Afro-American peoples of the Americas

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For the United States population of Sub-Saharan Africa origins, see African American. For the Latin American population of Black African origins, see Afro-Latin American. For the Canadian population of Sub-Saharan African and Caribbean origins, see Black Canadians.
Afro-American peoples of the Americas
Regions with significant populations
Throughout the Americas
 United States 42,020,743[1]
 Brazil 14,517,961[2][3]
 Haiti 8,500,000
 Colombia 4,944,400[4]
 Jamaica 2,700,000
 Panama 2,500,000
 Cuba 1,034,044[5]
 Dominican Republic 1,029,535[6]
 Canada 945,665[7]
 Puerto Rico 879,121
 Peru 861,427
 Venezuela 181,154[8]
Languages
English, Portuguese, Spanish, Haitian Creole, French, Papiamento, Dutch, English creole and many others
Religion
Christianity, Rastafari, Afro-American religion, Islam
Related ethnic groups
African diaspora

Afro-American peoples of the Americas is used to refer to people born in the Americas with predominantly Sub-Saharan African ancestry. Most are descendants of people enslaved and transferred from Sub-Saharan Africa to the Americas by Europeans, to work in their colonies, mostly in mines and plantations as slaves, between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. At present, they constitute about 18% of the population of the Americas, with the largest concentrations by percentage of population in Haiti (92%), Jamaica (91%), Barbados (90%), Turks and Caicos (90%), Dominica (87%), The Bahamas (85%), Dominican Republic (84%),[9] Saint Lucia (83%), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (66%), Bermuda (55%), Cuba (50%), Puerto Rico (46%), Belize (35%), Trinidad and Tobago (34.2%),[10] Brazil (20.5% mixed + 7% Black), Panama (21%), United States (13.6%),[1] Colombia (10.52%),[4] Uruguay (4%),[11] Canada (2.9%),[7] and Venezuela (2.8%).[8]

Afro-American history[edit]

Main article: Atlantic slave trade

After the United States achieved independence, came the independence of Haiti, a country populated almost entirely by Afro-Americans, the second American colony to win its independence. After the process of independence, many countries have encouraged European immigration into America, thus reducing the proportion of black and mulatto population throughout the country: Brazil, United States, Dominican Republic, etc. In the Casta system, imposed by the Spanish Empire in their American colonies, the son of black and European was called a mulatto, and the son of black and Amerindian was called zambo, among many other denominations for further mixes.

Afro-American population today[edit]

From 21st to November 25 of 1995, the Continental Congress of Black Peoples of the Americas was held. Afro-Americans still face discrimination in most parts of the continent. According to David D.E. Ferrari, vice president of the World Bank for the Region of Latin America and the Caribbean, Afro-Americans have lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, more frequent and more widespread diseases, higher rates of illiteracy and lower income than Americans of different ethnic origin. Women, also the subject of gender discrimination, suffer worse living conditions.

Even in countries like Brazil, with 6.9% of phenotypically Black population and 43.8% of pardo (mestizo), poverty is common. It is nevertheless important to note that the´Pardo category includes all mulattoes, zambos and the result of their intermixing with other groups (which is not sufficiently Subsaharan-looking to be negro and not sufficiently European-looking or Levantine-looking to be branco), but it is independent of African descent, with most White Brazilians having at least one recent African and/or Native American ancestor and Pardos also being caboclos, descendants of Whites and Amerindians, or mestizos. There are more definitions on the differences and social disparity between blacks, "non-white non-blacks" and whites in Brazil in the Black people article section.

According to various studies, the main genetic contribution to Brazilians is European (always above 65%, and an American one found it as high as 77%), and Pardos possess an intermediate degree of African descent when compared to the general White Brazilian and Afro-Brazilian populations (the previous mostly with some detectable non-white ancestor and the latter highly miscegenated) and exhibit a greater Amerindian contribution in areas such as the Amazon Basin and a stronger African contribution in the areas of historical slavery such as Southeastern Brazil and coastal Northeastern cities, nevertheless both are present in all regions, and that physical features did not correlate with detectable ancestry in many instances.[12][13][14][15][15][16][17]

On November 4, 2008, the first afrodescendant U.S. president, Barack Obama, won 52% of the vote, following positive results in states that had traditionally been won by Republican presidents, such as Indiana and Virginia.

