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Agni-I missile test on 13 July 2012 (cropped).jpg
Agni-I during a test flight on 13 July 2012
TypeShort Range Ballistic Missile
Place of originIndia
Service history
In service2004[1]—present
Used byStrategic Forces Command
Production history
DesignerDefence Research and Development Organisation
ManufacturerBharat Dynamics Limited
Unit cost25 crore (US$3.6 million) to 35 crore (US$5.1 million)[2]
No. built12 (2017 est.)[3]
Mass12,000 kg[4][5][6]
Length15 m[4][5][6]
Diameter1.0 m[5][6]
WarheadConventional high explosive-unitary, penetration, sub-munitions, incendiary, thermobaric, strategic nuclear weapon
Warhead weight1,000 kg (2,200 lb) - 2,500 kg (5,500 lb)[7]

EngineHigh energy solid propellant single stage composite rocket motor[8]
700–900 km [4][5]
Flight ceiling370 km[6]
Speed2.5 km/s (9000 km/h)[5]
Ring Laser Gyro- INS (Inertial Navigation System), optionally augmented by GPS terminal guidance with radar scene correlation
Accuracy25 m CEP [9]
8 x 8 Tatra TELAR (Transporter erector launcher)/rail mobile[10]

Agni-I (IAST: Agnī "Fire" also the Vedic fire god in Hinduism) is a short-range ballistic missile developed by DRDO of India under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program. It is a single-stage missile developed after the Kargil War to fill the gap between 250 km range of Prithvi-II and 2,500 km range of Agni-II. It was first launched on 25 January 2002 from a road mobile launcher at Integrated Test Range (ITR), Wheeler Island.[11] Less than 75 launchers are deployed.[12]

History and development[edit]

Agni-I was first tested at the Interim Test Range in Chandipur in 1989, and is capable of carrying a conventional payload of 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) or a nuclear warhead. Agni missiles consist of one (short range) or two stages (intermediate range). These are railand road mobile and powered by solid propellants.[13]

The Agni I has a range of 700–900 km.[5] They are claimed to be a part of the "Minimum credible deterrence".

Agni-I is a single stage, solid fuel, road and rail mobile, short-range ballistic missile (SRBM). The need for the Agni-I was felt after the Kargil war with Pakistan. It took DRDO 15 months to develop the Agni-I after having completed Agni-II development.[14] It is propelled by solid fuel. Maneuvering RV body-lift aerodynamics give it the ability to correct trajectory errors and reduce thermal stresses. The MRV has a velocity correction package to correct launch trajectory variances. Some Agni RV versions use a set of solid fueled thruster cartridges of predetermined impulse, allowing the onboard guidance controller to trim velocity, using discrete combination of impulse quanta along the desired spatial orientation. The 15 metre tall Agni-1 missile, weighing about 12 tonnes, is capable of carrying both conventional as well as nuclear warheads of 1,000 kg.[5][6]

DRDO is now developing an upgraded two stage variant called Agni-1P by borrowing the newer technologies from Agni-4 and Agni-5 platform to increase accuracy and reliability.[15]

Operational history[edit]

Agni missile range.

Indian Army regularly conducts user trials of the missile mainly to train the user team to launch the missile. The tests are normally conducted by the Strategic Forces Command (SFC) of the Indian Army with logistic support from Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).[16][17][18] Such User trials were carried out multiple times since 2007, with the first one being in October 5, 2007 from Wheelers' Island and the latest one being on November 27, 2015.[19] Another successful user trial was conducted on March 14, 2016 from launch pad-4 of the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Abdul Kalam Island (Wheeler Island).[20][21] Multiple successful user trials of the missile have been conducted on 22 November 2016 and 6 February 2018 by the Strategic Forces Command at Abdul Kalam Island.[22][23]


Agni-I is used by the 334 Missile Group at Secunderabad,[9] under the Strategic Forces Command (SFC) of the Indian Army,[4][5][16]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Dikshit, Sandeep (5 July 2004). "Army's missile group to maintain Agni A-1". The Hindu. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  2. ^ "Technical tune to Agni test before talks". Calcutta, India: The Telegraph. 30 August 2004. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-13.
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b c d "India successfully test-fires Agni I ballistic missile". Indian Express. Nov 25, 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "India test-fires nuclear-capable Agni-I missile". The Times of India. Nov 25, 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  6. ^ a b c d e "India successfully test-fired Agni-I". Asian Tribune. 5 July 2004. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  7. ^
  8. ^ "A brand new Agni missile Pakistan should be wary of". Rediff. Retrieved 2019-09-22.
  9. ^ a b "Agni-1". MissileThreat. Archived from the original on 2012-10-18. Retrieved 2012-12-04.
  10. ^ "Agni-1". Missile Threat. Retrieved 2019-09-22.
  11. ^ T. S. Subramanian (2 February 2002). "The significance of Agni-I". Frontline. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  12. ^ Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threat (Report). Defense Intelligence Ballistic Missile Analysis Committee. June 2017. p. 21. NASIC-1031-0985-17. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  13. ^ Army, Technology. "Agni Ballistic Missile System". army-technology. Verdict Media Limited. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  14. ^ Subramanian, T.S. (13 July 2012). "Agni-I a success". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  15. ^ "A brand new Agni missile Pakistan should be wary of". Rediff. Retrieved 2019-09-22.
  16. ^ a b Subramanian, T S (December 1, 2011). "Strategic Forces Command test fires Agni". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  17. ^ "Agni 1 Missile Test Fired, Part of Army User Trials-India Defence Dated:25 Nov 2010". Retrieved 2012-12-04.
  18. ^ "Successful test-firing of Agni-I". Deccan Herald. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  19. ^
  20. ^ "India successfully test-fires Agni-I ballistic missile". IBNLive. Retrieved 2016-03-14.
  21. ^ "India successfully test-fired Agni-I ballistic missile". Retrieved 2016-03-14.
  22. ^ "India Successfully Test-fires N-capable Agni-I Ballistic Missile". News18. 2016-11-22. Retrieved 2016-11-22.
  23. ^ Ians (2018-02-06). "Agni-I missile with nuclear weapon carrying capability flight-tested successfully". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2018-02-06.

External links[edit]