Agualeguas is both a city and a municipality located in the northeastern part of the state of Nuevo León, Mexico, ( ). The name "Agualeguas" honors the first inhabitants of the region, the Gualegua tribe. It was recognized as a village on January 7, 1821 by the colonial government because that was the date that Bro. Diego Velázquez declared it the village of "St. Nicholas of Gualeguas." This perpetuates the "pristine myth" of the Americas that the land was a clean slate with no peoples living on it. It creates the notion that the Gualegua did not have complex and organized societies with connections to the land. This is incorrect with the primary evidence that Bro. Velázquez used the name Gualeguas when referring to the village he claimed to create.
The municipality has an area of 917.6 km² and is located 180 meters above sea level. According to the 2000 census, there are 4,492 inhabitants. The current residents are mostly of Gualegua heritage, but many are not counted as such in the census.
- Mann, Charles C. (March 2002). "The Pristine Myth". The Atlantic. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- Denevan, William M. (1992). "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 82 (3): 369–385. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "Indicadores sociodemográficos de la población total y la población indígena por municipio, 2000." (PDF). gob.mx. Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. Retrieved 23 February 2017.