Ages of consent in Africa

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Age of consent for heterosexual sex by country
     – puberty
     – 12
     – 13
     – 14
     – 15
     – 16
     – 17
     – 18
     – 19
     – 20
     – must be married
     – no data available

The age of consent in Africa for sexual activity varies by jurisdiction across the continent. The specific activity engaged in or the gender of its participants can also affect this age and the legality of sexual activity. Below is a discussion of the various laws dealing with this subject. The highlighted age refers to an age at or above which an individual can engage in unfettered sexual relations with another person who is also at or above that age. Other variables, for example homosexual and/or sodomy provision(s) that are illegal or close in age exceptions may exist and are stated when relevant.

The below is a list of all jurisdictions in Africa as listed in list of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa.

Consent by age[edit]

Age Countries (links are to sections on this page)
13 Niger, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
14 Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Females), Lesotho, Madagascar, Madeira (Portugal), São Tomé and Príncipe
15 Comoros, Burkina Faso, French Southern and Antarctic Lands (France), Îles Éparses (France), Guinea, Mayotte (France), Réunion (France)
16 Cameroon, Cape Verde, Ceuta (Spain), Canary Islands, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Melilla (Spain), Malawi, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia (Girls), Plazas de soberanía (Spain), Senegal, South Africa, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (United Kingdom), Swaziland, Togo, Zambia, Zimbabwe
18 Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Males), Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Somalia, Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda
19 Algeria
Must be Married Libya, Sudan

Algeria[edit]

The age of consent in Algeria is 19 for vaginal intercourse. "Heterosexual Sodomy" (anal and/or oral sex with an opposite-sex partner) is illegal, Article 388 of the Penal Code. As well as all same-sex sexual conduct, Article 338, and "outrages to public decency", Article 333. The punishment for both the first two activities with those under 19 years of age is more severe for the older participant.[1]

Angola[edit]

The age of consent in Angola is 14 but sexual activity with persons under 16 is prohibited if it “takes advantage of their inexperience or a situation of particular necessity”.

These laws are covered under articles 179 and 180 of the penal code - sexual abuse of a minor under 14, and sexual abuse of a minor under 16.

Penal Code of Angola

Angola passed a new penal code in January 2019, so certain articles may have been amended.

Some sources list the age of consent as 12, but article 179 appears to criminalize all sexual acts with persons under 14 (penalties are aggravated if there is penetration).

Benin[edit]

The age of consent in Benin is 16 for females, per Article 3 of The Law on the Prevention and Punishment of Violence against Women.

The age of consent for homosexual acts (“indecent acts or acts against nature”) is 21.

Sexual Rights in Benin

Botswana[edit]

The age of consent is 18[2], but homosexuality is punishable by 7 years' imprisonment.

Burkina Faso[edit]

The age of consent is equally set at 18 regardless of gender.

Section 533-4 of the penal code criminalizes “indecent assaults” against minors at least 15 but less than 18.

Section 533-19 makes it illegal to incite to debauchery or promote the corruption of minors

Penal Code of Burkina Faso (French)

Burundi[edit]

Under the new Penal Code of 2009 (in French), the age of consent in Burundi for heterosexuals (both men and women) is 18 years.[3] However, under Article 567, homosexual acts (both men and women) carry a fine of up to 100,000 Burundian francs and up to 3 years' imprisonment.[4]

Cameroon[edit]

The minimum age of consent in Cameroon is 16, as specified in article 346 of the 2016 penal code.

However, article 344 of the same code states; “Whoever, in order to satisfy the desires of another person, habitually excites, encourages or facilitates the debauch or corruption of any person under (?) years of age...”.

This appears subjective as to what acts, in what situations, may be considered to encourage debauchery or corruption (when involving minors aged 16 or above). An additional concern - and the reason for the question mark above - is that the original French version of the text lists the age of persons who may not be corrupted as those “under 21” (the age of majority in Cameroon), but the English version lists the age as “under 18”.