Notable Afro-American peoples of the Americas[edit]

Related bibliography[edit]

  • Ethnic domination and racist discourse in Spain and Latin America.Dijk, Teun A. van. van. Gedisa Editorial SA ISBN 84-7432-997-3
  • Gender, class and race in Latin America: some contributions.Luna, Lola G. Ed PPU, SA ISBN 84-7665-959-8
  • Gender, race and class "color" desensientes Latinas. Impoexports, Colombia, Yumbo

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Census Bureau" (PDF). Census.gov. Retrieved 2013-10-02. 
  2. ^ "Tabela 1.3.1 - População residente, por cor ou raça, segundo o sexo e os grupos de idade - Brasil - 2010" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Retrieved 2015-07-28. 
  3. ^ "The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographic Regions of Brazil is more Uniform than Expected". PLOS One. October 30, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b "Visibilidad Estadistica Etnicos" (PDF). Censo General 2005 (in Spanish). Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (DANE). Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  5. ^ http://www.radioprogreso.cu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1717:en-cuba-resumen-de-resultados-definitivos-del-censo-de-poblacion-y-viviendas-2012&catid=126&Itemid=298
  6. ^ Moya Pons, Frank (2010). Historia de la República Dominicana (in Spanish) 2. Editorial CSIC. ISBN 978-84-00-09240-5. Retrieved 2015-07-28. 
  7. ^ a b "National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011". Statcan.gc.ca. 2013-05-08. Retrieved 2013-05-27. 
  8. ^ a b "Resultados Basicos : Censo 2011" (PDF). Ine.gov.ve. Retrieved 2015-07-28. 
  9. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Dominican Republic". Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Archived from the original on 12 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-04. 
  10. ^ Bethel, Camille (2013-02-20). "Census: Mixed population on the rise | Trinidad Express Newspaper | News". Trinidadexpress.com. Retrieved 2013-11-26. 
  11. ^ "Ethnic Groups by Country (%)". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2015-08-02. 
  12. ^ NMO Godinho O impacto das migrações na constituição genética de populações latino-americanas. PhD Thesis, Universidade de Brasília (2008).
  13. ^ Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Di Pietro, Giuliano; Fuchshuber-Moraes, Mateus; Genro, Julia Pasqualini; Hutz, Mara H.; Kehdy, Fernanda de Souza Gomes; Kohlrausch, Fabiana; Magno, Luiz Alexandre Viana; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Manoel Odorico; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete Amaral; de Moraes, Milene Raiol; Ojopi, Élida B.; Perini, Jamila A.; Racciopi, Clarice; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos; Rios-Santos, Fabrício; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Sortica, Vinicius A.; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme (2011). Harpending, Henry, ed. "The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil is More Uniform Than Expected". PLoS ONE 6 (2): e17063. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...6E7063P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017063. PMC 3040205. PMID 21359226. 
  14. ^ (Portuguese) Nossa herança europeia —. Cienciahoje.uol.com.br. Retrieved on 2012-05-19.
  15. ^ a b Lins, T. C.; Vieira, R. G.; Abreu, B. S.; Grattapaglia, D.; Pereira, R. W. (March–April 2009). "Genetic composition of Brazilian population samples based on a set of twenty-eight ancestry informative SNPs". American Journal of Human Biology 22 (2): 187–192. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20976. PMID 19639555. 
  16. ^ Folha Online – Ciência – DNA de brasileiro é 80% europeu, indica estudo. .folha.uol.com.br (2009-10-05). Retrieved on 2012-05-19.
  17. ^ De Assis Poiares, Lilian; De Sá Osorio, Paulo; Spanhol, Fábio Alexandre; Coltre, Sidnei César; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Gusmão, Leonor; Largura, Alvaro; Sandrini, Fabiano; Da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles (2010). "Allele frequencies of 15 STRs in a representative sample of the Brazilian population" (PDF). Forensic Science International: Genetics 4 (2): e61. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.05.006. PMID 20129458.