Agreement on Movement and Access
The Agreement on Movement and Access (AMA) is an agreement between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA), signed on 15 November 2005. The treaty aimed improvement of Palestinian freedom of movement and economic activity within the Palestinian territories, and open the Gaza–Egypt border.
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Background and purposes
Following the Second Intifada that begun in 2000, Israel considerably restricted Palestinian freedom of movement within the Palestinian territories and between the Territories and the rest of the world. To improve the life conditions of the Palestinians and further the peace negotiations, the parties concluded the "Agreement on Movement and Access": ″an agreement on facilitating the movement of people and goods within the Palestinian Territories and on opening an international crossing on the Gaza-Egypt border that will put the Palestinians in control of the entry and exit of people.″ The stated goal was ″To promote peaceful economic development and improve the humanitarian situation on the ground″.
Part of the agreement were the Agreed Principles for Rafah Crossing.
Content of the Agreement
- The Agreement on Movement and Access determined that the Rafah Crossing between Gaza and Egypt would be opened as soon as possible under control of the PA, and under supervision of a third party (being the European Union). Goods were also permitted transit at the Karni crossing.
- A "Safe Passage" would be established between Gaza and West Bank.
- The number of "obstacles to movement" in the West Bank would be reduced to the maximum extent possible to be completed by 31 December 2005.
- The construction of a seaport in Gaza could commence.
- The parties would continue discussions on the establishment of an airport.
The Agreed Principles for Rafah Crossing provided details concerning the Rafah crossing.
- Only people with Palestinian ID, or foreign nationals, by exception, in certain categories, subject to Israeli oversight, were permitted to cross in and out. The PA should notify the Israeli authorities 48 hours in advance of the crossing of a person in the excepted categories.
- Rafah would be used for export of goods to Egypt, subject to rigid control. Imports should be cleared by PA customs officials at Kerem Shalom under the supervision of Israeli customs agents.
- Agreed documents by Israel and Palestinians on Movement and Access from and to Gaza. "Agreement on Movement and Access" and "Agreed Principles for Rafah Crossing", 15 November 2005
- Agreed Principles for Rafah Crossing. 18 December 2017