An agent-general is the representative in the United Kingdom of the government of a Canadian province or an Australian state and, historically, also of a British colony in Jamaica, Nigeria, Canada, Malta, South Africa, Australia or New Zealand and subsequently, of a Nigerian region. Australia and Canada's federal governments are represented by high commissions, as are all Commonwealth national governments today.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, a growing number of British colonies appointed agents in Great Britain and Ireland (and occasionally elsewhere in Europe) to promote immigration to the colonies. Eventually, agents-general were appointed by some colonies to represent their commercial, legal, and diplomatic interests in Britain and to the British government and Whitehall. They were appointed, and their expenses and salaries provided, by the governments of the colonies they represented.
Starting in 1886, Quebec and the federal Canadian government also appointed agents-general to Paris. The first, Hector Fabre, was dispatched by the province of Quebec but was asked by the federal government to represent all of Canada. He and his successor, Philippe Roy, continued to represent both Quebec City and Ottawa in France until 1912 when the federal government asked Roy to resign his Quebec position to avoid conflicts of interest. Canadian provinces have also appointed agent-generals (called delegates-general in Quebec beginning in the 1970s) to other countries and major cities.
By the 1990s, some Australian state governments regarded the office of their agent-general in London as a costly anachronism, even for promoting tourism and investment, and have since been closed and subsumed into the Australian High Commission. The majority of Australian states continue to have agents-general in London, but operate from Australia House rather than maintain separate premises.
Many Canadian provinces similarly are no longer represented by an agent-general, although Quebec continues to have a Government Office (Délégation Générale du Québec à Londres) in London and several other cities around the world and Ontario, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba have representatives who work out of the Canadian Embassy in Washington, DC.
- 1 Australia
- 2 Canada
- 2.1 List of Agents-General for Canada
- 2.2 List of Agents-General for Alberta
- 2.3 List of Agents-General for British Columbia
- 2.4 List of Agents-General for Manitoba
- 2.5 List of Agents-General for New Brunswick
- 2.6 List of Agents-General for Nova Scotia
- 2.7 List of Agents-General for Ontario
- 2.8 List of Agents-General for Prince Edward Island
- 2.9 List of Agents-General for Quebec
- 2.10 List of Agents-General for Saskatchewan
- 3 List of Agents-General for Malta
- 4 List of Agents for Jamaica
- 5 List of Agents-General for Natal
- 6 List of Agents-General for New Zealand
- 7 List of Agents-General for Nigeria
- 8 Notes
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
List of Agents-General for New South Wales
The New South Wales Office in London was one of several overseas offices established to represent various states' interests in London. The London Office was established after the appointment of the first Agent-General on 1 May 1787. After 1932, the Agent-General's Office was abolished and replaced by the New South Wales Government Offices, London. The Agent-General's Office was re-established in 1937.
In September 1992, the position of NSW Agent-General in London was abolished by the Fahey government. It was replaced by the NSW Government Trade and Investment Office, London, which had no diplomatic function, but focussed on the promotion of investment and trade in the UK and Europe.
