autopilot was turned off. The first officer put the nose of the aircraft up for 4 seconds and the thrust levers were set to go-around power. The aircraft pitched up to 12.3° nose up and the flight crew raised the landing gear and flaps. Shortly thereafter the co-pilot started making nose down inputs which caused the aircraft to pitch-attitude to reduce to 3.5° nose down. (The co-pilot could have been focused on the aircraft's speed, rather than its altitude.) The go-around pitch attitude was not maintained and the instructions from the flight director were not followed. (The report says that fatigue could have played a role in causing the first officer to focus solely on the airspeed.) The captain and the first officer were making inputs to the aircraft's side stick at the same time (although the dual inputs were not sufficient to trigger a dual-input warning). This action appears to be intended to provide assistance by the captain to fly the aircraft. This action led to confusion on who was flying the aircraft. The ground proximity warning system sounded "too low terrain," "sink rate," and "woop woop pull up" alarms as the aircraft lost more height and the co-pilot responded with a sharp nose-down input. Then the captain took control of the aircraft without warning, via the side stick priority button and maintained the nose-down input, while the first officer was simultaneously pulling back on his own side stick. Two seconds before impact with the ground the aircraft was at 180 feet. The captain was also pulling his side stick fully back, suggesting both pilots were aware of the aircraft's impending collision with the ground. Two seconds later, the aircraft crashed into the ground at 262 knots (302 mph) and exploded.
Afriqiyah Airways issued a statement saying that relatives of the victims who wished to visit Libya would be transported and accommodated at Afriqiyah's expense. The Libyan authorities relaxed certain passport restrictions and guaranteed the granting of visas. By 15 May 2010 the airline opened the Family Assistance Centre in a hotel in Tripoli to care for family members and relatives of crash victims who were visiting Libya. The executive team of Afriqiyah, including the CEO and the chairperson of the board, met family members at the hotel. Some family members wanted to visit the crash site; they travelled to the site and placed flowers there. The airline permanently retired the flight number 771 and it has been re-designated to 788 for Tripoli to Johannesburg and 789 for the return flight.
The passengers aboard Flight 771 were of various nationalities. All of the eleven crew members were Libyans. One passenger held dual citizenship. The following list reflects the airline's passenger nationality count of the victims. The airline released the manifest on the morning of 15 May 2010; the airline sent the list to several related embassies.
The sole survivor was 9-year-old Ruben van Assouw, a resident of the Dutch city of Tilburg,[B] who was returning from a safari with his parents and brother. Van Assouw was taken to Sabia'a Hospital, 30 kilometres (19 mi) south-east of Tripoli and later transferred to Al-Khadhra Hospital, Tripoli, to undergo surgery for multiple fractures in both legs. Dutch Foreign Ministry spokesman Ad Meijer said the child has no life-threatening injuries. Saif al-Islam Gaddafi and Captain Sabri Shadi, the head of Afriqiyah Airways, visited Van Assouw while he was hospitalised in Libya. On 15 May, he was transferred by air ambulance to Eindhoven in the Netherlands. Van Assouw was accompanied on the flight by his paternal aunt and uncle, who later gained custody of him.
Of the passengers, 42 were to continue to Düsseldorf, 32 to Brussels, seven to London, and one to Paris. Eleven of the passengers had Libya as their final destination. Of the 71 passengers identified as Dutch by the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 38 were travelling with the Stip travel agency, 24 were travelling with the Kras travel agency, and 9, including the survivor, had their tickets booked independently.
On the evening of 12 May 2010, the Irish Department of Foreign Affairs confirmed that one of its passport holders was on the plane, novelist Bree O'Mara. One of the Dutch victims was Joëlle van Noppen, singer in the former Dutch girl group WOW!.
- Air France Flight 447 – the deadliest accident involving an Airbus A330, which occurred just less than a year before this crash took place. All 228 people on board were killed.
- Airbus Industrie Flight 129 – the first fatal accident involving an A330, 7 crew members died while the aircraft stalled and crashed near Toulouse.
- Gulf Air Flight 072 – the crew suffered somatogravic illusion during a go-around
- Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 1103 – the deadliest aviation accident in Libya at the time Flight 771 crashed.
- List of sole survivors of airline accidents or incidents
- A ^ Translation: METAR for Tripoli International Airport, issued at 03:50 UTC on the 12th of the month. Winds variable in direction at 1 knot (1.9 km/h), visibility 6,000 metres (3.7 miles), no significant cloud cover, temperature 19 °C, dewpoint 17 °C, altimeter setting 1008 hPa
- B ^ Before van Assouw's identification was released to the public, multiple news reports erroneously stated that he was either 8, 9, or 10 years old. After his identification was released to the public and confirmed that he was 9, these reports were revised.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Afriqiyah Airways Flight 771.|
|Wikinews has related news: Over 100 dead in Libyan plane crash|
- Libyan Civil Aviation Authority
- Dutch Safety Board
- Flight Afriqiyah Airways 771 Johannesburg – Tripoli – Afriqiyah Airways (Archive)
- "Airplane crash in Tripoli." Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands
- "Afriqiyah Airways A330 Crash." South African Civil Aviation Authority ()
- "Flight 8U 771 on 12 May 2010 – A 330 – 200, registered 5A-ONG." Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile (Archive)