A view from the Cumhuriyet Square and Utku Monument in Afyonkarahisar
|• Mayor||Burhanettin Çoban (AKP)|
|• Governor||İrfan Balkanlıoğlu|
|• District||1,025.14 km2 (395.81 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,021 m (3,350 ft)|
|• District density||260/km2 (670/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
Afyonkarahisar (Turkish pronunciation: [afjonkaɾahiˈsaɾ], Turkish: afyon "poppy, opium", kara "black", hisar "fortress") is a city in western Turkey, the capital of Afyon Province. Afyon is in mountainous countryside inland from the Aegean coast, 250 km (155 mi) south-west of Ankara along the Akarçay River. Elevation 1,021 m (3,350 ft). Population (2010 census) 173,100 
The name Afyon Kara Hisar (literally opium black castle in Turkish), since opium was widely grown here and there is a castle on a black rock. Also known simply as Afyon. Older spellings include Karahisar-i Sahip, Afium-Kara-hissar and Afyon Karahisar. The city was known as Afyon (opium), until the name was changed to Afyonkarahisar by the Turkish Parliament in 2004.
The top of the rock in Afyon has been fortified for a long time. It was known to the Hittites as Hapanuwa, and was later occupied by Phrygians, Lydians and Achaemenid Persians until it was conquered by Alexander the Great. After the death of Alexander the city (now known as Akroinοn (Ακροϊνόν) or Nikopolis (Νικόπολις) in Ancient Greek), was ruled by the Seleucids and the kings of Pergamon, then Rome and Byzantium. The Byzantine emperor Leo III after his victory over Arab besiegers in 740 renamed the city Nicopolis (Greek for "city of victory"). The Seljuq Turks then arrived in 1071 and changed its name to Kara Hissar ("black castle") after the ancient fortress situated upon a volcanic rock 201 meters above the town. Following the dispersal of the Seljuqs the town was occupied by the Sâhib Ata and then the Germiyanids.
The castle was much fought over during the Crusades and was finally conquered by the Ottoman Sultan Beyazid I in 1392 but was lost after the invasion of Timur Lenk in 1402. It was recaptured in 1428 or 1429.
The area thrived during the Ottoman Empire, as the centre of opium production and Afyon became a wealthy city with the typical Ottoman urban mixture of Turks and Armenians. During the 1st World War British prisoners of war who had been captured at Gallipoli were housed here in an empty Armenian church at the foot of the rock. During the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922) campaign (part of the Turkish War of Independence) Afyon and the surrounding hills were occupied by French, Italian and then Greek forces. However, it was recovered on 27 August 1922, a key moment in the Turkish counter-attack in the Aegean region. After 1923 Afyon became a part of the Republic of Turkey.
The region was a major producer of raw opium (hence the name Afyon) until the late 1960s when under international pressure, from the USA in particular, the fields were burnt and production ceased. Now poppies are grown under a strict licensing regime. They do not produce raw opium any more but derive Morphine and other opiates using the poppy straw method of extraction.
Afyonkarahisar has a hot and dry summer continental climate (Dsa) under the Köppen classification and a hot summer continental (Dca) or hot summer oceanic climate (Doa) under the Trewartha classification. The winters are cold and snowy winters and the summers are hot and dry with cool nights. Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn.
|Climate data for Afyonkarahisar (1950 - 2014)|
|Record high °C (°F)||17.4
|Average high °C (°F)||4.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||0.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−3.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−27.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||42.2
|Average precipitation days||12.6||11.9||12.5||11.9||12.1||7.5||3.9||3.1||4.3||7.6||8.8||12.6||108.8|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||3.0||4.1||5.1||6.3||8.2||10.1||11.2||10.6||8.5||6.3||4.5||2.5||6.7|
|Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service|
Afyon is the centre of an agricultural area and the city has a country town feel to it. There is little in the way of bars, cafes, live music or other cultural amenities, and the standards of education are low for a city in the west of Turkey. However Afyon Kocatepe University opened in the 1990s and this must surely lead to improvements eventually. Nowadays Afyon is known for its marble (in 2005 there were 355 marble quarries in the province of Afyon producing high quality white stone), its sucuk (spiced sausages), its kaymak (meaning either cream or a white Turkish Delight) and various handmade weavings. There is also a large cement factory.
