|This section needs additional citations for verification. (June 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Dominican Republic||1,029,535 |
|Puerto Rico||461,998 |
|Portuguese, Spanish, French, English, and several creoles.|
|Afro-American religions, Christianity (mainly Roman Catholicism, with a minority of Protestants), or irreligious.|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Africans, Afro-American peoples of the Americas, Black Hispanic and Latino Americans, Afro-Caribbeans|
Afro-Latin Americans or Black Latin Americans refers to Latin American people of significant African ancestry. The term may also refer to historical or cultural elements in Latin America thought to have emanated from this community.
The term Afro-Latin American refers specifically to people of African ancestry and not to European ancestry, such as Sub-Alpine European white. The term is not widely used in Latin America outside academic circles. Normally Afro-Latin Americans are called "black" (Spanish: negro; Portuguese: negro or preto; French: nègre or noir). More commonly, when referring to cultural aspects of African origin within specific countries of Latin America, terms carry an Afro- prefix followed by the relevant nationality. Notable examples include Afro-Cuban, Afro-Brazilian, and Afro-Haitian.
The accuracy of statistics reporting on Afro-Latin Americans has been questioned, especially where they are derived from census reports in which the subjects choose their own designation, because in various countries the concept of African ancestry is viewed with differing attitudes.
- 1 History
- 2 Racial and ethnic distinctions
- 3 Representation in the media
- 4 South America
- 5 Central America
- 6 Caribbean
- 7 North American
- 8 Afro-Latino populations in the Americas
- 9 Notable Afro-Latin people
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
In the 15th and 16 centuries, many people of African origin arrived in the Americas with the Spanish and Portuguesese. Pedro Alonso Niño, traditionally considered the first of many New World explorers of African descent was a navigator in the 1492 Columbus expedition. Those who were directly from West Africa mostly arrived in Latin America as part of the Atlantic slave trade, as agricultural, domestic, and menial laborers and as mineworkers. They were also employed in mapping and exploration (for example, Estevanico) and were even involved in conquest (for example, Juan Valiente.) The Caribbean and Latin America received 95 percent of the Africans arriving in the Americas with only 5 percent going to Northern America.
Countries with significant African, Mulatto, or Zambo populations today include Brazil (57 million, if including the pardo Brazilian population with Mulatto phenotype), Haiti (8.7 million), Dominican Republic (8.5 million), Cuba (7 million), Colombia (5 million), Venezuela (4 million) and Ecuador (1.1 million).
Traditional terms for Afro-Latin Americans with their own developed culture include garífuna (in Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, and Belize), cafuzo (in Brazil), and zambo in the Andes and Central America. Marabou is a term of Haitian origin denoting a Haitian of multiracial ethnicity.
The mix of these African cultures with the Spanish, Portuguese, French, and indigenous cultures of Latin America has produced many unique forms of language (e.g., Palenquero, Garífuna, and Creole), religions (e.g., Candomblé, Santería, and Vodou), music (e.g., kompa, salsa, Bachata, Punta, Palo de Mayo, plena, samba, merengue, cumbia) martial arts (capoeira) and dance (rumba, merengue).
As of 2015, Mexico and Chile are the only two Latin American countries yet to formally recognize their Afro-Latin American population in their constitutions. This in contrast to countries like Brazil and Colombia that lay out the constitutional rights of their African-descendant population.
Racial and ethnic distinctions
Terms used within Latin America used in reference to African heritage include mulato (African – white mixture), zambo/chino (indigenous – African mixture) and pardo (African – native – white mixture) and mestizo, which refers to an indigenous – European mixture in all cases except for in Venezuela, where it is used in place of "pardo". The term mestizaje refers to the intermixing or fusing of ethnicities, whether by mere custom or deliberate policy. In Latin America this happened extensively between all ethnic groups and cultures, but usually involved European men and indigenous and African women.
Representation in the media
Afro-Latin Americans have limited media appearance; critics have accused the Latin American media of overlooking the African, indigenous and multiracial populations in favor of over-representation of often blond and blue/green-eyed white Latin Americans rather than they look like white Latin Americans of typical Southern European features, especially in the popular telenovelas.
According to the Argentina national census of the year 2010, the total Argentine population is 40,117,096, from which 149,493 are of African ancestry. Traditionally it has been argued that the black population in Argentina declined since the early 19th century to insignificance. However, the pilot census conducted in two neighborhoods of Argentina in 2006 on knowledge of ancestors from Sub-saharan Africa verified that 5% of the population knew of Black African ancestry, and another 20% thought that was possible but were sure. Given that European immigration accounted for more than half the growth of the Argentine population in 1960, some researchers argue that rather than decrease what occurred was a process of overlaying, creating the "invisibility" of the population of Afro-Argentinians and their cultural roots.
Black African descendants in Bolivia account for about 2% of the population. They were brought in during the Spanish colonial times and the majority live in the Yungas. There are about 500,000 people of Black African ancestry living in Bolivia.
Brazil experienced a long internal struggle over abolition of slavery and was the last Latin American country to do so. In 1850 it finally banned the importation of new slaves from overseas, after two decades since the first official attempts to outlaw the human traffic (in spite of illegal parties of Black African slaves that kept arriving till 1855). In 1864 Brazil emancipated the slaves, and on 28 September 1871, the Brazilian Congress approved the Rio Branco Law of Free Birth, which conditionally freed the children of slaves born from that day on. In 1887 army officers refused to order their troops to hunt runaway slaves, and in 1888 the Senate passed a law establishing immediate, unqualified emancipation. This law, known as Lei Áurea (Golden Law) was sanctioned by the regent Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, daughter of the emperor Pedro II on 13 May 1888.
African contribution to the genetic composition of Brazilians
European ancestry has primarily contributed to the formation of Brazil, along with African and Native American ancestries.
An autosomal study from 2013, with nearly 1300 samples from all of the Brazilian regions, found a predominant degree of European ancestry combined with African and Native American contributions, in varying degrees: "Following an increasing North to South gradient, European ancestry was the most prevalent in all urban populations (with values up to 74%). The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution. Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. At an intrapopulation level, all urban populations were highly admixed, and most of the variation in ancestry proportions was observed between individuals within each population rather than among population".
A recent autosomal DNA study (2011), with nearly 1000 samples from all over the country ("whites", "pardos" and "blacks") found a major European contribution, followed by a high African contribution and an important Native American component. "In all regions studied, the European ancestry was predominant, with proportions ranging from 60.6% in the Northeast to 77.7% in the South". The 2011 autosomal study samples came from blood donors (the lowest classes constitute the great majority of blood donors in Brazil), and also public health institutions personnel and health students. The study showed that Brazilians from different regions are more homogenous than previously thought by some based on the census alone. "Brazilian homogeneity is, therefore, a lot greater between Brazilian regions than within Brazilian regions".
|Northeast of Brazil||60.10%||29.30%||8.90%|
According to a DNA study from 2010, which used samples from the five regions of the country "on average, European ancestors are responsible for nearly 80% of the genetic heritage of the population. The variation between the regions is small, with the possible exception of the South, where the European contribution reaches nearly 90%." The study by a team of the Catholic University of Brasília and published by the scientific magazine American Journal of Human Biology, show that "in Brazil, physical indicators such as skin colour, colour of the eyes and colour of the hair have little to do with the genetic ancestry of each person, which has been shown in previous studies (regardless of census classification)." The study used ancestry informative SNPs to estimate individual and population biogeographical ancestry. It found the "Brazilian population is characterized by a genetic background of three parental populations (European, African, and Brazilian Native Amerindians) with a wide degree and diverse patterns of admixture" and estimated the major contribution being European ancestry (77.1%) followed by African (14.3%) and Amerindian contributions (8.5%). It is important to note that "the samples came from free of charge paternity test takers, thus as the researchers made it explicit: "the paternity tests were free of charge, the population samples involved people of variable socioeconomic strata, although likely to be leaning slightly towards the ‘‘pardo’’ group".
