African diaspora in the Americas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

African diaspora in the Americas
Total population
unknown
Regions with significant populations
 Brazil96,795,294 (14,517,961 black only; 82,277,333 Pardos)[1]
 United States46,936,733 (2020)[2]
14.2% of the total U.S. population (2020)[2]
41,104,200 (2020) (one race)[2]
12.4% of the total U.S. population (2020)[2][3]
 Haiti8,583,759[4]
 Colombia4,671,160[5][6][7][8][9]
 Peru2,850,000[10] [11]
 Jamaica2,700,000[12]
 Venezuela2,641,481[13][14]
 Mexico1,386,556[15]
 Canada1,300,540[16]
 Ecuador1,200,000[17]
 Cuba1,034,044[18]
 Dominican Republic1,029,535[19]
 Puerto Rico1,000,000[20]
(Includes Afro–Puerto Ricans living outside of Puerto Rico)
 Panamá623,053[21][22]
 Trinidad and Tobago452,536[23]
 Barbados256,706[24]
 Guyana225,860[25]
 Suriname200,406[26][27][28]
 Grenada101,309[29]
Languages
English, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Haitian Creole, Papiamento, Dutch
Religion
Christianity, Rastafari, Afro-American religions, Traditional African religions, Islam, others
Related ethnic groups
African diaspora, Maroons

The African diaspora in the Americas refers to the people born in the Americas with partial, predominantly, or completely African ancestry. Many are descendants of persons enslaved in Africa and transferred to the Americas by Europeans, then forced to work mostly in European-owned mines and plantations, between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries.

History[edit]

After the United States achieved independence, next came the independence of Haiti, a country populated almost entirely by people of African descent and the second American colony to win its independence from European colonial powers. After the process of independence, many countries have encouraged European immigration to America, thus reducing the proportion of black and mulatto population throughout the country: Brazil, the United States, and the Dominican Republic. Miscegenation and more flexible concepts of race have also reduced the overall population identifying as black in Latin America, whereas the one-drop rule in the United States has had the opposite effect.[30]

From 21 to 25 November 1995, the Continental Congress of Black Peoples of the Americas was held. Black people still face discrimination in most parts of the continent. According to David D.E. Ferrari, vice president of the World Bank for the Region of Latin America and the Caribbean, black people have lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, more frequent and more widespread diseases, higher rates of illiteracy and lower income than Americans of different ethnic origin. Women, also the subjects of gender discrimination, suffer worse living conditions.

Today[edit]

In Brazil, with 6.9% of phenotypically Black population and 43.8% of pardo (mestizo), poverty is common. It is nevertheless important to note that the´Pardo category includes all mulattoes, zambos and the result of their intermixing with other groups, but it is majority of European descent, with most White Brazilians having at least one recent African and/or Native American ancestor and Pardos also being caboclos, descendants of Whites and Amerindians, or mestizos. There are more definitions of the differences and social disparity between blacks and "non-white or pardo" than whites in Brazil in the Black people article section.

According to various studies, the main genetic contribution to Brazilians is European (always above 65%, and an American study found it as high as 77%), and Pardos possess a higher degree of African descent when compared to the general White Brazilian and African-Brazilian populations (the previous mostly with some detectable non-white ancestor and the latter highly miscegenated) and exhibit a greater Amerindian contribution in areas such as the Amazon Basin and a stronger African contribution in the areas of historical slavery such as Southeastern Brazil and coastal Northeastern cities, nevertheless both are present in all regions, and that physical features did much correlate with detectable ancestry in many instances.[31][32][33][34][35][36]

On 4 November 2008, the first mulatto U.S. president, Barack Obama, won 52% of the vote. His father was an African man from Kenya and his mother a white woman from Kansas.[37]

Table[edit]

