International Organisation of Vine and Wine
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Created in 1924 by six producer states in response to the global viticultural crisis, the OIV has developed and adapted to become, since 2001, the scientific and technical reference organisation for the entire vitivinicultural field. Its 46 Member States account for more than 85% of global wine production and nearly 80% of world consumption. There are also 10 non-governmental international organisations that participate as observers. The International Organisation of Vine and Wine (acronym OIV, from its French language name L'Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin) is an intergovernmental organisation and its work concerns vines, wine, wine-based beverages, table grapes, raisins and other vine-based products.
The international trade of grapes, wine and spirituous beverages continues to grow. The share of export volumes of wine has developed significantly over the past decade: at over 100 million hectolitres, it is equivalent to 43% of world consumption, compared with 25% 10 years ago. Every two bottles out of five consumed in the world are imported.
In the context of this globalisation of trade, where there is increasing competition between countries, the OIV defines the characteristics of vitivinicultural products and their specifications, and contributes to the promotion of good regulatory practices in order to ensure fair trading, as well as the integrity and sustainability of different viticultural products on the global market.
The OIV contributes to the harmonisation and definition of new international standards in order to improve conditions for producing and marketing vitivinicultural products.
All OIV recommendations are adopted by unanimous consensus of Member States. They are frequently included in national and regional regulations (EU, Mercosur, etc.) or the Codex Alimentarius.
Within the framework of world trade agreements, the recommendations drafted by the OIV are based on scientific evidence resulting from the work of a thousand or so experts appointed by Member States, who meet regularly as part of the OIV's specialised scientific structures in viticulture, oenology, methods of analysis, economy, law, safety, health and grapes.
On the website www.oiv.int, the OIV makes its publications, standards, congress proceedings and overview of collective expertise freely available. The OIV provides databases (of statistics, geographical indications, vine varieties and training programmes) as well as a press review. The OIV is a patron of scientific events in the field of vine and wine, and of international wine competitions.
With a strategic vision the OIV contributes:
- To promote sustainable vitiviniculture
- To establish rules of authenticity for vitivinicultural products and promote good regulatory practices
- To understand developments in the market and the dynamics of the field
- To contribute to the safety of consumers and take their expectations into account
- To strengthen international cooperation and governance of the OIV
It is important to meet consumer expectations in terms of product quality, health and safety, protection of the environment and information on vitivinicultural products while developing a sustainable vitivinicultural industry on a global scale. The OIV also contributes in this respect by delivering a Master's in wine management.
Prior to the OIV
In 1874, after the phylloxera disaster which almost completely destroyed European viticulture, when the wine-growers of France, Italy, Switzerland, Austria and Germany, held a Congress in Montpellier which lasted from 26 to 30 October to search together for joint means to combat the formidable insect.
Thirty five years later, the phylloxera crisis had been overcome, but another peril, more insidious, menaced viticulture. This was the anarchic growth of production and trade which enabled fraud to reach such proportions that the worldwide market found itself inundated by all sorts of "beverages" incorrectly carrying the name of "wine".
Also, two Congresses were held in 1908 and 1909, one in Geneva and the other in Paris, to examine this worrying problem and serious progress was made in proposing a first definition of wine and in recalling and confirming the principles of the Madrid Convention of 14 April 1891 concerning the suppression of false indications of provenance.
This evolution, hindered by the First World War, got going again in 1916, at an international Conference of producer countries whose programme included: the revision of customs’ tariffs, the regulation of trade between States and the institution of an international body composed of delegates from exporting and importing countries, responsible for arbitrating conflicts that might arise between them.
Then, in 1922, the Society for the encouragement of Agriculture (French), still preoccupied by the worldwide situation of viticulture, suggested the creation of an international wine organization.
The idea was taken up, the following year, by the Genoa Conference (1923) during which it was even decide to hold a separate restricted meeting between Italy, France, Spain, Greece and Portugal to seriously examine the creation of such an organization. The delegates of these countries decided to meet again several months later in Paris, from 4 to 6 June, agreeing on the need for a permanent international Office which would be maintained through its members States sharing the expenses.
The International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV), which replaces the International Vine and Wine Office, was established by the Agreement of 3 April 2001.
However, no concrete decision was taken on this occasion and two further Conferences were required, convened once again in Paris in 1924, to examine the possibilities and creation conditions for an international organization. Their long debates testify to the difficulty of defeating all reticence. They finally succeeded on 29 November 1924, with the signing of an agreement concerning the creation in Paris of an Office international du vin by Spain, Tunisia, France, Portugal, Hungary, Luxembourg, Greece and Italy called the Agreement establishing an International Wine Office (OIV), in Paris.
Legally, the OIV was then born, but it would not really exist until at least five countries had sent their ratifications, as the Arrangement said. It was only three years later, on 3 December 1927, that the number of ratifications required occurred and the founding session could be held, on 5 December 1927.
After four years of preparatory work focusing on revising the international Agreement of 29 November 1924 establishing the International Vine and Wine Office, the fourth session of the International Conference of member states was held on 3 April 2001. The new International Agreement establishing the "International Organisation of Vine and Wine".
The revision was decided by a resolution of the OIV General Assembly on 5 December 1997 in Buenos Aires (Argentina). The objectives were the modernisation of missions and material means of the International Vine and Wine Office and their adaptation to the world context of the vitiviniculture sector.
Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldavia, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Portugal, Romania,Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Uruguay
- AIDV - International Wine Law Association
- Amorim Academy
- AREV - Assembly of Wine-Producing European Regions
- AUIV - International University Association of Wine
- CERVIM - Centre for Research, Environmental Sustainability and Advancement of Mountain Viticulture
- FIVS - International Federation of Wines and Spirits
- OENOPPIA - Oenological Products and Practices International Association
- UIOE - Union Internationale des Œnologues
- VINOFED - World Federation of Major International Wine and Spirits Competitions
- ASI - Association de la Sommellerie Internationale
- WIM - Wine in Moderation
- Yantaï (China), prefecture-level municipality
- Ningxia Hui autonomous region, China