An autosomal DNA study from 2009 similarly found that "all the Brazilian samples (regions) lie more closely to the European group than to the African populations or to the Mestizos from Mexico".
A 2015 autosomal genetic study, which also analysed data of 25 studies of 38 different Brazilian populations concluded that: European ancestry accounts for 62% of the heritage of the population, followed by the African (21%) and the Native American (17%). The European contribution is highest in Southern Brazil (77%), the African highest in Northeast Brazil (27%) and the Native American is the highest in Northern Brazil (32%).
According to another autosomal DNA study from 2008, by the University of Brasília (UnB), European ancestry dominates in the whole of Brazil (in all regions), accounting for 65.9% of heritage of the population, followed by the African contribution (24.8%) and the Native American (9.3%).
São Paulo state, the most populous state in Brazil, with about 40 million people, showed the following composition, according to an autosomal study from 2006: European genes account for 79% of the heritage of the people of São Paulo, 14% are of African origin, and 7% Native American. A more recent genetic study, from 2013, showed that people in São Paulo have 61.9% European, 25.5% African and 11.6% Amerindian ancestries, respectively.
Chile enslaved about 6,000 Africans, about one-third of whom arrived before 1615; most were utilized in agriculture around Santiago. Today there are very few Afro-Chileans, at the most, fewer than 0.001% can be estimated from the 2006 population.
A 2015 autosomal DNA study found out Chile to be 42.38% Native American, 55.16% European and 2.44% African (using LAMP-LD) and 43.22% Native American, 54.38% European and 2.40% African (using RFMix)
Afro-Colombians make up 10.6% of the population, almost 4.9 million people, according to a projection of the National Administration Department of Statistics (DANE). most of whom are concentrated on the northwest Caribbean coast and the Pacific coast in such departments as Chocó, although considerable numbers are also Cartagena, and Barranquilla.
Approximately 4.4 million Afro-Colombians actively recognize their own black ancestry as a result of inter-racial relations with white and indigenous Colombians. They have been historically absent from high level government positions. Many of their long-established settlements around the Pacific coast have remained underdeveloped. In Colombia's ongoing internal conflict, Afro-Colombians are both victims of violence or displacement and members of armed factions, such as the FARC and the AUC. Afro-Colombians have played a role in contributing to the development of certain aspects of Colombian culture. For example, several of Colombia's musical genres, such as Cumbia, have African origins or influences. Some Afro-Colombians have also been successful in sports such as Faustino Asprilla, Freddy Rincón or María Isabel Urrutia.
San Basilio de Palenque is a village in Colombia that is noted for maintaining many African traditions. It was declared a Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO in 2005. The residents of palenque still speak Palenquero, a Spanish/African creole
In 2006, Ecuador had a population of 13,547,510. According to the latest data from CIA World Factbook, the ethnic groups represented in Ecuador include mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white; 71.9%), Montubio (7.4%), Amerindian (7%), white (6.1%), Afroecuadorian (4.3%), mulato (1.9%), and black (1%). The Afro-Ecuadorian culture is found in the northwest coastal region of Ecuador and make up the majority (70%) in the province of Esmeraldas and the Chota Valley in the Imbabura Province. They can be also found in Ecuador's two largest cities, Quito and Guayaquil. The best known cultural influence known outside Ecuador is a distinctive kind of marimba music. From the Chota Valley there is Bomba (Ecuador) music which is very different from marimba from Esmeraldas.
Black Paraguayans are descended from enslaved West African brought to Paraguay by the 16th century. They became a significant presence in the country, and made up 11% of the population in 1785. Most Afro-Paraguayans established communities in towns such as Areguá, Emboscada, and Guarambaré. Many achieved their freedom during the Spanish rule. In the capital Asunción, there is a community of 300 Afro-Paraguayan families in the Fernando de la Mora municipality.
Afro-Peruvians make up about 3–4% of the population (close to two million).
Over the course of the slave trade, approximately 95,000 slaves were brought into Peru, with the last group arriving in 1850. Today, Afro-Peruvians reside mainly on the central and south coast. Afro-Peruvians can also be found in significant numbers on the northern coast. Recently, it has been verified that the community with the greatest concentration of Afro-Peruvians is Yapatera in Morropón (Piura), made up of around 7,000 farmers who are largely descended from African slaves of "malagasy" (Madagascar) origin. They are referred to as "malgaches" or "mangaches".
Afro-Peruvian music and culture was popularized from the 1950s by the performer Nicomedes Santa Cruz. Since 2006, his birthday, 4 June, has been celebrated in Peru as a Day of Afro-Peruvian Culture. Another key figure in the revival of Afro-Peruvian music is Susana Baca.
Afro-Peruvian music was actually well known in Peru since the 1600s but oppressed by the Peruvian elite, as was Andean religion and language. Afro-Peruvian culture has not only thrived but influenced all aspects of Peruvian culture without any acknowledgement from mainstream media or history. Luis Miguel Sanchez, Peru's 71st President, was the first Afro-Andean President (1930–1933).
A 2009 DNA study in the American Journal of Human Biology showed the genetic composition of Uruguay as primarily European, with Native American ancestry ranging from one to 20 percent and sub-Saharan African from seven to 15 percent (depending on region).
Enslaved Africans and their descendants figured prominently in the founding of Uruguay.
In the late 18th century, Montevideo became a major arrival port for slaves, most brought from Portuguese colonies of Africa and bound for the Spanish colonies of the New World, the mines of Peru and Bolivia, and the fields of Uruguay.
In the 19th century, when Uruguay joined other colonies in fighting for independence from Spain, Uruguayan national hero Jose Artigas led an elite division of black troops against the colonists. One of his top advisors was Joaquín Lenzina, known as Ansina, a freed slave who composed musical odes about his commander's exploits and is regarded by Afro-Uruguayans as an unheralded father of the nation.
African Venezuelans are mostly descendants of enslaved Africans brought to Venezuela from the 17th to the 19th century to work the coffee and cocoa crops. Most of the African-Venezuelans live in the North-central region, in the coastal towns Barlovento, Northern Yaracuy, Carabobo and Aragua States, and Eastern Vargas State; but also in several towns and villages in areas in South Lake Maracaibo (Zulia State) and Northern Merida State in the Andes, among others. They have kept their traditions and culture alive, especially through music.
Venezuela is a very racially mixed nation, which makes it difficult to individually identify and/or distinguish their ethno-racial background with precision. Research in 2001 on genetic diversity by the Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Research (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, IVIC) in which the population was compared to the historical patterns of the colonial castes. According to the last population census in Venezuela conducted by the National Institute Estadististica (INE), 2.8% of the country's population identifies as afrodescendientes of the national total, which is 181 157 result in the number of Venezuelans with African racial characteristics. However, the majority of Venezuelans are mixed with African ancestry in combination with Indigenous and European heritage.