African diaspora in the Americas by percentage of population
Country Percentage of population
 Haiti 95%
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 93%
 Jamaica 92%
 The Bahamas 90.6%
 Barbados 90%
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos 90%
 Antigua and Barbuda 90%
 Dominica 87%
 Saint Lucia 85%
 Grenada 82%
 Martinique 80%
 Guadeloupe 77%
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Vincent and the Grenadines 66%
 French Guiana 66%
 Bermuda 55%
 Brazil 45%
 Suriname 37%
 Guyana 36%
 Cuba 35%
 Trinidad and Tobago 34.2%[38]
 Belize 31%
 Puerto Rico 16%
 Panama 14%
 United States 13.6%[3]
 Colombia 9.34%[39]
 Dominican Republic 10%[40]
 Ecuador 10%
 Nicaragua 9%
 Costa Rica 8%[41]
 Uruguay 4%[42]
 Canada 3.5%[16]
 Peru 9% (including zambos and mulatos)[43]
 Venezuela 2.9%[44]
 Chile 2%
 Mexico 1.2%

Notable people of African descent in the Americas[edit]

Related bibliography[edit]

  • Ethnic domination and racist discourse in Spain and Latin America. Dijk, Teun A. van. van. Gedisa Editorial SA ISBN 84-7432-997-3
  • Gender, class and race in Latin America: some contributions. Luna, Lola G. Ed PPU, SA ISBN 84-7665-959-8
  • Gender, race and class "color" desensientes Latinas. Impoexports, Colombia, Yumbo
  • Afro Atlantic Histories resource, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Tabela 1.3.1 – População residente, por cor ou raça, segundo o sexo e os grupos de idade – Brasil – 2010" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d https://census.gov/library/visualizations/interactive/race-and-ethnicity-in-the-united-state-2010-and-2020-census.html. 2020 U.S. Census
  3. ^ a b "US Census Bureau" (PDF). Census.gov. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
  4. ^ "Información general: Haití" [General information: Haiti] (in Spanish). Spanish.state.gov. April 2002. Archived from the original on 29 January 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  5. ^ "Grupos étnicos información técnica".
  6. ^ Homburger, Julian R.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D.; Gravel, Simon (4 December 2015). "Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America". PLOS Genetics. 11 (12): e1005602. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005602. ISSN 1553-7404. PMC 4670080. PMID 26636962.
  7. ^ Mooney, Jazlyn A.; Huber, Christian D.; Service, Susan; Hoon Sul, Jae; Marsden, Clare D.; Zhang, Zhongyang; Sabatti, Chiara; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Bedoya, Gabriel (25 October 2018). "Understanding the Hidden Complexity of Latin American Population Isolates". PLOS Genetics. 103 (5): 707–726. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.09.013. ISSN 1553-7404. PMC 6218714. PMID 30401458.
  8. ^ Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Everardo, Paola; Avila, Francisco de; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge (25 September 2014). "Admixture in Latin America: Geographic Structure, Phenotypic Diversity and Self-Perception of Ancestry Based on 7,342 Individuals". PLOS Genetics. 10 (9): e1004572. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004572. ISSN 1553-7404. PMC 4177621. PMID 25254375.
  9. ^ "Afrocolombianos". encolombia.com (in Spanish). 6 April 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  10. ^ Lizcano Fernández, Francisco; Lizcano Fernández, Francisco (2005). "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI. page. 228 (45 pdf)". Convergencia (in Spanish). 12 (38): 185–232. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  11. ^ Francisco Lizcano Fernández (May–August 2005). "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF). Convergencia. Revista de Ciencias Sociales. México: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México: 185–232. ISSN 1405-1435.
  12. ^ "Jamaica – People".
  13. ^ "Resultado Básico del XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2011" (PDF). Ine.gov.ve. May 2014. p. 29. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
  14. ^ Censo poblacional de Venezuela 2011
  15. ^ "Principales resultados de la Encuesta Intercensal 2015 Estados Unidos Mexicanos" (PDF). INEGI. p. 77. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  16. ^ a b Census Profile, 2016 Census Archived 8 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine Statistics Canada. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  17. ^ http://www.ecuadorencifras.gob.ec/cpv/[dead link]
  18. ^ "En Cuba: resumen de resultados definitivos del Censo de Población y Viviendas 2012" [Cuba: Summary of final results of the Census of Population and Housing 2012] (in Spanish). Radioprogreso.cu. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  19. ^ Moya Pons, Frank (2010). Historia de la República Dominicana (in Spanish). Vol. 2. Editorial CSIC. ISBN 978-84-00-09240-5. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
  20. ^ "Puerto Rico 2020 census".
  21. ^ "Central America :: Panama — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". cia.gov. June 2022.