Discussion of Cameroon penal code and corruption of minors law (includes link to English version of code)

Cape Verde[edit]

The age of consent in Cape Verde is 14 regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender, with partial protections for those under age 16.

Sexual relations with a child under age 14 are considered a public crime and invoke mandatory reporting from anyone who becomes aware of the crime.

Article 144 of the penal code makes it illegal to engage in sexual acts with persons younger than 14.

Article 145 makes it illegal to engage in sexual acts with a 14-15 year old if, being an adult, the offender takes advantage of their superiority (power or control) in the relationship, or if the victim is entrusted to them for education or assistance.

Cabo Verde penal code (Portuguese)

Central African Republic[edit]

The minimum age of sexual consent is 18 years of age regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender.[5]

Ceuta (Spain)[edit]

The age of consent in Ceuta is 16 regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender, as it is under Spanish sovereignty, as of 1 July 2015.[6]

Chad[edit]

The age of consent in Chad is 16

Article 359 penalizes sexual relations with persons younger than 13 years with 2-10 years in prison

Article 361 penalizes anyone who commits an indecent act “in the presence of a person under 16 years of age”. Penalties are aggravated if the act is committed with violence.

Chad penal code

Comoros[edit]

The age of consent in the Comoros is 15.

Article 318 of the penal code punishes any indecent assault (or attempt) against the person of a child of either sex under age 15.

Homosexuality is illegal.

Comoros Penal code (PDF)

Côte d'Ivoire[edit]

The minimum age of heterosexual consent in Côte d'Ivoire is 15, regardless of gender.

This is specified in penal code article 356, which states that an indecent act against a person under 15 - without violence or coercion - will be penalized with 1-3 years imprisonment.

However, there is also a law (article 337) that forbids “facilitating the corruption or debauchery of youth of either sex below the age of 18 years”. What specific acts would run afoul of this law, and under what circumstances, are unclear. It is included in a section of violations against public morality alongside pimping, solicitation, and prostitution offenses.

Ivory Coast penal code

Canary Islands (Spain)[edit]

The age of consent in Ceuta is 16 regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender, as it is under Spanish sovereignty, as of 1 July 2015.[7]

Democratic Republic of the Congo[edit]

The age of consent in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is 18, regardless of gender. This was established by the Law Relative to Sexual Violence (2006) and the Child Protection Act (2009).

Sexual Rights Database - Democratic Republic of the Congo

Djibouti[edit]

The age of consent is 18 regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender.[8] Although Djiboutian law establishes that parties to a marriage should be 18 or over, there is an exemption in cases where minors may marry with the consent of their guardians. Effectively this means the age of consent is lower than 18, especially in rural areas; in 2007, 13.6% of married women under the age of 50 married before the age of 18.[9]

There are 3 sections in the 1995 penal code that appear relevant.

Article 464 deals with sexual assault on a person under age 15 without violence or coercion, which sets a strict minimum age of 15.

Article 466 pertains to sexual assault on a minor over 15. However, this section only applies to guardians, people in a position of authority over the victim, or a person who abuses the authority conferred on him by his functions.

Article 162 refers to inciting to debauchery or promoting the corruption of a minor in organizing meetings involving sexual exhibitions or relations in which the minor participates or attends. This charge could be applied to those who engage in sexual activity with minors aged 15-17, though the requirements for “organizing meetings” are not specified.

1995 Penal Code of Djibouti (French)

Egypt[edit]

The age of consent in Egypt is 18 years, for heterosexual males and females. Sex work is illegal and the sex work law has been used against male and female homosexuals.[10]

Equatorial Guinea[edit]

The age of consent is 18 regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender.[11]

Eritrea[edit]

The age of consent in Eritrea appears to be 18, as stipulated by Article 305 of the 2015 penal code, “Sexual outrage on minors between 15 and 18 years of age”. This article states that sexual acts with minors of this age is a petty offense punishable by 6-12 months imprisonment.