|William Colburn Mayne||1864–1871|
|Sir Daniel Cooper, Bt.||1880|
|Sir Saul Samuel||1880–1897|
|Sir Julian Salomons||1899–1900|
|The Earl of Jersey||1903–1905|
|Sir Timothy Coghlan||1905–1915|
|Sir Timothy Coghlan||1916–1917|
|Sir Charles Wade||1917–1919|
|Sir Timothy Coghlan||1920–1925|
|Sir Arthur Cocks||1925|
|The Viscount Chelmsford||1926–1927|
|Sir George Fuller||1928–1931|
|Albert Charles Willis||1931–1932|
|Albert Edward Heath||1937–1938|
|Clifford Henderson Hay||1938–1939|
|Sir John Pagan||1970–1972|
|Sir Davis Hughes||1972–1975|
|Sir Ken McCaw||1975–1980|
|Reginald F Watson||1983–1986|
List of Agents-General for Queensland
- Hon. John Douglas, 1869–1870
- Archibald Archer, 1870–1872
- Richard Daintree, 1872–1876
- Arthur Macalister, 1876–1881
- Thomas Archer, 1881–1884, 1888–1890
- James Francis Garrick, 1884–1888, 1890–1895
- William Hemmant, 1885 (acting)
- Sir Henry Wylie Norman, 1896
- Hon. Sir Horace Tozer, 1898–1909
- Thomas Bilbe Robinson, 1910–1919
- John McEwan Hunter, 1919–1922
- John Arthur Fihelly, 1922–1924
- John Saunders Huxham, 1924–1929
- Edward Henry Macartney, 1929–1931
- Leonard Henry Pike, 1931–51
- Sir David Muir, 1951–64
- William Alan Thompson Summerville, 1964–1970
- Hon. Sir Peter Roylance Delamothe, 1971–1973
- N C Sweeney (Acting), 1973–1974
- Hon. Sir Wallace Rae, 1974–1980
- G. W. Swan (Acting), August 1980 – March 1981
- John H Andrews, April 1981 – September 1984
- John F S Brown, September 1984 – March 1988
- Hon D T McVeigh, April 1988 – January 1991
- Ray T Anderson, June 1991 – September 1995
- Dermot A McManus, February 1996 – October 2000
- Ray Kelly (Acting), October 2000 – April 2001
- John Dawson, April 2001 – September 2007
- Ross Buchanan (Acting), October 2007 – April 2008
- Andrew Hugh Craig, April 2008 – June 2011
- Ken Smith, July 2011 – present
List of Agents-General for South Australia
- Gregory Seale Walters, 1856–1865
- Francis Dutton, 1865–1877
- Arthur Blyth, 1877–1891
- John Cox Bray, 1892–1894
- Thomas Playford II, 1894–1898
- Sir John Cockburn, 1898–1901
- Henry Allerdale Grainger, 1901–1905
- John Jenkins, 1905–1908
- Andrew Kirkpatrick, 1909–1914
- Sir Frederick William Young, 1915–1918
- Sir Edward Lucas, 1918–1925
- John Price, 1925–1928
- Sir Henry Barwell, 1928–1933
- Lionel Hill, 1933–1934
- Sir Charles McCann, 1934–1951
- Alfred Greenham, (in 1959?)
- Malcolm Pearce, 1961–1966
- Raymond Charles Taylor, 1971–1974
- Geoff Walls, 1985?–1998
- Maurice de Rohan, 1998–2006
- Bill Muirhead, 2007–present
List of Agents-General for Tasmania
- Hon. Adye Douglas (later Sir, Kt), 1886–1887
- Sir Arthur Blyth (acting), 1887–1888
- James Arndell Youl CMG (later Sir, KCMG) (acting), 1888
- Hon. Edward Braddon, (later Right Hon Sir, PC KCMG), 1888–1893
- Sir Robert Herbert, 1893–1896
- Sir Andrew Clarke (acting), 1896
- Sir Westby Perceval, 1896–1898
- Sir Andrew Clarke (acting), 1898–1899
- Hon. Sir Philip Oakley Fysh, KCMG, 1899–1901
- Sir Andrew Clarke (acting), 1901
- Hon. Alfred Dobson, CMG, 1901–1908
- Sir John McCall, KCMG, Kt., 1909–1919
- Alfred Henry Ashbolt (later Sir, Kt), 1919–1924
- Lieut.-Colonel R. Eccles Snowden (later Sir, Kt), 1924–1930
- Darcy W. Addison, CMG, ISO, MVO, 1930–1931
- Herbert W. Ely, ISO (acting), 1931–1937
- Hon. Sir Claude Ernest Weymouth James, Kt, 1937–1950
- Sir Eric E. von Bibra, Kt, OBE 1950–1958
- Hon. Sir Alfred J White, Kt 1959–1971
- Royce R. Neville, 1971–1978
- Hon. William A. Neilson, AC, 1978–1981
List of Agents-General for Victoria
- Hugh Culling Eardley Childers, 1857–1858
- Charles Pasley, 1864–1867 (acting)
- George Frederic Verdon, 1867–1872