Afro-Venezuelans have stood out as sportsmen, many of them in the Major League Baseball and other sports (e.g. former NBA/Houston Rockets forward Carl Herrera), however, most of them do not describe themselves as Afro-Venezuelan, but as Latinos or Hispanics or simply Venezuelans. Afro-Venezuelans have also stood out in the arts, especially in music, for example: Magdalena Sánchez, Oscar D'León, Morella Muñoz, Allan Phillips, Pedro Eustache, Frank Quintero, and many others. Miss Venezuela 1998, Carolina Indriago, Miss Venezuela Universe 2006, Jictzad Viña, and Miss Venezuela World 2006, Susan Carrizo are mulatto.
The Afro-Latin Americans of Central America mostly live in or near the Caribbean coast. The African of Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, are of African, Garífuna, Afro-Caribbean and/or Mestizo heritage, as well as of Miskito heritage. Those of Costa Rica and Panama are mostly of Afro-Caribbean heritage. Many Afro-Caribbean islanders arrived in Panama to help build the Panama Canal and to Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica to work in the banana and sugar-cane plantations.
Note:Common definitions of Latin America do not include Belize
Belizean culture is a mix of African, European, and Mayan but only 21% of the population is considered to be of African descent. The main community of African descent are the Creoles and Garifuna concentrated from the Cayo District to the Belize District and Stann Creek District (Dangriga) on the Caribbean Sea. Belize City, on the Caribbean coast, is the center of West African culture in Belize, with its population being of mixed Black African, Maya, and European.
About 8% of the population is of African descent or Mulatto (mix of European and black) who are called Afro-Costa Ricans, English-speaking descendants of 19th century black Jamaican immigrant workers. The indigenous population numbers around 2.5%. In the Guanacaste Province, a significant portion of the population descends from a mix of local Amerindians, Africans and Spaniards. Most Afro-Costa Ricans are found in the Limón Province and the Central Valley.
only 0.13% are blacks in el Salvador.A total of 10,000 African slaves were brought to El Salvador. The African population, creating Afro-Mestizos in the certain areas where the Africans were brought. El Salvador has no English Antillean (West Indian), Garifuna, and Miskito population, largely due to laws banning the immigration of African into the country in the 1930s, these laws were revoked in the 1980
Only 2% of the Guatemalan population is considered black or mulatto. The main community of African heritage are the Garifuna, concentrated in Livingston and Puerto Barrios. The rest are Afro-Caribbean and mulattoes who lives in Puerto Barrios and Morales. All these places belong to Izabal department, on the Caribbean coast. Sadly, because of unemployent and lack of opportunities, many Garifuna from Guatemala had left the country and move to Belize and the United States. Also many people of African descent are located in different regions of the country but most notable are in Amatitlán, San Jerónimo, and Jutiapa, although most of them may not recognize it because the loss of culture in these places.
Many of the slaves brought from Africa in The Colonial Times came to Guatemala to work on cotton, sugar cane, tobacco, and coffee plantations. Most were brought as slaves and also servants by European Conquistadors. The main reason for slavery in Guatemala was because of the large sugar-cane plantations and haciendas located on Guatemala's Pacific and Caribbean coasts. Slavery didn't last too long during those times and all slaves and servants brought were later freed. They spread in different locations in Guatemala primarily on Guatemala's North, South and East areas. It is said that these freed slaves later mixed with Europeans, Native Indigenous, and Creoles (Criollos) of non African descend. The national folk instrument, the marimba, has its origins in Africa and was brought to Guatemala and the rest of Central America by African slaves during colonial times. The melodies played on it show Native American, West African and European influences in both form and style.
Among the notable Garifuna from Guatemala are social leaders (Mario Ellington and Dilia Palacios Cayetano), musicians (Sofía Blanco, Silvia Blanco and Jursino Cayetano), poets (Nora Murillo and Wingston González), athletes (Teodoro Palacios Flores and Mario Blanco), soccer players (Guillermo "la Pantera" Enríquez Gamboa, Tomás Enríquez Gamboa, German Trigueño Castro, Clemente Lalín Sánchez, Wilson Lalín Salvatierra, Carlos Delva, Norman Delva, David Suazo, Tomás Suazo, Braulio Arzú, Ricardo Trigueno Foster, Guillermo Ramírez "el Pando", Florencio Martínez, Renato Blanco and Marvin Avila), basketball players (Juan Pablo Trigueño Foster), a wrestler (El Cadete del Espacio) and a model (Deborah David).
From the Afro-Caribbean community comes doctors (Henry Stokes Brown and his son, Wilfredo Stokes Baltazar; Arla Cinderella Stokes), psychologists (Elizabeth Stokes), deacons (Sydney Samuels), a poet (Alan Mills), a journalist (Glenda Stokes Weatherborn), athletes (Roy Fearon, Salomón Rowe, Octavio Guillespie and Lidia Graviola Ewing), soccer players (Ricardo Clark, Jorge Lynch, Jerry Slosher, Royston Hall, David Stokes, Tony Edwin, Oscar Sims, Willie Sims, Vicente Charles, José A. Charles, Martín Charles, Selvyn Pennant, Douglas Pérez McNish, Mynor Pérez McNish, Carlos Pérez McNish, Leonardo McNish, Arturo McNish, Alfredo McNish, Julio César Anderson, Hermenegildo Pepp Castro, Stanley Gardiner, David Gardiner, Kenneth Brown, Mario "la Gallina" Becker, Freddy Thompson, Elton Brown and Jonny Brown), basketball players (Jeremías Stokes, Tomás Guillespie and Peggy Lynch), and a former Miss Guatemala (Marva Weatherborn).
Today, the Garifuna and Afro-Caribbean people of Guatemala are organized in a group called Organización Negra Guatemalteca (Onegua). According to its website, Onegua is "a non-governmental organisation established in 1995 with a mandate to promote the interests and fight for the rights of Guatemala's Garifuna and Afrodescendant populations". There is also an association, called Asociación Raíces Afrodescendientes Guatemaltecas.
Most recent on 26 November 2009 Afro descendants mostly of Garifuna heritage and all mixes came to The Catedral Metropolitana located in Guatemala City for an event described as "an event like no other" which was a church event organized by Garifunas from Izabal, Guatemala to prove that after 200 years of Garifuna existence in Guatemala they are not considered part of the population of Guatemala. Main reason for this event was to prove a point to stop discrimination against afro descendants and other ethnic groups in Guatemala. According to the 2002 census of Guatemala only 5,040 people identified themselves as afro descendants during that time, making it 0.04% in total of the Country's population.
Those numbers have gradually increased during the years after the afro descendant event which took place in 2009 by the Garifunas which caused a huge controversy all over the Country when it was aired on T.V. After that event many different regions of Guatemala have identified some inhabitants as afro descendant with some mixed ancestry.
The official census of Honduras indicates that 2% of the population, or about 150,000 individuals, self-identified as black during the last official census. A more recent and accurate estimate indicates that there are around 600 000 Garifuna Afro-Hondurans (8% of the population) which is closer to the estimate given by the National Assembly of Afro-Honduran Organizations and Communities. The census number is based on self-identification and does not use the American definition of blood quantum to identify "blackness" as Henry Gates does in his estimate of the black population of Honduras: "Estimates of people of African descent in Honduras vary widely, from 100,000 to 320,000 (1.8 to 5.8 percent of the country's 5.8 million people in 1994)." The actual number of Hondurans of African descent may be much larger, but they often get classified as "mestizo."
