Agent-General

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An Agent-General is the representative in the United Kingdom of the government of a Canadian Province or an Australian State and, historically, also of a British colony in Jamaica, Nigeria, Canada, South Africa, Australia or New Zealand and subsequently, of a Nigerian Region. Australia and Canada's federal governments were represented by High Commissions, as are all Commonwealth national governments today.

In the 18th and 19th centuries, a growing number of British colonies appointed agents in Britain and Ireland (and occasionally elsewhere in Europe) to promote immigration to the colonies. Eventually, agents-general were appointed by some colonies to represent their commercial, legal, and diplomatic interests in Britain and to the British government and Whitehall.[1]

Starting in 1886, Quebec and the federal Canadian government also appointed agents general to Paris. The first, Hector Fabre, was dispatched by the province of Quebec but was asked by the federal government to represent all of Canada. He and his successor, Philippe Roy, continued to represent both Quebec City and Ottawa in France until 1912 when the federal government asked Roy to resign his Quebec position to avoid conflicts of interest. Canadian provinces have also appointed agent-generals (called delegate-generals in Quebec beginning in the 1970s) to other countries and major cities.

Following a military coup in Nigeria in 1966, the federal system was abolished, and the posts of the Agent-General of Nigerian Regions in London were subsumed in the Nigerian High Commission.

By the 1990s, some Australian state governments regarded the office of their Agent-General in London as a costly anachronism, even for promoting tourism and investment, and have since been closed and subsumed into the Australian High Commission, see List of High Commissioners of Australia to the United Kingdom. The majority of Australian States continue to have Agents General in London, but operate from Australia House rather than maintain separate premises.

Many Canadian provinces similarly are no longer represented by an Agent-General, although Quebec continues to have a Government Office (Délégation Générale du Québec à Londres) in London and several other cities around the world and Ontario, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba have representatives who work out of the Canadian Embassy in Washington, DC.[2]

List of Agents-General for New South Wales[edit]

The New South Wales Office in London was one of several overseas offices established to represent the states' interests in London. The London Office was established after the appointment of the first Agent-General on 1 May 1787. After 1932, the Agent-General's Office was abolished and replaced by the New South Wales Government Offices, London. The Agent-General's Office was re-established in 1937.

In September 1992, the position of NSW Agent-General in London was abolished by the Fahey government.[3] It was replaced by the NSW Government Trade and Investment Office, London, which had no diplomatic function, but focussed on the promotion of investment and trade in the UK and Europe.[4]

Agents-General Years
 ???? 1787–1864
William Colburn Mayne 1864–1871
Charles Cowper 1871–1875
William Forster 1876–1879
Alexander Stuart 1879–1880
Sir Daniel Cooper, Bt. 1880
Sir Saul Samuel 1880–1897
 ???? 1897–1899
Sir Julian Salomons 1899–1900
Henry Copeland 1900–1903
The Earl of Jersey 1903–1905
Sir Timothy Coghlan 1905–1915
Bernhard Wise 1915–1916
Sir Timothy Coghlan 1916–1917
Sir Charles Wade 1917–1919
David Hall 1920
Sir Timothy Coghlan 1920–1925
Sir Arthur Cocks 1925
The Viscount Chelmsford 1926–1927
Sir George Fuller 1928–1931
Albert Charles Willis 1931–1932
Office abolished 1932–1937
Albert Edward Heath 1937–1938
Clifford Henderson Hay 1938–1939
No appointee[5] 1939–1946
Jack Tully 1946–1954
Francis Buckley 1954–1965
Abe Landa 1965–1970
Sir John Pagan 1970–1972
Sir Davis Hughes 1972–1975
Sir Ken McCaw 1975–1980
Jack Renshaw 1980–1983
Reginald F Watson 1983–1986
Kevin Stewart 1986–1988
Norman Brunsdon 1989–1991
Neil Pickard 1991–1992

List of Agents-General for Queensland[edit]

List of Agents-General for South Australia[edit]

List of Agents-General for Tasmania[edit]