Article 311 Consent to Sexual Conduct (1) states that when an accused is charged with an offense under the chapter (chapter 3: sexual offenses, which spans articles 303-311) pertaining to a victim under 15 years, it shall not be a defense that the victim consented, unless the accused is also under age 15 and no more than 1 year older than that person.

Article 311 (3) goes on to state that consent shall not be a defense to charges under articles 309 (homosexuality) or 310 (incest).

Charges pertaining to Article 306 are not mentioned, so it is unclear whether consent may be an affirmative defense to a charge pertaining to minors aged 15-17.

2015 penal code English translation

Ethiopia[edit]

The minimum age for consensual sex is 18 years.[5] The law, however, is not enforced; nearly 20% of girls are married by the age of 15. Early childhood marriage is especially common in rural areas, where some girls are married as young as 7 years old.[12]

French Southern and Antarctic Lands (France)[edit]

The age of consent in French Southern and Antarctic Lands is 15 regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender.

Îles Éparses (France)[edit]

The age of consent in Îles Éparses is 15 regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender, as it is under French sovereignty.

Gabon[edit]

The minimum age of consent in Gabon is 15 for heterosexual activity and 21 for homosexual activity.

Charges can still apply in certain heterosexual situations involving minors aged 15-17.

Article 258 of the Penal Code (most recently amended in 1969) states that indecent assault without violence on a person under 15 years will be punished with 3-6 years imprisonment. Whoever commits an indecent act or act against nature on a person of the same sex and under 21 years shall be imprisoned for 1-3 years.

Article 263 prescribes 1-5 years imprisonment for anyone who “habitually” incites, promotes, or facilitates debauchery or corruption of persons of either sex below age 18. The wording of this article requires multiple acts for a crime to have taken place.

Punishments for other offenses (assault, rape, etc) are aggravated if the victim is younger than 15.

Gabon penal code (French text)

Gambia[edit]

The age of consent is 18.[13]

Ghana[edit]

The age of consent is 16.[14]

Guinea[edit]

The age of consent is 16

Article 272 of the penal code states that any indecent act committed without violence against a child of either sex under age 16 is punishable by imprisonment for 3-10 years.

The same punishment applies to indecent acts against minors aged 16-17 if they are committed by an ascendant and the minor is not emancipated by marriage.

Article 355 criminalizes anyone who “habitually” offends against morals by inciting debauchery or promoting the corruption of minors.

Guinea penal code (French text)

Guinea-Bissau[edit]

The age of consent is 16 regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender.[15]

However, sexual activity with those aged 12-15 may not be strictly illegal. Article 134 of the Penal Code (as of 1994) states that those who practice copulation with females older than 12 but younger than 16 by “taking advantage of their inexperience” are guilty of sexual abuse, punishable by 2 to 8 years imprisonment.

Guinea-Bissau Penal Code (Portuguese text)

Kenya[edit]

The age of consent in Kenya is 18 years, as children are defined under 18 and are not able to give consent.[16] Marriage is not possible below the age of 18, the law is clear about this.[17] Homosexuality in Kenya is illegal.[18]

Lesotho[edit]

The age of consent is 18 years, regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender.

This is confirmed by articles 48 (indecency with children) and 49 (unlawful sexual intercourse with children) of the Penal Code Act, 2010. A child is defined by the code as anyone under age 18, and both articles specify that consent is irrelevant.

Lesotho Penal Code 2010

Liberia[edit]

The age of consent in Liberia is 18.[19] Statutory rape is a first-degree rape offense which carries a maximum sentence of life imprisonment. The age of consent was raised to 18, from 16, in 2009.[20][21]

Libya[edit]

During the Gaddafi government, the regular age of consent was 18, but sixteen-year-old girls could be married as long the parents consented. Pre-marital sex was illegal.