If one uses the blood quantum definition of blackness, then blacks came to Honduras early in the colonial period. One of the mercenaries who aided Pedro de Alvarado in his conquest of Honduras in 1536 was a black slave working as a mercenary to earn his freedom. Alvarado sent his own slaves from Guatemala to work the placer gold deposits in western Honduras as early as 1534. The earliest black slaves consigned to Honduras were part of a license granted to the Bishop Cristóbal de Pedraza in 1547 to bring 300 slaves into Honduras.
The self-identifying black population in Honduras is mostly of West Indian (Antillean origin), descendants of indentured laborers brought from Jamaica, Haiti, and other Caribbean Islands or of Garifuna (or Black Caribs) origin, a people of Black African ancestry who were expelled from the island of Saint Vincent after an uprising against the English and in 1797 and were exiled to Roatan. From there they made their way along the Caribbean coast of Belize, mainland Honduras and Nicaragua. Large Garifuna settlements in Honduras today include Trujillo, La Ceiba, and Triunfo de la Cruz. Even though they only came to Honduras in 1797, the Garifuna are one of the seven officially recognized indigenous groups in Honduras.
Slaves on the north coast mixed with the Miskito Indians, forming a group referred to as the Zambo Miskito. Some Miskito consider themselves to be purely indigenous, denying this Black African heritage. They do not, however, identify as such but rather as mestizo. The Black Creoles of the Bay Islands are today distinguished as an ethnic group for their racial difference from the mestizos and blacks, and their cultural difference as English-speaking Protestants.There has been practically no ethnographic research conducted with this population.
All these circumstances led to a denial by many Hondurans of their Black African heritage which reflects in the census even to this day. "Blacks were more problematic as national symbols because at the time they were neither seen to represent modernity nor autochthony, and their history of dislocation from Africa means they have no great pre-Columbian civilization in the Americas to call upon as symbols of a glorious past. Thus Latin American states often end up with a primarily "Indo-Hispanic" mestizaje where the Indian is privileged as the roots of the nation and blackness is either minimized or completely erased."
About 9% of Nicaragua's population is African and mainly reside on the country's sparsely populated Caribbean coast. Afro-Nicaraguans are found on the autonomous regions of RAAN and RAAS. The African population is mostly of West Indian (Antillean) origin, the descendants of indentured laborers brought mostly from Jamaica and other Caribbean Islands when the region was a British protectorate. There is also a smaller number of Garífuna, a people of mixed Carib, Angolan, Congolese and Arawak descent. The Garífuna live along in Orinoco, La Fe and Marshall Point, communities settled at Laguna de Perlas. Nicaragua has the largest population of blacks in Central America.
From these regions come artists, writers and poets such as June Beer, Carlos Rigby, David McField (current Nicaraguan ambassador in Jamaica), Clifford Glenn Hodgson Dumbar, Andira Watson and John Oliver, and diplomants and politicians like Francisco Campbell (current ambassador in the USA) and Lumberto Campbell. Among the musicians are Caribbean All Stars, Atma Terapia Arjuna Das, Osberto Jerez y Los Gregorys, Caribbean Taste, Spencer Hodgson, Philip Montalbán, Grupo Gamma, Anthony Matthews and Dimension Costeña, Charles Wiltshire (also known as "Carlos de Nicaragua", who played with Mano Negra in its 1994 record Casa Babylon) and dancer Gloria Bacon. Miss Lizzie Nelson is a cultural promoter, Altha Hooker is the dean of the Universidad de las Regiones Autónomas de la Costa Caribe, Neyda Dixon is a well known journalist and Scharllette Allen was elected as Miss Nicaragua in 2010.
Blacks in Panama are the descendants of West African slaves but later on blacks from the Caribbean islands arrived. The Afro Colonials are the group of Hispanics, while the Antillanos are those of West Indian descent.
According to a 2001 national census which surveyed 11.2 million Cubans, 1.1 million Cubans described themselves as Black, while 5.8 million considered themselves to be "mulatto" or "mestizo" or "javao" or "moro". Many Cubans still locate their origins in specific African ethnic groups or regions, particularly Yoruba, Igbo and Congo, but also Arará, Carabalí, Mandingo, Fula and others, as well as a small minority of people that migrated in from surrounding Caribbean countries like Haiti and Jamaica.
An autosomal study from 2014 has found out the genetic ancestry in Cuba to be 72% European, 20% African and 8% Native American.
Among the most famous Afro-Cubanos are: writers Nicolás Guillén, Gastón Baquero, Nancy Morejón, Alberto Guerra Naranjo and; salsa legend Celia Cruz; Compay Segundo, Rubén González, Orlando "Cachaito" López, Omara Portuondo and Ibrahim Ferrer of the Buena Vista Social Club; jazz musicians including Mario Bauzá, Mongo Santamaría, Chucho Valdés, Gonzalo Rubalcaba, Alfredo Terry, Anga Díaz, Orlando Valle "Maraca", Jorge Varona and Jorge Alfonso "el Niño"; songwriters like Carlos Alfonso, X Alfonso, Pablo Milanés and Gerardo Alfonso; other musicians such as Bebo Valdés, Israel "Cachao" López, Orestes López, Richard Egües, Dámaso Pérez Prado, Rolando Laserie, Miguelito Cuni, Christina Milian and Tata Güines; and politicians Juan Almeida and Esteban Lazo.
According to the recent sources, 11% of the Dominican population is black, 16% is white and 73% is Mixed from white European and black African & Native American ancestry. Other sources give similar figures, but also without naming a specific study.
Some Afrocentric commentators and race/ethnicity scholars have been harshly critical of Dominicans of mixed racial background for their reluctance to self-identify as "Black". However, this reluctance is shared by many people of multiracial background, who find inappropriate to identify with only one side of their ancestry. Those people refuse to express a preference for any of the races that make up their background, and resent being ascribed to any single race.
Dominican culture is a mixture of Taino Amerindian, Spanish European, and West African origins. While Taino influences are present in many Dominican traditions, the European and West African influences are the most noticeable.
Afro-Dominicans can be found all over the island, but they makeup the vast majorities in the southwest, south, east, and the north parts of the country. In El Cibao you can find people of either European, Mixed, and African descent.
Notable Dominicans whose physical features suggest full or predominant Black African ancestry include bachata singer Antony Santos, baseballer Sammy Sosa and salsa singer Jose Alberto, and basketballer Al Horford, among others. However, there is no reliable procedure to ascertain the degree, if any, to which their ancestry is Black African.
A system of racial stratification was imposed on Santo Domingo by Spain, as elsewhere in the Spanish Empire.
Note: Haiti is the first Latin American country to gain independence.
The population of Haiti is 9.9 million, of which 80% are of African descent while 15-20% is mulatto and white. Slavery in Haiti was established by the Spanish and French colonialists. Many Haitians are descendants of Taino or Caribs who cohabited with the African descendant population.
Haiti is an Afro-Latin nation with strong African contributions to the culture as well as its language, music and religion with a fusion of French and Taino, with a sizeable degree of Spaniard; all relating but not limited to its food, art, music, folk religion and other customs. Arab customs are also present in their society today.
Note: Popular definitions of Latin America do not include Guadeloupe
The population of Guadeloupe, an overseas region of France, is 405,739 (1 January 2013 est.); 80% of the population has African and African-white-Indian mixture which emphasizes its diversity. Their West African ancestors were imported from the Bight of Biafra, West Central Africa and the Guinean Coast for sugar cane plantation labor during the 17th and 18th centuries.