  • Hon. Adye Douglas (later Sir, Kt) 1886–1887
  • Sir Arthur Blyth (acting) 1887–1888
  • James Arndell Youl CMG (later Sir, KCMG) (acting) 1888
  • Hon. Edward Braddon (later Right Hon Sir, PC KCMG) 1888–1893
  • Sir Robert Herbert 1893–1896
  • Sir Andrew Clarke (acting) 1896
  • Sir Westby Perceval 1896–1898
  • Sir Andrew Clarke (acting) 1898–1899
  • Hon. Sir Philip Oakley Fysh, KCMG 1899–1901
  • Sir Andrew Clarke (acting) 1901
  • Hon. Alfred Dobson, CMG 1901–1908
  • Sir John McCall, KCMG, Kt 1909–1919
  • Alfred Henry Ashbolt (later Sir, Kt) 1919–1924
  • Lieut-Colonel R. Eccles Snowden (later Sir, Kt) 1924–1930
  • Darcy W. Addison, CMG, ISO, MVO 1930–1931
  • Herbert W. Ely, ISO (acting) 1931–1937
  • Hon. Sir Claude Ernest Weymouth James, Kt 1937–1950
  • Sir Eric E. von Bibra, Kt, OBE 1950–1958
  • Hon. Sir Alfred J White, Kt 1959–1971
  • Royce R. Neville 1971–1978
  • Hon. William A. Neilson, AC 1978–1981

List of Agents-General for Victoria[edit]

List of Agents-General for Western Australia[edit]

1910 Advertisement from WA Agent General

List of Agents-General for Natal[edit]

The Colony of Natal sent separate Agents-general until the Union of South Africa in 1910

List of Agents-General for Nigeria[edit]

The last Nigerian Agent-Generals in London were:

  • Northern Region: Baba Gana
  • Eastern Region: A. Ekukinam-Bassey
  • Western Region: Prince Delphus Adebayo Odubanjo
  • Mid-West Region:

List of Agents for Jamaica[edit]

source: Historic Jamaica [7]

  • 1664–1666: Sir James Modyford
  • 1682-?: Sir Charles Lyttelton
  • William Beeston
  • 1688: Ralph Knight
  • Gilbert Heathcote
  • 1693–1704: Bartholomew Gracedieu
  • 1714: P. Marsh
  • 1725: Alexander Stephenson
  • 1725–1726: Edward Charlton
  • 1728–1733: Charles de la Foy
  • 1733: John Gregory
  • 1733–1757: John Sharpe
  • 1757–1762: Lovell Stanhope (MP for Winchester)
  • 1764–1795: Stephen Fuller
  • 1795–1803: Robert Sewell
  • 1803–1812: Edmund Pusey Lyon
  • 1812–1831: George Hibbert
  • 1831–1845: William Burge
  • 1845 Office abolished

List of Agents-General for Canada[edit]

to the United Kingdom
to France

List of Agents-General for Alberta[edit]

List of Agents-General for British Columbia[edit]

List of Agents-General for Manitoba[edit]

  • Anthony John McMillan (approx 1890-1900)
  • R. Murray Armstrong (1955-1963)[13]

List of Agents-General for New Brunswick[edit]

List of Agents-General for Nova Scotia[edit]

List of Agents-General for Ontario[edit]

to the United Kingdom
  • Southworth (1908-?)
  • Richard Reid (1913-1918)
  • Brigadier-General Manley R. Sims (1918-1920)
  • G. C. Creelman (1920-1921)
  • William C. Noxon (1921-1934)
  • vacant (1934-1944)
  • James S. P. Armstrong (1944-1967)
  • Allan Rowan-Legg (1968-1972)
  • Ward Cornell (1972-1978)
  • W. Ross DeGeer (1978-1985)
  • Thomas Leonard Wells (1985–1992)
  • Robert Nixon (1992–1994)
to France
to Japan
to New York City

List of Agents-General for Prince Edward Island[edit]

  • Harrison Watson (1902 -?)[19]

List of Agents-General for Quebec[edit]

Quebec uses the title Agent-General or Delegate-General. In 1936, legislation was passed by the government of Maurice Duplessis closing all Quebec government offices abroad. The government of Adélard Godbout repealed the legislation and opened an office in New York City in 1940. When Duplessis returned to power in 1944, his government retained the New York City office and its agent-general but opened no others. In the early 1960s, the government of Jean Lésage began to open additional offices abroad appointing in Paris (1961), London (1962), Rome and Milan (1965) and subsequent governments opened offices in Chicago (1969), Boston, Lafayette, Dallas and Los Angeles (1970), Munich and Berlin (1971), Brussels (1972), Atlanta (1977), Washington (1978), Mexico City and Tokyo (1980), Beijing and Santiago (1998), Shanghai and Barcelona (1999), Mumbai (2007), São Paulo (2008) and Moscow (2012).[20] In 1971, the title of agent-general was officially changed to delegate-general although previous title is still often used, particularly for the government's representative to London.