After the 2011 revolution, the age of consent limit was removed. Presently, there is no defined age of consent, although sex is not allowed outside of marriage.[22] However, the law is practically never enforced due to the Libyan Civil War.

Madagascar[edit]

Age of consent is 14 years, according to article 331 in the Criminal Law. In certain cases, including relatives and homosexuals, it is 21 years.[23]

Madagascar Penal Code (alternate link)

Malawi[edit]

The age of consent is 16 regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender.[24]

Mali[edit]

The age of consent is 15 regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender.

Article 225 of the updated 2001 Penal Code states that indecent assault committed against a child under age 15 without violence is punishable by 5-10 years imprisonment.

Indecent acts with minors at least 15 but under 21 without violence are illegal if the offender is an ascendant, a person in a position of authority (such as an employer), or a person responsible for education or supervision.

Mali Penal Code (French text)

Mauritania[edit]

The age of consent is 16.[25] However, under section 306 of the Legal Code, any act that violates Islamic morality is illegal, but a clear definition of morality does not exist in the country's laws, so it is very open to interpretation by local officials as to what is moral and what is not. Thus, many acts surrounding the age of consent could be considered illegal.[26]

Mauritius[edit]

The age of consent in Mauritius is 16 regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender.

Article 249 'Rape, attempt upon chastity and illegal sexual intercourse' of the Penal Code:[27]

(...) Any person who has sexual intercourse with a female 'under the age of sixteen (16), even with consent, shall be liable to penal servitude not exceeding ten (10) years.

Madeira (Portugal)[edit]

The age of consent is Madeira 14 years, regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender, as it is under Portuguese sovereignty.

Mayotte (France)[edit]

The age of consent is Mayotte 15 years, regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender, as it is under French sovereignty.

Melilla (Spain)[edit]

The age of consent is Melilla 16 years, regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender, as it is under Spanish sovereignty, as of 1 July 2015.[28]

Morocco[edit]

Premarital sex is illegal in Morocco, with punishment of 1 month to 1 year imprisonment (Penal Code Article 490).

The legal age for marriage is 18, and Art. 484 of the Penal Code provides harsher penalties (2-5 years) for committing sexual acts without violence on a victim younger than 18. [29][30][31]

Mozambique[edit]

The age of consent is 16 regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender.[32]

Namibia[edit]

The age of consent is 16 for girls.

'Sexual offences with girls under sixteen (16) years', Section 14 of the 'Combating of Immoral Practices Act 1980'

'(1) Any male who

a) has or attempts to have unlawful carnal intercourse with a girl under the age of sixteen (16) years; or

b) commits or attempts to commit with such a girl an immoral or indecent act;

c) solicits or entices such a girl to the commission of an immoral or indecent act, -shall be guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to imprisonment for a period not exceeding six years with or without a fine not exceeding three thousand rand in addition to such imprisonment.

(2) It shall be a sufficient defence to any charge in terms of this section if it appears to the court -

a) that the girl at the time of the commission of the offence was a prostitute, that the person so charged was at the said time under the age of twenty-one (21) years and that it is the first occasion on which he is so charged; or

b) that the person who charged was at the said time under the age of sixteen (16) years ; and

c) that the girl or person in whose charge she was, deceived the person so charged into believing that she was over the age of sixteen (16) years at the said time.'[33]

Niger[edit]

In Niger, the age of consent is 13 years.[34]

This is specified by Article 278 of the penal code.

Article 293 prohibits anyone from “habitually exciting, promoting, or facilitating the debauchery or corruption of the youth of either sex under 21 years”. This article is listed along with other articles relating to prostitution offenses, and it is unclear what circumstances would be considered “debauchery”.

Niger Penal Code (French)

Nigeria[edit]

The age of consent is 18 years.[35] [Section 31 of the Child's Rights Act 2003. Also Sections 21 and 22 of the same Act prohibit Child marriage or betrothal.] However, homosexuality is illegal.