Antillean Creole - which is a French-based creole, is widely local language spoken among the natives of the island and even the immigrants who have been living on the island for a couple of years. French - the official language, is still the most common language used and heard on the island. Used during more intimate/friendly conversations, Guadeloupean people switch to French - which is their first and native language, when in public.
According to the 2010 U.S. Census taken in Puerto Rico, 75.8% of Puerto Ricans identified as being white, 12.4% of the population as being black or African American and 11.1% as mixed or of another ethnicity. An island-wide mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) study conducted by the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez revealed that 61% of Puerto Ricans have maternal Native American ancestry, 26.4% have maternal West or Central African ancestry, and 12.6% have maternal European ancestry. On the other hand, the Y chromosome evidence showed Puerto Ricans' patrilineage to be approximately 75% European, 20% African, and less than 5% indigenous[not in citation given].
An interesting anecdote to consider was that during this whole period, Puerto Rico had laws like the Regla del Sacar or Gracias al Sacar where a person of African ancestry could be considered legally white so long as they could prove that at least one person per generation in the last four generations had also been legally white descent. Therefore, people of African ancestry with known European lineage were classified as "whites", the opposite of the "one-drop rule" in the United States.[page needed]
These critics maintain that a majority of Puerto Ricans are ethnically mixed, but do not feel the need to identify as such. They argue, furthermore, that Puerto Ricans tend to assume that they are of African, Native American, and European ancestry and only identify themselves as "mixed" if parents visibly "appear" to be of some other ethnicity. It should also be noted that Puerto Rico underwent a "whitening" process while under U.S. rule. The census-takers at the turn of the 20th Century recorded a huge disparity in the number of "black" and "white" Puerto Ricans (both, erroneous skin classifications) between the 1910 and 1920 censuses. The term "black" suddenly began to disappear from one census to another (within 10 years' time), possibly due to redefinition. It also appears that the "black" element within the culture was simply disappearing possibly due to the popular idea that in the U.S. one could only advance economically and socially if one were to pass for "white".
Misinformation of ethnic populations within Puerto Rico also existed under Spanish rule, when the Native American (Taino) populations were recorded as being "extinct". Biological science has now rewritten their history books. These tribes were not voluntary travelers, but have since blended into the mainstream Puerto Rican population (as all the others have been) with Taino ancestry being the common thread that binds.
Many persons of African descent in Puerto Rico are found along coastal areas, areas traditionally associated with sugar cane plantations, especially in the towns Loiza, Carolina, Fajardo, and Guayama. Although, due to the DNA evidence that is being presented by UPR at Mayaguez, many African bloodlines have been recorded in the central mountains of the island, though not written in the Spanish history books of the time. Consequently, Taino bloodlines have begun appearing in the coastal towns. All this suggesting that escaped enslaved Africans ran off to the mountains to escape the slaveowners, while some Tainos remained close to their main staple food, fish.
The Puerto Rican musical genres of bomba and plena are of West African and Caribbean origin, respectively; they are danced to during parties and West African-derived festivals. Most Puerto Ricans who have African ancestry are descendants of enslaved Congo, Yoruba, Igbo and Fon from West and Central Africa. After the abolition of slavery in 1873 and the Spanish–American War of 1898, a number of African Americans have also migrated and settled in Puerto Rico.
Three of the most famous Afro-Latin Americans are Puerto Rican Boxer Felix "Tito" Trinidad, Hall of Fame baseball player Roberto Clemente and Bernie Williams, New York Yankees outfielder and jazz guitarist.
Many Afro-Latino immigrants have arrived, in waves, over decades, to the United States, especially from the Caribbean, Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic & Puerto Rico. Central America and to a lesser extent from Mexico too. In the state of California, the dominant population consisted of people of color but as the years progressed the percentage has declined severely or at least the way Califonian residents claim to identify themselves has shifted towards a White population.
The vast majority of contemporary Afro-Mexicans inhabit the southern region of Mexico; those that migrated north in the colonial period assimilated into the general population, making their existence in the country less evident than other groups. Some Afro-Mexican facts:
- Mexico's second President, Vicente Guerrero, an Afro-Mexican, issued a decree abolishing slavery and emancipating all slaves in 1829, during his short term as president.
- Race was considered for the first time by the Encuesto Intercensal in 2015, which revealed that 1.2% of Mexicans identify as Afro-Mexican. Over half of these individuals also identified as indigenous.
- Gaspar Yanga founded the first free African township in the Americas in 1609.
- A Black man named Esteban el Negro (Steven the Black), a North African Moor from Spain, searched for the fabled city of Cíbola with Cabeza de Vaca.
- Veracruz, Campeche, Pánuco and Acapulco were the main ports for the entrance of African slaves.
- In the past, offspring of Black African/Amerindian mixtures were called jarocho (wild pig), chino or lobo (wolf). Today jarocho refers to all inhabitants of the state of Veracruz, without regard to ancestry.
Afro-Latino populations in the Americas
|Region / Country||Country population||Afro-descendants||population*|
|Dominican Republic||9,650,054||80% ||1,029,535|
|Puerto Rico||3,725,789(2010 Census Numbers)||12% ||461,998|
|Guatemala||13,550,440 (July 2010 est.)||1% ||110,000|
|El Salvador||6,052,064 (July 2010 est.)||N/A||N/A|
|Nicaragua||5,995,928 (July 2010 est.)||8.0% ||477,000|
|Costa Rica||4,516,220 (July 2010 est.)||8.0%||179,877|
|Panama||3,410,676 (July 2010 est.)||14.0% ||477,494|
|Colombia||46,736,728 (July 2015 est.)||10.62% ||4,311,757|
|Brazil||198,739,269||7% Black plus 20% Mulatto Pardo||14,517,961|
|Ecuador||14,790,608 (July 2010 est.)||7.2% ||1,041,559|
|Peru||29,907,003 (July 2010 est.)||4.0% ||1,200,000|
|Paraguay||6,375,830 (July 2010 est.)||N/A||N/A|
|United States||299,398,485||0.4% ||1,243,471|
* Note - Population includes those who self identify as black on census documents while Afro-descendants indicates having African ancestry regardless of how one identifies.
Notable Afro-Latin people
- José María Morelos - Mexican Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel leader in the Mexican War of Independence
- Vicente Guerrero - Leading revolutionary general of the Mexican War of Independence who later served as President of Mexico
- Saint Martin de Porres, O.P. - Lay brother of the Dominican Order beatified and later canonized
- Lt. General José Antonio de la Caridad Maceo y Grajales - Second-in-command of the Cuban Army of Independence
- Anténor Firmin - Haitian anthropologist, journalist, and politician
- Juan Gualberto Gómez - Afro-Cuban revolutionary leader in the Cuban War of Independence against Spain
- Nilo Peçanha - Brazilian politician, Governor of Rio de Janeiro State, then Vice-President of Brazil
- Machado de Assis - Brazilian novelist, poet, playwright and short story writer
- Pedro Campos - Puerto Rican attorney, politician, and leading figure in the Puerto Rican independence movement
- Wifredo Lam - Cuban artist who sought to portray and revive the Afro-Cuban spirit and culture
- Chavela Vargas - Costa Rican-born Mexican singer
- Hanna Gabriel - Costa Rican junior middleweight boxer with several international victories
- Celia Cruz - Cuban singer of Latin music
- Margareth Menezes - Brazilian singer from Salvador, Bahia
- Susana Baca - Peruvian singer-songwriter, teacher, folklorist, ethnomusicologist and Latin Grammy Award winner
- Pelé - Brazilian professional footballer who played as a forward
- Oscar D'Leon - Venezuelan musician of salsa music
- Raúl Cuero - Colombian professor of microbiology
- Maria Bethânia - Brazilian MPB singer
- Rubén Rada - Afro-Uruguayan percussionist, composer and singer
- Kalimba Marichal - Mexican singer/songwriter.