As of 2016, the government of Quebec has delegates-general (agents-general) in London, Brussels, Mexico City, New York, Paris, and Tokyo; delegates to Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Rome, and offices headed by directors offering more limited services in Barcelona, Beijing, Dakar, Hong Kong, Mumbai, São Paulo, Shanghai, Stockholm, and Washington. In addition, there are the equivalent of Honorary consuls, titled antennes, in Atlanta, Berlin, Houston, Qingdao, Seoul, and California's Silicon Valley.[21]

to the United Kingdom
to France
  • Hector Fabre (1882-1910)[32]
  • Philippe Roy (1911-1912)
  • vacant (1912-1961)[33]
  • Charles Lussier (1961-1964)[34]
  • Jean Chapdelaine (delegate general) (1964-1976)
  • François Cloutier (delegate general) (1976-1977)
  • Jean Deschamps (delegate general) (1977-1979)
  • Yves Michaud (delegate general) (1979-1984)
  • Louise Beaudoin (delegate general) (1984-1985)
  • Claude Pug (delegate general) (1985-1986)
  • Jean-Louis Roy (delegate general) (1986-1990)
  • Marcel Bergeron (delegate general) (1990-1991)
  • André Dufour (delegate general) (1991-1994)
  • Claude Pug (delegate general) (1994-1995)
  • Marcel Masse (delegate general) (1995-1997)
  • Michel Lucier (delegate general) (1997-2000)
  • Clément Duhaime (delegate general) (2000-2005)
  • Wilfrid-Guy Licari (delegate general) (2005-2010)
  • Michel Robitaille (delegate general) (2010–present)
to Belgium
to Germany (Munich)
  • Claude Trudelle (delegate general) (as of 2016)[31]
to Japan
  • Claire Deronzier (delegate general) (2013–present)[31]
to Mexico
to the United States (New York City)
  • Charles Chartier (1940-1967)
  • Jean-Marc Roy (1967-1969)
  • Général Jean V. Allard (1969-1971)
  • Guy Poliquin (1971-1977)
  • Marcel Bergeron (delegate general) (1977-1980)
  • Richard Pouliot (delegate general) (1980-1982)
  • Raymond Gosselin (delegate general) (1982-1984)
  • Rita Dionne-Marsolais (delegate general) (1984-1987)
  • Léo Paré (delegate general) (1987-1992)
  • Reed Scowen (delegate general) (1992-1994)
  • Kevin Drummond (delegate general) (1994-1997)
  • David Levine (delegate general) (1997-1998)
  • Diane Wilhelmy (delegate general) (1998-2002)
  • Michel Robitaille (delegate general) (2002-2007)
  • Bruno Fortier (delegate general) (2007-2008)
  • Robert Keating (delegate general) (2008-2009)
  • John Parisella (delegate general) (2009-2012)
  • André Boisclair (delegate general) (2012-2013)
  • Dominique Poirier (delegate general) (2013-2014)
  • Jean-Claude Lauzon (delegate general) (2014–present)[31]

List of Agents-General for Saskatchewan[edit]

List of Agents-General for New Zealand[edit]

After 1905 the position of Agent-General was replaced by that of High Commissioner, see List of High Commissioners of New Zealand to the United Kingdom.