This is a natural crossroads, the routes from Ankara to İzmir and from Istanbul to Antalya intersect here and Afyon is a popular stopping-place on these journeys. There are a number of well-established roadside restaurants for travellers to breakfast on the local cuisine. Some of these places are modern well-equipped hotels and spas; the mineral waters of Afyon are renowned for their healing qualities. There is also a long string of roadside kiosks selling the local Turkish delight.
Afyon is also an important rail junction between İzmir, Konya, Ankara and Istanbul. Afyon is on the route of the planned high-speed rail line between Ankara and Izmir.
- local cream kaymak eaten with honey, with a bread pudding ekmek kadayıf, or with pumpkin simmered in syrup. Best eaten at the famous Ikbal restaurants (either the old one in the town centre or the big place on the main road).
- Turkish delight.
- helva - sweetened ground sesame
- Afyonkarahisar Castle
- Victory Museum (Zafer Müzesi), a national military and war museum, which was used as headquarters by then Commander-in-Chief Msutafa Kemal Pasha (Atatürk), his chief general staff and army commanders before the Great Offensive in August 1922. In the very city center, across the fortress, featuring maps, uniforms, photos, guns from the Greco-Turkish War.
- The partly ruined fortress which has given the city its name. To reach at the top, eight hundred stairs need to be climbed.
- The Afyonkarahisar Archaeological Museum which houses thousands of Hellenic, Frigian, Hittite, Roman, Ottoman finds.
- Ulu Camii (the Great Mosque)
- Altıgöz Bridge, like the Ulu Camii built by the Seljuqs in the 13th century.
- Afyon mansion (Afyon konagi) situated on a hill overlooking the panoramic plain.
- the White Elephant - Afyon is twinned with the town of Hamm in Germany, and now has a large statue of Hamm's symbolic white elephant.
With its rich architectural heritage, the city is a member of the European Association of Historic Towns and Regions .
Twin towns – sister cities
Following list is alphabetically sorted after family name.
- Mihran Mesrobian (1889-1975), architect and decorated Ottoman soldier
- İlker Başbuğ (1943), former Chief of the General Staff of Turkey
- Ali Çetinkaya (1879-1949), Ottoman Army officer and Turkish politician
- Fikret Emek (1963), retired military personnel of the Special Forces Command
- Veysel Eroğlu (1948), Minister of Environment and Forestry
- Bülent İplikçioğlu (1952), historian
- Fazıl Şenel (1972), High Commissioner / Board Member of EMRA (EPDK), Ex-President of BOTAŞ
- Ahmed Karahisari (1468- 1566), Ottoman calligrapher
- Gülcan Mıngır (1989), European Champion Middle distance runner
- Ahmet Necdet Sezer (1941), former President of Turkey
- Sibel Özkan Öz (1988), Olympic medalist female weightlifter
- Nurgül Yeşilçay (1976), actress
- "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
- "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- Lewis Thomas (Apr 1, 1986). Elementary Turkish. Courier Dover Publications. p. 12. ISBN 978-0486250649.
- Statistical Institute
- Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. Banknote Museum: 1. Emission Group - Fifty Turkish Lira - I. Series. – Retrieved on 20 April 2009.
- "Meteoroloji" (in Turkish). Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "Müzeler-Zafer Müzesi (Başkomutan Tarihi Milli Park Müdürlüğü)" (in Turkish). Ayfonkarahisar İl Kültür ve Turizm Müdürlüğü. Retrieved 2015-08-10.
- Stanford, Jay Shaw (1976). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University. pp. 239–241. ISBN 9780521291668.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Afyonkarahisar.|
- Afyon Karahisar (Turkish)
- City council website (Turkish)
- Governor's office
- Afyonkarahisar community and information
- Afyon Blog (English) and (Turkish)
- Afyonkarahisar City Daily Photo (English) and (Turkish)
- Afyon Guide and Photo Album (English)
- Afyon and the Phrygians (English)
- Afyon Kocatepe University (English)
- Department of forestry and the environment (Turkish)
- Afyon Science High School (Turkish)* * Afyon Zafer College (Turkish)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Afyonkarahisar.|