- Julio Teherán - MLB player.
- David Ortiz - Former MLB player for the Boston Red Sox and the Minnesota Twins
- Dascha Polanco - Dominican actress
- Selenis Leyva - Cuban-American actress
- "Censo Demográfico 2010: Características da população e dos domicílios" [Census 2010: Population characteristics and households] (PDF). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (in Portuguese). 2010. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "La visibilización estadística de los grupos étnicos colombianos" [The statistical visibility of Colombian ethnic groups] (PDF). The National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) (in Spanish). 2005. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Principales resultados de la Encuesta Intercensal 2015 Estados Unidos Mexicanos" (PDF). INEGI. p. 77. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- "Resultado Básico del XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2011" (PDF). Ine.gov.ve. May 2014. p. 29. Retrieved 8 September 2014.
- "Historia de la República Dominicana". google.ro.
- "What is the Afro presence in Nicaragua today?". Creador Pictures. 2009. Archived from the original on 12 October 2011.
- "Raíces afro Uruguayas" [Afro-Uruguayan roots]. Creador Pictures (in Spanish). 2009. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013.
- "Honduras". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
- "As in most of the smaller Latino nations Chile shares a similar story with countries like Peru and Mexico. Are there Afro-Latinos in Chile?". Creador Pictures. 2009. Archived from the original on 27 January 2010.
- "¿Cuál es la influencia africana en la cultura, música, religión y tradiciones Costarricenses?" [What is the African influence on culture, music, religion and Costa Rican traditions?]. Creador Pictures (in Spanish). 2009. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014.
- "Si bien la población más grande de garífunas se encuentra en Honduras, también hay presencia garífuna en Guatemala" [While the largest Garifuna population is in Honduras, there are also Garifuna present in Guatemala]. Creador Pictures (in Spanish). 2009. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014.
- "¿Son los afrobolivianos incluidos en los censos nacionales? El equipo de ‘Afro-Latinos’ investigará porqué en 2001 la población negra de Bolivia no fue tenida en cuenta como parte de la población nacional. ¿Cuáles son las condiciones de vida de los afrobolivianos? ¿Es visible la comunidad afroboliviana? ¿Tiene voz?" [Are Afro-Bolivians included in the national census? The 'Afro-Latinos' team investigate why in 2001 the black population of Bolivia was not taken into account as part of the national population. What are the living conditions of Afro-Bolivians? Are the Afro-Bolivian community visible? Do they have a voice?]. Creador Pictures (in Spanish). 2009. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014.
- "6. Names and Labels: Social, Racial, and Ethnic Terms § 36. Hispanic". bartleby.com. The American Heritage Book of English Usage. 1996. Archived from the original on 31 July 2008.
- "6. Names and Labels Social, Racial, and Ethnic Terms". bartleby.com. The American Heritage Book of English Usage. 1996. Archived from the original on 25 June 2008.
- "6. Names and Labels: Social, Racial, and Ethnic Terms: § 2. African American / Afro-American". bartleby.com. The American Heritage Book of English Usage. 1996. Archived from the original on 21 April 2008.
- "Edicion acerca de la cultura afrocubana, sobre las raíces de Africa en Cuba". Afrocuba.org. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Loveman, Mara; Muniz, Jeronimo O.; Bailey, Stanley R. (2011). "Brazil in black and white? Race categories, the census, and the study of inequality" (PDF). Ethnic and Racial Studies. 35 (8): 1466–1483. doi:10.1080/01419870.2011.607503. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2014.
- The Afro-Latino:A Historical Journey. Books.google.com. p. 31. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "CRS Report for Congress: Afro-Latinos in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy" (PDF). Fas.org. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- Henry Louis Gates Jr., Nellie Y. McKay (1997). The Norton Anthology African American Literature. 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10110: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. p. 2665. ISBN 0-8133-0071-1.
- "Introductory Maps". Slavevoyages.org. Archived from the original on 2011-10-06. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Gates, Henry Louis. Black in Latin America. New York: New York UP, 2011. Page 2
- Roark, James L. The American Promise, Volume I: To 1877: A History of the United States. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martins, 2012. Print. page 136
- Klein, Herbert S. African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean. New York: Oxford UP, 1986. Print.
- "Mexico Officially Recognizes 1.38 Million Afro-Mexicans in the National Census, as Black People Fight Against Racism and Invisibility Throughout Latin America". Atlanta Black Star. Retrieved 2016-10-18.
- "Venezuela - ETHNIC GROUPS". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Hugo Chavez - Venezuela - Profile of Hugo Chavez". Worldnews.about.com. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Quinonez, Ernesto (19 June 2003). "Y Tu Black Mama Tambien". Retrieved 2 May 2008.
- "Forum :: Blonde, Blue-Eyed, Euro-Cute Latinos on Spanish TV". LatinoLA. 24 October 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Latinos not reflected on Spanish TV". Vida de Oro. 25 October 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "What are Telenovelas? - Hispanic Culture". Bellaonline.com. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Racial Bias Charged On Spanish-language Tv - tribunedigital-sunsentinel". Articles.sun-sentinel.com. 6 August 2000. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Charles Victor Bell Critiques Blackelectorate.com". Blackelectorate.com. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Pride or prejudice? - The Boston Globe". Boston.com. 19 August 2004. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Film Description | Corpus | POV". PBS. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Cuadro P42. Total del país. Población afrodescendiente en viviendas particulares por sexo, según grupo de edad. Año 2010". Censo2010.indec.gov.ar. Archived from the original (XLS) on 2011-09-02. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Cuadro P42. Total del país. Población afrodescendiente en viviendas particulares por sexo, según grupo de edad. Año 2010". Censo2010.indec.gov.ar. Archived from the original (XLS) on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Cuadro P42. Total del país. Población afrodescendiente en viviendas particulares por sexo, según grupo de edad. Año 2010". Censo2010.indec.gov.ar. Archived from the original (XLS) on 2014-04-18. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "População residente, por cor ou raça, segundo a situação do domicílio e o sexo - Brasil - 2009" (PDF). Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- O'Rourke, Dennis; Saloum de Neves Manta, Fernanda; Pereira, Rui; Vianna, Romulo; Rodolfo Beuttenmüller de Araújo, Alfredo; Leite Góes Gitaí, Daniel; Aparecida da Silva, Dayse; de Vargas Wolfgramm, Eldamária; da Mota Pontes, Isabel; Ivan Aguiar, José; Ozório Moraes, Milton; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; Gusmão, Leonor (2013). "Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels" (PDF). PLoS ONE. 8 (9): e75145. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC . PMID 24073242. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075145.
- Pena, SD; Di Pietro, G; Fuchshuber-Moraes, M; et al. (16 February 2011). "The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil Is More Uniform Than Expected". PLoS ONE. 6: e17063. PMC . PMID 21359226. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017063. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Pena, SD; Di Pietro, G; Fuchshuber-Moraes, M; et al. (2011). "PLOS ONE". plosone.org. 6: e17063. PMC . PMID 21359226. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017063.
