Agaricus campestris

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Agaricus campestris
Agaricus campestris.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Agaricaceae
Genus: Agaricus
Species: A. campestris
Binomial name
Agaricus campestris
L. (1753)
Agaricus campestris
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium

cap is convex

or flat
hymenium is free
stipe has a ring
spore print is brown
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: choice

Agaricus campestris is a widely eaten gilled mushroom closely related to the cultivated button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. It is commonly known as the field mushroom or, in North America, meadow mushroom.

Taxonomy[edit]

This species was originally noted and named in 1753 by Carolus Linnaeus as Agaricus campestris.[1] It was placed in the genus Psalliota by Lucien Quelet in 1872. Some variants have been isolated over the years, a few of which now have species status, for example, Agaricus bernardii Quel. (1878), Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach (1946), Agaricus bitorquis (Quel.) Sacc. (1887), Agaricus cappellianus Hlavacek (1987), and Agaricus silvicola (Vittad.) Peck (1872). Some were so similar they did not warrant even varietal status, while others have retained it. Agaricus campestris var. equestris (F.H.Moller) Pilat (1951) is still valid. A. campestris var. isabellinus (F.H.Moller) Pilat (1951), and A. campestris var. radicatus, are possibly still valid too.

The Latin specific epithet campestris means "of the fields". Common names given to the fungus include "meadow mushroom", "pink bottom",[2] and "field mushroom".

Description[edit]

The cap is white, may have fine scales, and is 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 in) in diameter; it is first hemispherical in shape before flattening out with maturity. The gills are initially pink, then red-brown and finally a dark brown, as is the spore print. The 3 to 10 centimetres (1.2 to 3.9 in) tall stipe is predominantly white and bears a single thin ring.[3] The taste is mild. The white flesh bruises a dingy reddish brown, as opposed to yellow in the inedible (and somewhat toxic) Agaricus xanthodermus and similar species. The thick-walled, elliptical spores measure 5.5–8.0 µm by 4–5 µm. Cheilocystidia are absent.[4]

Similar species[edit]

Several species may be confused with Agaricus campestris. Amanita virosa and similar, closely related species, are morbidly toxic. Agaricus xanthodermus ("the yellow stainer") causes gastrointestinal problems. Agaricus arvensis, the horse mushroom, is an excellent edible. White Clitocybe species that also grow on lawns, and in grassy places may be dangerous to eat.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Agaricus campestris is common in fields and grassy areas after rain from late summer onwards worldwide. It is often found on lawns in suburban areas. Appearing in small groups, in fairy rings,[5] or solitary. Owing to the demise of horse-drawn vehicles, and the subsequent decrease in the number of horses on pasture, the old "white outs" of years gone by are becoming rare events.[6] This species is rarely found in woodland.

The mushroom has been reported from Asia, Europe, northern Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and North America[7] (including Mexico).[8]

Edibility[edit]

It is widely collected and eaten, even by those who would not normally eat wild mushrooms. This mushroom is not commercially cultivated on account of its fast maturing and short shelf-life.[9] Culinary uses of the meadow mushroom include eating it sauteed or fried, in sauces, or even sliced raw and included in salads. In flavor and texture, this mushroom is almost identical to the white button mushroom available in grocery stores in the United States. Be sure to rinse well to dislodge any sand, and also watch out for small, white larvae which tunnel through the stems and caps. Among the similar species mentioned above, there have been cases (in fact the most common cause of fatal fungus poisoning in France) where the deadly toxic destroying angel (Amanita bisporigera) has been consumed by individuals who mistook it for this species. The edibility of specimens collected from lawns is uncertain because of possible contamination with pesticides or other chemicals.

Other uses[edit]

Research into fungal dressings for the treatment of ulcers, and bed sores, using fungal mycelial filaments, is ongoing. In the past, slices of A. campestris were applied to scalds, and burns in parts of Scotland.[10]

Bioactive properties[edit]

Water extracts of A. campestris have been shown to enhance the secretion of insulin, and to have insulin-like effects on glucose metabolism in vitro, although the mechanism is not understood.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Linnaeus C. (1753). Species Plantarum (in Latin) 2. Stockholm: Lars Salvius. p. 1173. 
  2. ^ Roody WC. (2003). Mushrooms of West Virginia and the Central Appalachians. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-8131-9039-6. 
  3. ^ Nilsson, Sven & Persson, Olle (1977). Fungi of Northern Europe 2: Gill-Fungi. Penguin, New York. ISBN 0-14-063006-6. 
  4. ^ Miller HR, Miller OK Jr. (2006). North American Mushrooms: A Field Guide to Edible and Inedible Fungi. Guilford, Connecticut: Falcon Guides. p. 283. ISBN 978-0-7627-3109-1. 
  5. ^ Fox RTV. (2006). "Fungal foes in your garden: fairy ring mushrooms". Mycologist 20 (1): 36–37. doi:10.1016/j.mycol.2005.11.013. 
  6. ^ Mabey R. (1972). Food For Free, A Guide to the Edible Wild Plants of Britain. Fontana/Collins. 
  7. ^ Roberts P, Evans S. (2011). The Book of Fungi. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-226-72117-0. 
  8. ^ Alonso-Aguilar LE, Montoya A, Kong A, Estrada-Torres A, Garibay-Orijel R. (2014). "The cultural significance of wild mushrooms in San Mateo Huexoyucan, Tlaxcala, Mexico". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 10: 27. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-10-27. PMC 3996006. PMID 24597704.  open access publication - free to read
  9. ^ Grigson J. (1975). The Mushroom Feast. London, UK: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-046273-2. 
  10. ^ Harding P. (2008). Mushroom Miscellany. Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-728464-1. 
  11. ^ Gray AM, Flatt PR. (1998). "Insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity of Agaricus campestris (mushroom)". The Journal of Endocrinology 157 (2): 259–66. doi:10.1677/joe.0.1570259. PMID 9659289. 

British Checklist

External links[edit]