  22. ^ "Panamá: Cultura y Etnias". Embassy of the Republic of Panama to the United Spain. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  23. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago 2011 population and housing census demographic report" (PDF). Central Statistical Office. 30 November 2012. p. 94. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  24. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". cia.gov. 22 September 2021.
  25. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ "Censusstatistieken 2012" (PDF). Algemeen Bureau voor de Statistiek in Suriname (General Statistics Bureau of Suriname). p. 76. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  27. ^ "Cuadro P42. Total del país. Población afrodescendiente en viviendas particulares por sexo, según grupo de edad. Año 2010" [Table P42. Total for the country. African-descendant population in private households by sex, according to age group, 2010]. INDEC (in Spanish). Archived from the original (XLS) on 29 October 2013.
  28. ^ "Cuadro P43. Total del país. Población afrodescendiente en viviendas particulares por sexo, según lugar de nacimiento. Año 2010" [Table P43. Total for the country. African-descendant population in private homes by sex, according to place of birth, 2010]. INDEC (in Spanish). Archived from the original (XLS) on 18 April 2014.
  29. ^ "Grenada". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  30. ^ Daniel, G. Reginald. Race and Multiraciality in Brazil and the United States: Converging Paths?. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-271-02883-1
  31. ^ NMO O impacto das migrações na constituição genética de populações latino-americanas. PhD Thesis, Universidade de Brasília (2008).
  32. ^ Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Di Pietro, Giuliano; Fuchshuber-Moraes, Mateus; Genro, Julia Pasqualini; Hutz, Mara H.; Kehdy, Fernanda de Souza Gomes; Kohlrausch, Fabiana; Magno, Luiz Alexandre Viana; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Manoel Odorico; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete Amaral; de Moraes, Milene Raiol; Ojopi, Élida B.; Perini, Jamila A.; Racciopi, Clarice; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos; Rios-Santos, Fabrício; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Sortica, Vinicius A.; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme (2011). Harpending, Henry (ed.). "The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil is More Uniform Than Expected". PLoS ONE. 6 (2): e17063. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...617063P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017063. PMC 3040205. PMID 21359226.
  33. ^ (in Portuguese) Nossa herança europeia — Archived 30 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Cienciahoje.uol.com.br. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  34. ^ Lins, T. C.; Vieira, R. G.; Abreu, B. S.; Grattapaglia, D.; Pereira, R. W. (March–April 2009). "Genetic composition of Brazilian population samples based on a set of twenty-eight ancestry informative SNPs". American Journal of Human Biology. 22 (2): 187–192. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20976. PMID 19639555. S2CID 205301927.
  35. ^ Folha Online – Ciência – DNA de brasileiro é 80% europeu, indica estudo. .folha.uol.com.br (5 October 2009). Retrieved 2012-05-19.
  36. ^ De Assis Poiares, Lilian; De Sá Osorio, Paulo; Spanhol, Fábio Alexandre; Coltre, Sidnei César; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Gusmão, Leonor; Largura, Alvaro; Sandrini, Fabiano; Da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles (2009). "Allele frequencies of 15 STRs in a representative sample of the Brazilian population" (PDF). Forensic Science International: Genetics. 4 (2): e61-3. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.05.006. PMID 20129458. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2011.
  37. ^ Goldstein, Bonnie (30 July 2012). "Obama descended from slave ancestor". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  38. ^ Bethel, Camille (February 2013). "Census: Mixed population on the rise | Trinidad Express Newspaper | News". Trinidadexpress.com. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  39. ^ "Grupos étnicos información técnica". dane.gov.co. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  40. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Dominican Republic". Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 4 June 2007.
  41. ^ "Costa Rica". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  42. ^ "Ethnic Groups by Country (%)". The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
  43. ^ Lizcano Fernández, Francisco; Lizcano Fernández, Francisco (2005). "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI". Convergencia (in Spanish). 12 (38): 228. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  44. ^ "Resultados Basicos : Censo 2011" (PDF). Ine.gov.ve. Retrieved 28 July 2015.