Other uses[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ https://books.google.ca/books?id=5T5waG0z7VIC&lpg=PT35&ots=d3DFShN-XO&dq=%22edward%20jenkins%22%20agent-general&pg=PT21#v=onepage&q&f=true
  2. ^ Ontario Appoints New Representative in Washington, Office of the Premier, August 15, 2013
  3. ^ "New South Wales Agent-General In London". Hansard. Parliament of NSW. Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. 
  4. ^ "NSW Government Trade and Investment Office, London". Archives Investigator – Agency Detail. NSW Government State Records. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  5. ^ "Tully as Agent-General". Lithgow Mercury. 13 February 1946. p. 1. 
  6. ^ Spaull, Andrew. (1986). "McBride, Sir Peter (1867–1923)," Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 10, pp 205–206; London Gazette, p. 10197. 22 October 1920.
  7. ^ "Historic Jamaica". Retrieved 2012-03-09. 
  8. ^ http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/annand_william_11E.html
  9. ^ http://www.mountainviewcounty.com/media/docs/661103_Correspondence_with_Alberta_House.pdf
  10. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=2194&dat=19480121&id=m_4uAAAAIBAJ&sjid=GNwFAAAAIBAJ&pg=4592,4313810&hl=en
  11. ^ https://books.google.ca/books?id=VMmZhkMzy-IC&pg=PA133&lpg=PA133&dq=Henry++Beeton+british+columbia+%22agent-general%22&source=bl&ots=ofJRkelyaA&sig=iEPF2VGex5wvvDOLaUrPQzNuH5Q&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiToMy39snOAhUD9h4KHX3_BwUQ6AEINTAJ#v=onepage&q=Henry%20%20Beeton%20british%20columbia%20%22agent-general%22&f=false
  12. ^ http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/pdfs/bchf/bchn_1990-91_winter.pdf
  13. ^ http://news.gov.mb.ca/news/archives/1972/03/1972-03-24-evans_names_additional_asst._deputy_minister.pdf
  14. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1946&dat=19290306&id=MpgtAAAAIBAJ&sjid=B4wFAAAAIBAJ&pg=4216,925215&hl=en
  15. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1946&dat=19310310&id=VosjAAAAIBAJ&sjid=VYwFAAAAIBAJ&pg=2524,1559061&hl=en
  16. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/169781638
  17. ^ http://www.gettyimages.ca/detail/news-photo/miss-jean-iris-howard-daughter-of-mr-john-howard-agent-news-photo/138586166
  18. ^ http://www.rcnvr.com/P%20-%20RCN%20-%20WW2.php
  19. ^ "Court Circular" The Times (London). Tuesday, 3 June 1902. (36784), p. 9.
  20. ^ https://books.google.ca/books?id=-nPfBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA168&lpg=PA168&dq=quebec+agent-general+duplessis+new+york&source=bl&ots=mn073kYTVi&sig=DsAjCp6AKobc1cBzrcarxaH7VIo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwibnOKm2NDOAhVErB4KHQh_CMIQ6AEIMDAD#v=onepage&q=quebec%20agent-general%20duplessis%20new%20york&f=false
  21. ^ http://www.mrif.gouv.qc.ca/fr/ministere/representation-etranger
  22. ^ http://www.assnat.qc.ca/en/deputes/pelletier-jean-marie-joseph-pantaleon-4809/biographie.html
  23. ^ http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio.php?id_nbr=8323
  24. ^ http://www.assnat.qc.ca/fr/deputes/lemieux-louis-joseph-4167/biographie.html
  25. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1946&dat=19640502&id=BZ4tAAAAIBAJ&sjid=oJ8FAAAAIBAJ&pg=3675,277105&hl=en
  26. ^ a b http://www.mrif.gouv.qc.ca/fr/ministere/historique/representations-etranger/londres
  27. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1946&dat=19771129&id=24IuAAAAIBAJ&sjid=nKEFAAAAIBAJ&pg=926,3627602&hl=en
  28. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1946&dat=19830112&id=_XsxAAAAIBAJ&sjid=K6UFAAAAIBAJ&pg=1204,3409462&hl=en
  29. ^ http://www.objectivecapitalconferences.com/ocic/globalR2011/pboulanger.php
  30. ^ http://www.mrif.gouv.qc.ca/en/salle-de-presse/actualites/11693
  31. ^ a b c d e f g http://www.international.gouv.qc.ca/en/accueil/chef-de-poste
  32. ^ http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/fabre_hector_13E.html
  33. ^ a b https://books.google.ca/books?id=-nPfBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA168&lpg=PA168&dq=quebec+agent-general+london+1962&source=bl&ots=mn070q-VYf&sig=v0CJsNGrxoRU-IVRJeRQhxiHO5c&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjQ2pig5snOAhWKuB4KHSxcAsoQ6AEINjAF#v=onepage&q=quebec%20agent-general%20london%201962&f=false
  34. ^ http://www.mrif.gouv.qc.ca/fr/ministere/historique/representations-etranger/paris
  35. ^ http://www.assnat.qc.ca/en/deputes/langlois-godfroy-3955/biographie.html
  36. ^ http://www.assnat.qc.ca/en/deputes/pelchat-christiane-4797/biographie.html
  37. ^ Heaton, John Henniker (1879). Australian Dictionary of Dates and Men of the Time (PDF). London: S. W. Silver & Co. part II. p.9. ISBN 978-0-7905-8264-1. Retrieved 2 April 2013. 
  38. ^ An 1897 article

References[edit]

External links[edit]