Agaricus abruptibulbus

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Agaricus abruptibulbus
Agaricus abruptibulbus.jpg
Scientific classification
A. abruptibulbus
Binomial name
Agaricus abruptibulbus
(Peck) Kauffmann (1905)

Agaricus abruptus Peck (1900)

Agaricus abruptibulbus
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium
cap is convex or flat
hymenium is free
stipe has a ring
spore print is brown
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: edible

Agaricus abruptibulbus is a species of mushroom in the genus Agaricus. It is commonly known as the abruptly-bulbous agaricus[2] or the flat-bulb mushroom.[3] First described by the mycologist Charles Horton Peck,[4] this bulbous-stemmed edible species smells slightly of anise, and turns yellow when bruised or cut. The mushroom is medium-sized, with a white, yellow-staining cap on a slender stipe that has a wide, flat bulb on the base

Taxonomy and classification[edit]

The species was originally named as Agaricus abruptus by American mycologist Charles Horton Peck in 1900.[5] In his 1904 Report of the State Botanist publication, he changed the name to Agaricus abruptibulbus. He explained that Elias Magnus Fries had earlier named a species in the subgenus Flammula, which he called Agaricus abruptus; the subgenus was later raised to the rank of genus, and the species was given the name Flammula abruptus. Under the transitioning nomenclatural conventions of the time, it was unclear if Agaricus abruptus would remain available for use, so he changed the name.[4]

Agaricus abruptibulbus belongs in the Arvenses clade of the genus Agaricus (along with species A. silvicola, A. arvensis, and A. semotus).[6]

Some American authors consider this species to be synonymous with A. silvicola,[7][8] while some in Europe have synonymized it with the similar species A. essettei. American mycologists Steve Trudell and Joseph Ammirati noted in a 2009 field guide: "The name A. abruptibulbus has been applied to forms with bulbous stipe bases, but variation in stipe shape is so great that the use of this name has been largely abandoned."[9]


The cap is up to 8 cm (3.1 in) in diameter, convex in shape, sometimes with an umbo, and whitish in color. After being scratched or bruised, the cap turns yellow. The stipe is 8–12 cm (3.1–4.7 in) long by 1–3 cm (0.39–1.18 in) thick and bulbous. A large, white annular ring is present on the stipe. The gill attachment is free, and the color is initially grayish but turns brownish after the spores are developed. Specimens smell slightly of anise. The spore print is brown to purple-brown. Spores are elliptical in shape, and are 6–8 by 4–5 µm. The surface of the cap will stain yellow if a drop of dilute potassium hydroxide is applied.[10]

Similar species[edit]

Agaricus silvicola is very similar in appearance and also grows in woodlands, but it may be distinguished by the lack of an abruptly bulbous base.[10] Agaricus arvensis has a more robust stature, lacks the bulbous base, and grows in grassy open areas like meadows and fields. It has larger spores than A. abruptibulbus, typically 7.0–9.2 by 4.4–5.5 µm.[11]

Cadmium bioaccumulation[edit]

Agaricus abruptibulbus is known to bioaccumulate the toxic element cadmium—in other words, it absorbs cadmium faster than it loses it—so specimens collected in the wild often have higher concentrations of this element than the soil in which they are found.[12][13] Furthermore, when cultivated in the laboratory, the presence of cadmium in the culture medium stimulates growth up to 100% in the presence of 0.5 mg cadmium per liter of nutrient medium.[14] It is believed that the cadmium-binding ability comes from a low molecular weight metal-binding protein named cadmium-mycophosphatin.[15][16]


The fungus has been reported in New York,[17] Mississippi,[18] Quebec, Canada,[19] and Germany.[20]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Agaricus abruptibulbus Peck 1905". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
  2. ^ Roody WC. (2003). Mushrooms of West Virginia and the Central Appalachians. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. p. 46. ISBN 0-8131-9039-8.
  3. ^ McKnight VB, McKnight KH (1987). A Field Guide to Mushrooms: North America. Peterson Field Guides. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin. p. 254. ISBN 0-395-91090-0.
  4. ^ a b Peck CH. (1905). "Report of the State Botanist 1904. Agaricus abruptibulbus Peck". Report of the New York State Museum. 94: 36.[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ "Agaricus abruptus Peck 1900". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
  6. ^ Mitchell DA, Bresinsky A (1999). "Phylogenetic relationships of Agaricus species based on ITS-2 and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences". Mycologia. 91 (5): 811–9. doi:10.2307/3761534. JSTOR 3761534. Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
  7. ^ Murrill WA. (1922). "Dark-spored agarics: III. Agaricus". Mycologia. 14 (4): 200–1. doi:10.2307/3753642. JSTOR 3753642. Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
  8. ^ Hotson JW, Stuntz DE (1938). "The genus Agaricus in western Washington". Mycologia. 30 (2): 204–34. doi:10.2307/3754557. JSTOR 3754557. Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
  9. ^ Ammirati J, Trudell S (2009). Mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest: Timber Press Field Guide (Timber Press Field Guides). Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-88192-935-5.
  10. ^ a b Bessette AE, Roody WC, Bessette AR (2007). Mushrooms of the Southeastern United States. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-8156-3112-5.
  11. ^ Miller HR, Miller OK (2006). North American Mushrooms: a Field Guide to Edible and Inedible Fungi. Guilford, Connecticut: Falcon Guide. p. 280. ISBN 0-7627-3109-5.
  12. ^ Meisch H-U, Scholl AR, Schmitt JA (1981). "Cadmium as a growth factor for a mushroom Agaricus abruptibulus". Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. 36 (9–10): 765–71.
  13. ^ Pelkonen R, Alfthan G, Järvinen O (2006). FE17/2006 Cadmium, lead, arsenic and nickel in wild edible mushrooms (Report). Helsinki, Finland: Finnish Environment Institute. ISBN 952-11-2275-7. Archived from the original on 2011-05-22.
  14. ^ Meisch H-U, Schmitt JA, Scholl AR (1979). "Growth stimulation by cadmium in the mushroom Agaricus abruptibulbus". Naturwissenschaften. 66 (4): 209. Bibcode:1979NW.....66..209M. doi:10.1007/bf00366030. S2CID 46707508.
  15. ^ Meisch H-U, Schmitt JA (1986). "Characterization studies on cadmium-mycophosphatin from the mushroom Agaricus macrosporus". Environmental Health Perspectives. 65: 29–32. doi:10.1289/ehp.866529. PMC 1474717. PMID 3709455.
  16. ^ Jablonski M. (1981). Isolierung und Charakterisierung Cadmium-haltiger Inhalt-stoffe aus Fruchtkörpern und Myzel des schiefknolligen Anischampignons Agaricus abruptibulbus (Peck) Kauffmann (Ph.D. thesis) (in German). University of Saarbrücken.
  17. ^ "Field Trip Reports". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 119 (1): 101. 1992.
  18. ^ Overholts LO. (1938). "Notes on Fungi from the Lower Mississippi Valley". Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 65 (3): 167–80. doi:10.2307/2481101. JSTOR 2481101.
  19. ^ Pomerleau R, Cooke WB (1964). "IX International Botanical Congress: Field Trip No. 22: Quebec Fungi". Mycologia. 56 (4): 618–26. doi:10.2307/3756365. JSTOR 3756366. Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
  20. ^ Gerhardt E. (1990). "Checkliste der Großpilze von Berlin (West) 1970–1990". Englera (in German). 13 (13): 3–251. doi:10.2307/3776760. JSTOR 3776760.

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