|Ethiopia and central Eritrea|
The Central Cushitic languages are classified as follows (after Appleyard):
- Northern Agaw:
There is a literature in Agaw but it is widely dispersed: from fascinating mediaeval texts containing passages in the Qimant language, now mostly in Israeli museums, to the modern, flourishing and topical in the Bilen language, with its own newspaper, based in Keren, Eritrea. Much historical material is also available in the Xamtanga language, and there is a deep tradition of folklore in the Awngi language.
Central Cushitic languages are characterised by the presence of /ŋ/, /ɣ/, /z/, and central vowels, while they lack ejectives, implosives, pharyngeals, consonant gemination, vowel length, and the consonant /ɲ/.
- Appleyard, David L. (2006) A Comparative Dictionary of the Agaw Languages (Kuschitische Sprachstudien – Cushitic Language Studies Band 24). Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
- Hetzron, Robert (1976) The Agaw Languages. Afroasiatic Linguistics 3,3. p. 31–37
- Joswig, Andreas and Hussein Mohammed (2011). A Sociolinguistic Survey Report; Revisiting the Southern Agaw Language areas of Ethiopia. SIL International. SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2011-047.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Agaw". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Joswig/Mohammed (2011)
- Zelealem, [Mollaligne] Leyew. 2020. Central Cushitic. In: Rainer Vossen and Gerrit J. Dimmendaal (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of African Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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