- Hugh Culling Eardley Childers, 1872–1873
- James McCulloch, 1873 (acting from January to April)
- Archibald Michie, 1873–1879
- Charles Pasley, 1880–1882 (acting)
- Robert Murray Smith, 1882–1886
- Graham Berry, 1886–1891
- James Munro, 1892–1893
- Duncan Gillies, 1893–1897
- Andrew Clarke, 1897–1902 (and for Tasmania)
- John William Taverner, 1903–1913
- Peter McBride, 1913–1922
- John McWhae, 1922–1924
- George Fairbairn, 1924–1927
- Walter Leitch, 1929–1933
- Richard Linton, 1933–1936
- Murray William James Bourchier, 1936–1937
- Albert Louis Bussau, 1938–1944
- Norman Angus Martin, 1945–1950
- John Henry Lienhop, 1950–1956
- William Watt Leggatt, 1956– 1964
- Sir Horace Petty, 1964–1969
- Ian Haig, 1983–1985
- Kenneth Andrew Finnin, 1985–1988
- Ian Haig, 1988–1989
- Alan Brown, 1996–2000
- Peter Hansen, 2000–2004
- David Buckingham, 2004–2009
- Sally Capp, 2009–2012
- Geoffrey Conaghan, 2013–present
List of Agents-General for Western Australia
- Hon. Edward Horne Wittenoom, 1889 - 1901[better source needed]
- Hon. Septimus Burt KC, 1891–1892 (Acting)
- Hon. Sir Malcolm Fraser, 1892–1898
- Hon. Sir Edward Wittenoom, 1898–1901
- Hon. Sir Henry Lefroy, 1901–1904
- Hon. Sir Walter James, 1904–1907
- Hon. Sir Cornthwaite Rason, 1907–1911
- Hon. Sir Newton Moore, 1911–1917
- Hon. Sir James Connolly, 1917–1923
- Hon. Sir Hal Colebatch, 1923–1927
- Hon. William Angwin, 1927–1933
- Hon. Sir Hal Colebatch, 1933–1939
- Hon. Michael Troy, 1939–1947
- Hon. William Kitson, 1947–1952
- Hon. James Dimmitt, 1953–1957
- Hon. Ernest Hoar, 1957–1965
- Hon. Gerald Wild, 1965–1971
- Hon. William Bovell, 1971–1974
- Jim Richards, 1975–1978
- Les Slade, 1978–1982
- Ron Douglas, 1982–1986
- Hon. Ron Davies, 1986–1990
- David Fischer, 1990–1992
- Gary Stokes, 1992–1994
- Bill Hassell, 1994–1996
- Hon. Clive Griffiths, 1997–2001
- Robert Fisher, 2001–2005
- Noel Ashcroft, 2005–2008
- Dr. Kerry Sanderson, 2008–2012
- Kevin Skipworth, 2012–2015
- John Atkins, 2015–present
List of Agents-General for Canada
- to the United Kingdom
- to France
List of Agents-General for Alberta
- John Alexander Reid (Great War)
- Herbert Greenfield (1927–1931)
- R. A. McMullen (circa 1966)
- James McKibben (1980s)
- Mary LeMessurier (1986–1992)
List of Agents-General for British Columbia
- Gilbert Malcolm Sproat (1872–1876)
- Thomas Stahlschmidt
- Henry Coppinger Beeton (1893–1895)
- Forbes George Vernon (1895–1898)
- William Walter (1898–1901)
- John Herbert Turner (1901–1915)
- Sir Richard McBride (1915–1917)
- Frederick Coate Wade (1917–1925)
- Frederick Arthur Pauline (1925–1931)
- Frederick Parker Burden (1931–1934)
- W. A. McAdam (1934–1958)
- B. M. Hoffmeister (1958–1961)
- J. V. Fishei (1961–1964)
- Earle Cathers Westwood (1964–1968)
- Rear Admiral M. G. Stirling (1968–1975)
- R. M. Strachan (1975–1977)
- L. J. Wallace (1977–1980)
- WR. Smart (Acting) (1980)
- A. H. Hart (1981–1987)
- Garde B. Gardom (1987–1992)
List of Agents-General for Manitoba
As it was difficult to compete with larger provinces like Ontario and Quebec, the province of Manitoba decided to leave trade promotion to the federal government and accordingly recalled their agent-general in 1965 without appointing a replacement.
List of Agents-General for New Brunswick
- Frederick W. Sumner (1915–)
List of Agents-General for Nova Scotia
- Joshua Maugher (1761–1768)
- William Annand (1878–1887)
- John Howard (1892–1929)
- Miss Jean Iris Howard (Acting, 1929–1930s)
- Charles Arthur Richardson (1969–1972)
- John Elvin Shaffner (1973–1976)
- Rear Admiral Desmond Piers (1977–1979)
- Donald MacKeen Smith (1980–?)