- "Men's Fitness". Amigodoador.com.br. Archived from the original on 2011-10-28. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Nossa herança europeia — Ciência Hoje" (in Portuguese). Cienciahoje.uol.com.br. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels" (PDF). Plosone.org. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- Lins, TC; Vieira, RG; Abreu, BS; Grattapaglia, D; Pereira, RW (20 April 2015). "Genetic composition of Brazilian population samples based on a set of twenty-eight ancestry informative SNPs.". Am. J. Hum. Biol. 22: 187–92. PMID 19639555. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20976.
- Lins, TC; Vieira, RG; Abreu, BS; Grattapaglia, D; Pereira, RW (28 July 2009). "Genetic composition of Brazilian population samples based on a set of twenty-eight ancestry informative SNPs". Am. J. Hum. Biol. 22: 187–92. PMID 19639555. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20976. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- de Assis Poiares L; et al. (Feb 2010). "Allele frequencies of 15 STRs in a representative sample of the Brazilian population.". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 4: e61–3. PMID 20129458. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.05.006.
- de Assis Poiares, Lilian; de Sá Osorio, Paulo; Spanhol, Fábio Alexandre; Coltre, Sidnei César; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Gusmão, Leonor; Largura, Alvaro; Sandrini, Fabiano; da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles (2010). "Allele frequencies of 15 STRs in a representative sample of the Brazilian population" (PDF). Forensic Science International: Genetics. 4 (2): e61–e63. ISSN 1872-4973. PMID 20129458. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.05.006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2011: Samples from 12,886 individuals representative of the mixed ethnicity present in Brazil were analysed. By region, 8.26% of the individuals included were from the North region, 23.86% from the Northeast, 4.79% from the Central West, 10.32% from the Southeast and 52.77% from the South.
- Moura, RR; Coelho, AV; Balbino Vde, Q; Crovella, S; Brandão, LA (26 March 2015). "Meta-analysis of Brazilian genetic admixture and comparison with other Latin America countries". American Journal of Human Biology. 27: 674–680. PMID 25820814. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22714. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- the impact of migrations in the constitution of Latin American populations
- "Genomic ancestry of a sample population from the state of São Paulo, Brazil". American Journal of Human Biology. 18: 702–705. 17 August 2006. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20474. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Saloum; de Neves Manta, F; Pereira, R; Vianna, R; Rodolfo; de Araújo, A; Leite Góes, Gitaí D; Aparecida; da Silva, D; de Vargas Wolfgramm, E; da Mota Pontes, I; Ivan Aguiar, J; Ozório Moraes, M; Fagundes; de Carvalho, E; Gusmão, L (20 September 2013). "Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels". PLoS ONE. 8: e75145. PMC . PMID 24073242. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075145. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Fuentes, M; Pulgar, I; Gallo, C; Bortolini, MC; Canizales-Quinteros, S; Bedoya, G; González-José, R; Ruiz-Linares, A; Rothhammer, F (Mar 2014). "[Gene geography of Chile: regional distribution of American, European and African genetic contributions].". Rev Med Chil. 142 (3): 281–9. PMID 25052264. doi:10.4067/S0034-98872014000300001.
- "Geografía génica de Chile. Distribución regional de los aportes genéticos americanos, europeos y africanos" (PDF). Rev Med Chile. Scielo.cl: 281/9. 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Genetic structure characterization of Chileans reflects historical immigration patterns : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group". Nature.com. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Visibilidad Estadistica Etnicos" (PDF). Censo General 2005. Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (DANE). Retrieved 20 January 2014.
- "The Cultural Space". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 26 October 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
- "A Language, Not Quite Spanish, With African Echoes". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "The World Factbook - Ecuador". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
- "Coastal Folklore". Nicomedes Santa Cruz. 4 June 1975. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Bonilla, C; Bertoni, B; González, S; Cardoso, H; Brum-Zorrilla, N; Sans, M. "Substantial native American female contribution to the population of Tacuarembó, Uruguay, reveals past episodes of sex-biased gene flow". American Journal of Human Biology. 16: 289–297. PMID 15101054. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20025. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Resultados Básicos: Censo 2011" [Basic results: Census 2011] (PDF) (in Spanish). National Statistics Institute of Venezuela. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- Gates, Henry Louis (1999). Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience.
- Okeowo, Alexis (28 July 2009). "Afro-Hondurans and the Coup". Alexisokeowo.wordpress.com. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Helms, Mary (1977). Negro or Indian?.
- Lang, Julio (1951). Espectro Racial de Honduras.
- Knight, Alan (1990). The Idea of Race in Latin America.
- Wade, Peter (1993). Blackness and Race Mixture.
- "Tabla II.3 Población por color de la piel y grupos de edades, según zona de residencia y sexo". www.cubagob.cu. Gobierno de la República de Cuba. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Marcheco-Teruel, B; Parra, EJ; Fuentes-Smith, E; Salas, A; Buttenschøn, HN; Demontis, D; Torres-Español, M; Marín-Padrón, LC; Gómez-Cabezas, EJ; Alvarez-Iglesias, V; Mosquera-Miguel, A; Martínez-Fuentes, A; Carracedo, A; Børglum, AD; Mors, O (24 July 2014). "Cuba: Exploring the History of Admixture and the Genetic Basis of Pigmentation Using Autosomal and Uniparental Markers". PLOS Genetics. 10: e1004488. PMC . PMID 25058410. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004488. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- Fuente: Encuesta Latin American Public Opinion Project, LAPOP,"La variable étnico racial en los censos de población en la República Dominicana" (in Spanish). Oficina Nacional de Estadística. Archived from the original on 2012-11-01.
- "Dominican Republic". The World Factbook. The US Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
- Torres-Saillant, Silvio (May 1998). "The Tribulations of Blackness: Stages in Dominican Racial Identity". Latin American Perspectives. Sage Publications, Inc. 25 (3): 126–46. JSTOR 2634170. doi:10.1177/0094582x9802500307.
- Robles, Frances (13 June 2007). "Black denial". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
- Graham, Susan (13 February 2011). "'Check One' Didn't Work". New York Times. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
- "Project RACE (Reclassify All Children Equally)". Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
- "Haiti: People". CIA World Factbook. Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 11 March 2008. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- Caribbean insight. Books.google.com. 21 July 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Population of Martinique", WestCaraibes.com, June 2010, archived from the original on 29 April 2010, retrieved 18 April 2010
- "Martinique Heritage Trail" (PDF), Martinique.org, June 2010, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-27, retrieved 18 April 2010
- "CIA – The World Factbook – Puerto Rico". Cia.gov. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Juan C. Martínez Cruzado (2002). "The Use of Mitochondrial DNA to Discover Pre-Columbian Migrations to the Caribbean: Results for Puerto Rico and Expectations for the Dominican Republic" (PDF). Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology. ISSN 1562-5028. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2004-06-22.
- Kinsbruner, Jay (1996). Not of Pure Blood: The Free People of Color and Racial Prejudice in Nineteenth-century Puerto Rico. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-1842-3.
