Agranular insula

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Agranular insula is a portion of the cerebral cortex defined on the basis of internal structure in the human,[1] the macaque,[2] the rat,[3] and the mouse.[4] Classified as allocortex (periallocortex), it is in primates distinguished from adjacent neocortex (proisocortex) by absence of the external granular layer (II) and of the internal granular layer (IV). It occupies the anterior part of the insula, the posterior portion of the orbital gyri and the medial part of the temporal pole.[1] In rodents it is located on the ventrolateral surface of the cortex rostrally, between the piriform area ventrally and the gustatory area or the visceral area (granular insular cortex) dorsally.[5]


  1. ^ a b Mesulam M-M, Mufson EJ (1984). "5: The insula of Reil in man and monkey: Architectonics, connectivity, and function". In Peters A, Jones EG. Cerebral Cortex. pp. 179–226. OCLC 277149053. 
  2. ^ Carmichael ST; Price JL (1994). "Architectonic subdivision of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex in the macaque monkey". J Comp Neurol. 346 (3): 366–402. doi:10.1002/cne.903460305. PMID 7527805. 
  3. ^ Swanson LW (1998). Brain Maps: Structure of the Rat Brain (2nd Revised ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science. OCLC 640898561. 
  4. ^ Paxinos G; Franklin KBJ (2001). The Mouse Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates (2nd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press. OCLC 493265554. 
  5. ^ Swanson LW (2004). Brain Maps: Structure of the Rat Brain (3rd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier Academic Press. OCLC 225608577. 

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