List of Agents-General for Ontario
- to the United Kingdom
- Southworth (1908–?)
- Richard Reid (1913–1918)
- Brigadier-General Manley R. Sims (1918–1920)
- G. C. Creelman (1920–1921)
- William C. Noxon (1921–1934)
- vacant (1934–1944)
- James S. P. Armstrong (1944–1967)
- Allan Rowan-Legg (1968–1972)
- Ward Cornell (1972–1978)
- W. Ross DeGeer (1978–1985)
- Thomas Leonard Wells (1985–1992)
- Robert Nixon (1992–1994)
- to Asia-Pacific
- Tim (Thomas E.) Armstrong (1986-1990)
- to France
- Adrienne Clarkson (1983–1988)
- to Japan
- Robin Sears (1990–1994)
- to New York City
- Carlton Masters (1992)
List of Agents-General for Prince Edward Island
- Harrison Watson (1902–?)
List of Agents-General for Quebec
Quebec uses the title Agent-General or Delegate-General. In 1936, legislation was passed by the government of Maurice Duplessis closing all Quebec government offices abroad. The government of Adélard Godbout repealed the legislation and opened an office in New York City in 1940. When Duplessis returned to power in 1944, his government retained the New York City office and its agent-general but opened no others. In the early 1960s, the government of Jean Lésage began to open additional offices abroad appointing in Paris (1961), London (1962), Rome and Milan (1965) and subsequent governments opened offices in Chicago (1969), Boston, Lafayette, Dallas and Los Angeles (1970), Munich and Berlin (1971), Brussels (1972), Atlanta (1977), Washington (1978), Mexico City and Tokyo (1980), Beijing and Santiago (1998), Shanghai and Barcelona (1999), Mumbai (2007), São Paulo (2008) and Moscow (2012). In 1971, the title of agent-general was officially changed to delegate-general although previous title is still often used, particularly for the government's representative to London.
As of 2016, the government of Quebec has delegates-general (agents-general) in London, Brussels, Mexico City, New York, Paris, and Tokyo; delegates to Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Rome, and offices headed by directors offering more limited services in Barcelona, Beijing, Dakar, Hong Kong, Mumbai, São Paulo, Shanghai, Stockholm, and Washington. In addition, there are the equivalent of Honorary consuls, titled antennes, in Atlanta, Berlin, Houston, Qingdao, Seoul, and California's Silicon Valley.
- to the United Kingdom
- Jean-Marie-Joseph-Pantaléon Pelletier (1911–1924)
- Louis-Joseph Lemieux (1925–1936)
- vacant (1936–1961)
- Hughes Lapointe (1961–1966)
- Guy Roberge (1966–1971)
- Jean Fournier (1971–1977)
- Gilles Loiselle (1977–1983)
- Patrick Hyndman (1983–1987)
- Reed Scowen (1987–1992)
- Harold Mailhot (1992–1995)
- Richard Guay (1995–2000)
- Daniel Audet (2000–2003)
- George R. MacLaren (2003–2008)
- Pierre Boulanger (2008–2012)
- Stéphane Paquet (2012–2014)
- Christos Sirros (2014–present)
- to France
- Hector Fabre (1882–1910)
- Philippe Roy (1911–1912)
- vacant (1912–1961)
- Charles Lussier (1961–1964)
- Jean Chapdelaine (delegate general) (1964–1976)
- François Cloutier (delegate general) (1976–1977)
- Jean Deschamps (delegate general) (1977–1979)
- Yves Michaud (delegate general) (1979–1984)
- Louise Beaudoin (delegate general) (1984–1985)
- Claude Pug (delegate general) (1985–1986)
- Jean-Louis Roy (delegate general) (1986–1990)
- Marcel Bergeron (delegate general) (1990–1991)
- André Dufour (delegate general) (1991–1994)
- Claude Pug (delegate general) (1994–1995)
- Marcel Masse (delegate general) (1995–1997)
- Michel Lucier (delegate general) (1997–2000)
- Clément Duhaime (delegate general) (2000–2005)