Plazas de soberanía (Spain)[edit]

The age of consent is Plazas de soberanía 16 years, regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender, as it is under Spanish sovereignty, as of 1 July 2015.[36]

Republic of the Congo[edit]

The age of consent in the Republic of the Congo is 18 regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender. Sex with a minor is punishable by up to 5 years in prison and a fine of 10,000,000 CFA.[37]

Réunion (France)[edit]

Rwanda[edit]

The age of consent in Rwanda is 18 years, regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender.[10]

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic[edit]

The age of consent in the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is 13 regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender.[38]

São Tomé and Príncipe[edit]

The age of consent in São Tomé and Príncipe is 14 years, regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender.[39]

This is specified in article 175 of the Penal Code. Article 177 prohibits sexual activity with 14 and 15 year olds if access is gained by “abusing his/her inexperience”, while Article 178 establishes the age of consent for homosexual sex to be 16.

São Tomé and Pricipe Penal Code (Portuguese)

Senegal[edit]

The age of consent in Senegal is 16 (Article 320 deals with children under 16; Article 319 deals with children under 13). Homosexual sex is illegal.[40]

Seychelles[edit]

The age of consent is 15 regardless of gender. Homosexual acts may be illegal under article 151 of the penal code (Unnatural Offences). The legislation reads as follows:

CHAPTER XV - Offences Against Morality

Sexual assault

130. (1) A person who sexually assaults another person is guilty of an offence and liable to imprisonment for 20 years:

Provided that where the victim of such assault is under the age of 15 years and the accused is of or above the age of 18 years and such assault falls under subsection (2)(c) or (d), the person shall be liable to imprisonment for a term not less than 14 years and not more than 20 years:

Provided also that if the person is convicted of a similar offence within a period of 10 years from the date of the first conviction the person shall be liable to imprisonment for a period not less than 28 years:

Provided further that where it is the second or a subsequent conviction of the person for an assault referred to in subsection (2)(d) on a victim under 15 years within a period of ten years from the date of the conviction, the person shall be liable to imprisonment for life.

(2) For the purposes of this section “sexual assault” includes-

(a) an indecent assault;

(b) the non-accidental touching of the sexual organ of another;

(c) the non-accidental touching of another with one’s sexual organ, or

(d) the penetration of a body orifice of another for a sexual purpose.

(3) A person does not consent to an act which if done without consent constitutes an assault under this section if-

(a) the person’s consent was obtained by misrepresentation as to the character of the act of the identity of the person doing the act;

(b) the person is below the age of fifteen years; or

(c) the person’s understanding and knowledge are such that the person was incapable of giving consent.

Sexual interference with a child

135. (1) A person who commits an act of indecency towards another person who is under the age of fifteen years is guilty of an offence and liable to imprisonment for 20 years:

...(2) A person is not guilty of an offence under this section if at the time of the offence the victim of the act of indecency was-

(a) fourteen years old or older and the accused had reasonable ground to believe that the victim was over fifteen years old; or

(b) the spouse of the accused.

Section 135 amended by Act 5 of 2012 with effect from 6 August 2012.[41]

Sierra Leone[edit]

The age of consent is 18 regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender, under the Sexual Offenses Act 2012.[42]

Sexual Offenses Act 2012 text

Somalia[edit]

Article 29 of the national constitution of Somalia defines a child as any individual under the age of 18, and stipulates that "every child has the right to be protected from mistreatment, neglect, abuse, or degradation. [43] Homosexual sex is illegal.[44]

The Sexual Offenses Bill (2018) amended the existing penal code and established the age of consent to be 18 years.