- "How Puerto Rico Became White: An Analysis of Racial Statistics in the 1910 and 1920 Censuses" (PDF). Ssc.wisc.edu. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Información general: Haití" [General information: Haiti]. Spanish.state.gov (in Spanish). April 2002. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- Chandrai Estévez (January 2013). "Informe Alternativo - En relacion a la convencion internacional sobre la eliminacion de todas las formas de discriminacion racial - Afro Alianza Dominicana - "Desarrollo desde la Identidad"" [Alternative Report - In relation to the International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination - Afro Dominican Alliance - "Development of Identity"] (PDF). 82nd Session of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 March 2016.
- "Población en Cuba por color de la piel - Momentos significativos" [Population of Cuba by Skin Colour - Significant Moments] (PDF). National Statistical Office, Republic of Cuba (in Spanish). 2003. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
- "Censo del 2010: Perfil de Puerto Rico" [Census 2010: Profile of Puerto Rico] (PDF). US Census Bureau (in Spanish). 2010. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Si bien la población más grande de garífunas se encuentra en Honduras, también hay presencia garífuna en Guatemala." [While the largest Garifuna population is in Honduras, there are also Garifuna present in Guatemala.]. Creador Pictures (in Spanish). 2011. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014.
- "CIA World Factbook – El Salvador". Cia.gov. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- No black population listed
- "CIA World Factbook – Honduras". Cia.gov. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "What is the Afro presence in Nicaragua today?". Creador Pictures. 2011. Archived from the original on 12 October 2011.
- "CIA World Factbook – Costa Rica". Cia.gov. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "CIA World Factbook – Panama". Cia.gov. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Cultura y Etnias" [Culture and Ethnic Groups]. Embassy of the Republic of Panama to the Kingdom of Spain (in Spanish). 2009. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "CIA World Factbook – Columbia". Cia.gov. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
- "El 10,62% de la población del país es afrocolombiana, dice el Dane" [10.62% of the population is Afro-Colombian, says DANE] (in Spanish). Elpais.com.co. 21 May 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Tabela 1.3.1 - População residente, por cor ou raça, segundo o sexo e os Sexo e grupos de idade - Brasil - 2010" (PDF). Ibge.gov.br. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "CIA World Factbook – Ecuador". Cia.gov. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Censo revela aumento de población afro e indígena" [Census reveals an increase in Afro and indigenous population] (in Spanish). El Universo. 12 October 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "CIA World Factbook – Peru". Cia.gov. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- Dopf, Erwin. "Composición étnica y fenotipos en el Perú" [Ethnic composition and phenotypes in Peru] (in Spanish). Espejodelperu.com.pe. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Afrolatinos "The Untaught Story" – Bolivia". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 27 January 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "¿Afrodescendientes en Bolivia?" [Bolivians of African Descent?]. Otramérica. 5 January 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Afrolatinos "The Untaught Story" – Chile". Archived from the original on 27 January 2010.
- Vera, Teresa (23 November 2013). "Descifran ADN chileno: 4% africano, 44% indígena y 52% europeo" [Chilean DNA deciphered: 4% African, 44% indigenous, and 52% European] (PDF) (in Spanish). Candela project. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "CIA World Factbook – Paraguay". Cia.gov. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Afrolatinos "The Untaught Story" – Argentina". Archived from the original on 29 February 2012.
- Tuchin, Florencia (28 March 2015). "Los afro- argentinos y el racismo que perdura" [Afro-Argentines and racism which endures] (in Spanish). Perfil.com. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "CIA World Factbook – Uruguay". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 27 January 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- Comunidad (12 November 2011). "En Uruguay, la mayoría de los 140 mil pobres afrodescendientes son niños y jóvenes" [In Uruguay, the majority of the 140,000 poor of African descent are children and youth] (in Spanish). Lr21.com.uy. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Hispanic or Latino Origin by Race". 2006 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. 2006. Archived from the original on 2009-07-15. Retrieved 29 July 2008.
||This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (November 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
- Joshua Project – Afro-American, Hispanic
- Oro Negro (Afrodescendants Foundation in Chile)
- Virginia Rioseco, "Oro Negro Foundation: Afro descendants organize themselves," Nuestro.cl (Chilean Cultural Heritage Site).
- Black Latin America
- Afro Mexico or Bobby Vaughn's The Black Mexico website
- Latin American Network Information Center's (LANIC) African Diaspora webpage with links to various websites (LANIC is affiliated with the University of Texas at Austin)
- Cowater International Inc of Ottawa's preliminary report (1996) for the Inter-American Development Bank entitled: "Poverty Alleviation Program for Minority Communities in Latin America—Communities of African Ancestry in Latin America: History, Population, Contributions, & Social Attitudes (Social and Economic Conditions with Partial Bibliography)". This report is 188 pages long and contains history of Spain and Latin America, the African contributions to Latin America and (pp. 46–61 in Acrobat; or pp. 31–46 in the document) is entitled "Analysis of Social Attitudes Towards Afro-Latin Americans".
- Clare Ribando, CRS Report for Congress: Afro-Latinos in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy, Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress (4 January 2005).
- The Inter-Agency Consultation on Race in Latin America (IAC) (archived from the original on 2007-05-07)
- English version of Judith Morrison's Presentation to the Inter-American Dialogue's Working Group session (held on 23 September 2005) in Microsoft Word format. (archived from the original on 2008-06-25) Morrison is the Executive Director or the Inter-Agency Consultation on Race in Latin America.
- Judith Morrison, "The High Cost of Discrimination in Latin America" (2005).
- Jere R. Behrman, Alejandro Gaviria, & Miguel Székely's "Social Exclusion in Latin America: Introduction and Overview" report for the Inter-American Development Bank.
- David de Ferranti's (former Regional Vice President of the World Bank, Latin America & the Caribbean) remarks of 18 June 2002 to the Annual Meeting of the Inter-Agency Consultation on Race in Latin America: "Advancing Public Policy for Afro-Descendents in Latin America: Social and Economic Development, Legal Issues and Human Rights"
- Josefina Stubbs, "Afro-descendants in Latin America: Poverty, Inequality and Discrimination".
- Tanya K. Hernández' (Professor of Law & Justice, Frederick Hall Scholar, Rutgers University School of Law) speech given 28 November 2005, Washington, DC: "Discrimination and Education in Latin-America" The speech was given at the Special Meeting to Examine and Discuss the Nature of a Future Inter-American Convention Against Racism and All Forms of Discrimination and Intolerance.
- The multiple author publication "Race and Poverty: Interagency Consultation on Afro–Latin Americans (LCR Sustainable Development Working Paper No. 9)" published November 2000 by the Inter-American Dialogue, Inter-American Development Bank, and the World Bank of their roundtable's proceedings held 19 June 2000 in Washington, D.C. (archived from the original on 2007-08-09).
- Peggy A. Lovell, "Gender, Race, and the Struggle for Social Justice in Brazil," Latin American Perspectives (November 2000), pages 85–103.
- Maria do Carmo Leal, Silvana Granado Nogueira da Gama and Cynthia Braga da Cunha, "Racial, sociodemographic, and prenatal and childbirth care inequalities in Brazil, 1999–2001," Revista de Saúde Pública, vol. 39, no. 1 (São Paulo, February 2005).
- "Palenque San Basilio, Bolivar, Maroon Community in Colombia" (CNN video of Afro-Colombian community).
- The World Bank's Sector Report "The Gap Matters: poverty and well-being of Afro-Colombians and indigenous peoples" Click here for the report
- Law 70 of Colombia (1993): In Recognition of the Right of Black Colombians to Collectively Own and Occupy their Ancestral Lands. English Translation (April 2007)