- Wilfrid-Guy Licari (delegate general) (2005–2010)
- Michel Robitaille (delegate general) (2010–present)
- to Belgium
- Godfroy Langlois (1914–1928)
- vacant (1936–1972)
- Jean Deschamps (1972–1977)
- Jean Chapdelaine (chargé des affaires) (1977)
- André Patry (1978)
- Jean-Marc Léger (1978–1981)
- Jean-Paul L'Allier (1981–1984)
- Jean Tardif (1984–1986)
- Claude Roquet (1986–1989)
- Pierre Lorrain (1989–1993)
- Gérard P. Latulippe (1993–1996)
- Denis de Belleval (1996–1999)
- Richard Guay (1999–2001)
- Nicole Stafford (2001–2004)
- Christos Sirros (2004–2014)
- Michel Audet (delegate general) (2014–present)
- to Germany (Munich)
- Claude Trudelle (delegate general) (as of 2016)
- to Japan
- Claire Deronzier (delegate general) (2013–present)
- to Mexico
- Christiane Pelchat (delegate general) (2011–2014)
- Eric R. Mercier (delegate general) (as of 2016)
- to the United States (New York City)
- Charles Chartier (1940–1967)
- Jean-Marc Roy (1967–1969)
- Général Jean V. Allard (1969–1971)
- Guy Poliquin (1971–1977)
- Marcel Bergeron (delegate general) (1977–1980)
- Richard Pouliot (delegate general) (1980–1982)
- Raymond Gosselin (delegate general) (1982–1984)
- Rita Dionne-Marsolais (delegate general) (1984–1987)
- Léo Paré (delegate general) (1987–1992)
- Reed Scowen (delegate general) (1992–1994)
- Kevin Drummond (delegate general) (1994–1997)
- David Levine (delegate general) (1997–1998)
- Diane Wilhelmy (delegate general) (1998–2002)
- Michel Robitaille (delegate general) (2002–2007)
- Bruno Fortier (delegate general) (2007–2008)
- Robert Keating (delegate general) (2008–2009)
- John Parisella (delegate general) (2009–2012)
- André Boisclair (delegate general) (2012–2013)
- Dominique Poirier (delegate general) (2013–2014)
- Jean-Claude Lauzon (delegate general) (2014–present)
List of Agents-General for Saskatchewan
- Graham Spry (1946–1968)
- Edward Arthur Boden (1973–1977)
- Merv Johnson (1977–1983)
- Robert Larter
- Paul Emile Rousseau (1986–1991)
List of Agents-General for Malta
- Hon. Sir James Connolly, 1929–1932
- Dr Constantine John Colombos, 1922-1927 & 1932-1933
List of Agents for Jamaica
Source: Historic Jamaica.
- 1664–1666: Sir James Modyford
- 1682–?: Sir Charles Lyttelton
- William Beeston
- 1688: Ralph Knight
- Gilbert Heathcote
- 1693–1704: Bartholomew Gracedieu
- 1714: P. Marsh
- 1725: Alexander Stephenson
- 1725–1726: Edward Charlton
- 1728–1733: Charles de la Foy
- 1733: John Gregory
- 1733–1757: John Sharpe
- 1757–1762: Lovell Stanhope (MP for Winchester)
- 1764–1795: Stephen Fuller
- 1795–1803: Robert Sewell
- 1803–1812: Edmund Pusey Lyon
- 1812–1831: George Hibbert
- 1831–1845: William Burge
- 1845 Office abolished
List of Agents-General for Natal
- Sir Walter Peace, 1890s–1910?
List of Agents-General for New Zealand
- Hon. Isaac Featherston (1871–1875)
- Sir Julius Vogel (1876–1880)
- Francis Dillon Bell (1880–1891)
- Westby Perceval (1891–1895)
- William Pember Reeves (1895–1905)
After 1905 the position of Agent-General was replaced by that of High Commissioner, see List of High Commissioners of New Zealand to the United Kingdom.
List of Agents-General for Nigeria
The First Nigerian Agents-General to the United Kingdom were appointed in December 1959 and include:
- Northern Region:Sa'ad Alanamu
- Eastern Region: Jonah Chinyere Achara
- Western Region: Emmanuel Coker
The last Nigerian Agent-Generals in London were:
- Northern Region: Baba Gana
- Eastern Region: A. Ekukinam-Bassey
- Western Region: Prince Delphus Adebayo Odubanjo
- Mid-West Region:
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