Information on bill, including link to a summarized version

South Africa[edit]

The age of consent in South Africa is 16 regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender, as specified by sections 15 and 16 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007. Section 15 ("statutory rape") prohibits the commission of "an act of sexual penetration with a child who is 12 years of age or older but under the age of 16 years", while section 16 ("statutory sexual assault") prohibits the commission of "an act of sexual violation with a child who is 12 years of age or older but under the age of 16 years".[45] The law includes a close-in-age exception, so that sexual acts between two children where both are between 12 and 16, or where one is under 16 and the other is less than two years older, are not criminal.[45] Children under the age of 12 are conclusively presumed by the law to be incapable of consenting, so a sexual act with a child under that age constitutes rape or sexual assault.[46]

History[edit]

Under the Roman-Dutch common law there was a conclusive presumption that girls under the age of 12 were unable to consent to sexual intercourse.[47] This presumption can be traced back to the "old authorities" of the seventeenth century.[48]

The Girls' and Mentally Defective Women's Protection Act, 1916, which replaced the differing age of consent laws of the four colonies that formed the Union of South Africa, criminalised sexual intercourse between a man and a girl under the age of sixteen unless they were married. This act was replaced by a similar prohibition in section 14 of the Immorality Act, 1957. Although sex between men was already illegal, prohibited by the common law as "sodomy" or "unnatural sexual acts", the Immorality Act also criminalised sexual intercourse between a man and a boy under sixteen.

The Immorality Amendment Act, 1969, which was enacted in response to a national moral panic over homosexuality, raised to 19 the age below which the Immorality Act prohibited sex between males. The Immorality Amendment Act, 1988 inserted mirror provisions applying to women, prohibiting intercourse between a woman and a boy under 16 or a girl under 19. It also renamed the Immorality Act to the Sexual Offences Act, 1957.

The Interim Constitution, which came into force in 1994, prohibited discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, as does the final Constitution which replaced in 1997. As a result, the Constitutional Court struck down the laws prohibiting homosexual sex in the 1998 case of National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality v Minister of Justice. That case did not, however, address the difference between the heterosexual and homosexual ages of consent in section 14 of the Sexual Offences Act.

In the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, Parliament reformed and codified the law on sexual offences and made it gender-neutral. The common-law presumption relating to girls under 12 was replaced by a general presumption that children under 12 cannot consent. The act also fixed the age of consent at 16 for all sexual acts. In the 2008 case of Geldenhuys v National Director of Public Prosecutions, the Constitutional Court held that the former difference in the ages of consent had been unconstitutional.[49]

South Sudan[edit]

The age of consent in South Sudan is 18.[50][51][52][53]

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (United Kingdom)[edit]

Age of sexual consent is 16, regardless of sexual orientation and/or gender.

Sudan[edit]

Intercourse outside of marriage is against the law in Sudan.[54]

Swaziland[edit]

The age of consent is 18, updated as of the SODV (sexual offenses and domestic violence) Act of 2018.

Part II General Sexual Offenses

Under the offense of rape, 3(c) states that an unlawful sexual act includes that which is committed against “a person who is incapable in law of appreciating the nature of the act”

6(e) lists one of the conditions that would render a person incapable as; “a person below the age of 18 years”

SODV Act 2018

Tanzania[edit]

The age of consent is 18 in Tanzania, as specified in article 130 of the penal code.

ICMEC legislation overview Tanzania

Togo[edit]

As of the 2015 penal code, the age of consent in Togo is considered to be 15.


Art. 224: paedophilia is any sexual intercourse or touching, of any kind, committed by a person over the age of majority, without fraud, threats, coercion or violence, against a child under the age of fifteen (15) years, or any exhibition or exploitation for commercial or tourist purposes of photographs, images and sound obtained by any technical process, pornographic films or drawings depicting one or more children under the age of fifteen (15) years.

Article 389 increases the penalties for indecent assault when committed against a child, but does not specify any particular age at which consent is negated.

Art. 389: anyone guilty of indecent assault shall be punished by imprisonment of one (1) to three (3) years and a fine of one million (1,000,000) to three million (3,000,000) CFA francs or both.

Indecent assault on a child shall be punishable by a term of imprisonment of between three (3) and five (5) years and a fine of between three million and five million CFA francs. If the indecent assault was committed with violence or threats against the person of a child, the penalties are five (5) to ten (10) years of rigorous imprisonment and a fine of two million (2 million) to ten million (10 million) CFA francs

Sexual Rights in Togo

Tunisia[edit]

The age of consent in Tunisia appears to be 18.

Law 58 (the elimination of violence against women), which came into effect in 2018, raised the age threshold for rape charges under penal code article 227 from 13 to 16 years. A child younger than 16 is considered automatically incapable of consent.

However, Article 227 bis was also amended/replaced, and appears to now prescribe 5 years imprisonment for a sexual act committed on a minor between 16 and 18 years of age (whereas it previously applied to anyone aged 15-20).

Consent does not appear to be a defense; the punishment is simply reduced if the minor is at least 16 years of age.

Article 230 criminalizes sodomy.

Draft of law (Arabic)

Discussion of Violence against Women law

Uganda[edit]

The age of consent in Uganda is 18 years, for vaginal intercourse.[55][56] "Heterosexual sodomy" (anal and/or oral sex with an opposite-sex partner) and all same-sex sexual conduct was illegal until January 2014 when President Museveni blocked the anti-gay law.

Zambia[edit]

The age of consent for intercourse (“carnal knowledge”) is 16, per article 138 of the penal code.[57]

Article 137 reads in part as follows:

(1) Any person who unlawfully and indecently assaults any woman or girl is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for fourteen years. (2) It shall be no defence to a charge for an indecent assault on a girl under the age of twelve years to prove that she consented to the act of indecency: Provided that it shall be a sufficient defence to any charge under this subsection if it shall be made to appear to the court before whom the charge shall be brought that the person so charged had reasonable cause to believe, and did in fact believe, that the girl was of or above the age of twelve years.[58]

Zimbabwe[edit]

The age of consent is 16.[59]

All male same-sex hand-holding and/or male same-sex sexual conduct can lead to one year's imprisonment.[citation needed] Same-sex hand-holding is illegal.[60]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Routledge International Encyclopedia of Queer Culture edited by David A. Gerstner page 648
  2. ^ "Botswana Raises Age Of Consent To 18 Years". Sapst.org. Retrieved 2019-04-16.
  3. ^ "Age of Sexual Consent". AVERT. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
  4. ^ "Burundi homosexuality". News.google.com.au. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
  5. ^ a b "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012". State.gov. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 2015-04-16.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 2015-04-16.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Reference Handbook - Karen L. Kinnear - Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
  9. ^ "Djibouti: Forced marriage". Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. 4 March 2013.
  10. ^ a b "Legislation of INTERPOL member states on sexual offences against children". INTERPOL. Archived from the original on 2009-10-03.
  11. ^ "2009 Human Rights Report". State.gov. 2010-03-11. Archived from the original on 2010-03-23. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
  12. ^ "FACTSHEET: Child Marriage" (PDF). Girl Up. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-09-09.
  13. ^ Knowing our rights By Women Living Under Muslim Laws (Organization), International Solidarity Network. p.125.
  14. ^ [1] Archived October 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "2009 Human Rights Report: Guinea-Bissau". State.gov. 2010-03-11. Archived from the original on 2010-03-24. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
  16. ^ "LEGAL TREATMENT OF CONSENT IN SEXUAL OFFENCES IN KENYA" (PDF). University of Nairobi. February 2013. p. 18.
  17. ^ "LEGAL TREATMENT OF CONSENT IN SEXUAL OFFENCES IN KENYA" (PDF). University of Nairobi. February 2013. p. 21.
  18. ^ "Laws of Kenya: The Penal Code, Chapter 63" (PDF). Republic of Kenya. 2009. p. 67. Arguable that gender neutral "person" in s.162 may include women
  19. ^ 2011
  20. ^ "Shattered Lives: Liberia". Archived from the original on July 30, 2010. Retrieved September 11, 2010.
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