Aghul language

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Aghul
агъул чӀал / Ağul ҫ̇al
Native to Russia, also spoken in Azerbaijan
Region Southeastern Dagestan
Ethnicity Aguls
Native speakers
29,000 (2010 census)[1]
Northeast Caucasian
  • Lezgic
    • Samur
      • Eastern Samur
        • Lezgi–Aghul–Tabasaran
          • Aghul
Cyrillic
Official status
Official language in
Dagestan (Russia)
Language codes
ISO 639-3 agx
Glottolog aghu1253[2]

Aghul, also spelled Agul, is a language spoken by the Aghuls in southern Dagestan, Russia and in Azerbaijan. It is spoken by about 29,300[3] people (2010 census).

History[edit]

Classification[edit]

Aghul belongs to the Eastern Samur group of the Lezgic branch of the Northeast Caucasian language family.

Geographic distribution[edit]

In 2002, Aghul was spoken by 28,300 people in Russia, mainly in Southern Dagestan, as well as 32 people in Azerbaijan.[4]

Official status[edit]

Aghul is not an official language, and Lezgian is used as the literary language.

Related languages[edit]

There are nine languages in the Lezgian language family, namely: Aghul, Tabasaran, Rutul, Lezgian, Tsakhur, Budukh, Kryts, Udi and Archi.

Phonology[edit]

Aghul has contrastive epiglottal consonants.[5] Aghul makes, like many Northeast Caucasian languages, a distinction between tense consonants with concomitant length and weak consonants. The tense consonants are characterized by the intensiveness (tension) of articulation, which naturally leads to a lengthening of the consonant so they are traditionally transcribed with the length diacritic. The gemination of the consonant itself does not create its tension, but morphologically tense consonants often derive from adjoining two single weak consonants. Some[which?] Aghul dialects have an especially large number[vague] of permitted initial tense consonants.[5]

Vowels[edit]

Vowels of Aghul[6]
Front Central Back
plain rounded
Close i (и) y (уь) ɨ (ы) u (у)
Mid e (е) ø (оь) o (o)
Open æ (аь) ɑ (а)

The vowels in bold are vowels that appears in «others letters combinations» in omniglot.

Consonants[edit]

Consonant phonemes of Aghul[7]
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn-
geal
Glottal
plain lab.
Nasal m n
Plosive voiced b d ɡ
voiceless fortis
lenis p t k q ʡ ʔ
ejective
Affricate voiced d͡ʒ d͡ʒʷ
voiceless fortis t͡sː t͡ʃː t͡ʃːʷ
lenis t͡s t͡ʃ t͡ʃʷ
ejective t͡sʼ t͡ʃʼ t͡ʃʷʼ
Fricative voiceless fortis ʃː ʃːʷ χː
lenis f s ʃ ʃʷ x χ ʜ
voiced v z ʒ ʒʷ ʁ ʢ ɦ
Trill r
Approximant l j
  • The glottal stop transcribed here is named rather ambiguously a "glottalic laryngeal" by the source.
  • The epigottal stop is included by omnigrot in the phoneme list, but not by TITUS didactica.
  • Omniglot says that the lenis voiceless stops are aspirated. It also says that the epiglottals are in fact pharyngeals.[6]

Alphabet[edit]

А а Б б В в Г г Гъ гъ Гь гь ГьI гьI ГI гI
Д д Дж дж Е е Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й
К к Кк кк Къ къ Кь кь КI кI Л л М м Н н
О о П п Пп пп ПI пI Р р С с Т т Тт тт
ТI тI У у Уь уь Ф ф Х х Хъ хъ Хь хь ХI хI
Ц ц ЦI цI Ч ч Чч чч ЧI чI Ш ш Щ щ ъ
I ы ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Grammar[edit]

Case[edit]

There are four core cases: absolutive, ergative, genitive, and dative, as well as a large series of location cases. All cases other than the absolutive (which is unmarked) and ergative take the ergative suffix before their own suffix.

Adjectives[edit]

Independent and predicative adjectives take number marker and class marker; also case if used as nominal. As attribute they are invariable. Thus idžed "good", ergative, idžedi, etc. -n, -s; pl. idžedar; but Idže insandi hhuč qini "The good man killed the wolf" (subject in ergative case).

Pronouns[edit]

Personal pronouns[edit]

  Singular (Aghul) Plural (Aghul) Singular (Tokip) Plural (Tokip)
1 zun čin (ex), xin (in) či (ex), xi (in) či, xi
2 wun čun čun ču

Vocabulary[edit]

Writing system[edit]

Examples[edit]

Cyrillic writing[edit]

Іисайи пуная гебурис: – ДуьгІе акье миштти: «Дад, Ве ттур гирами хьурай; Ве Паччагьвел адирай. ТІалаб аркьая чин Вакес гьер ягьас гуни. Гъил гьушен че гунагьарилас, чинна гьил гьуршанду кІилди час Іайвелар аркьаттарилас. ХІа темехІера хьас амарта час».[8]

Transliteration[edit]

ˡisaji punaja geburisi: – Du’gˡe ak’e mištti: "Dad, Ve ttur girami x’uraj; Ve Paččag’vel adiraj. Tˡalab ark’aja čin Vakes g’er jag’as guni. G″il g’ušen če gunag’arilas, činna g’il g’uršandu kˡildi čas ˡajvelar ark’attarilas. Xˡa temexˡera x’as amarta čas." [6]

Translation[edit]

And he said unto them, When ye pray, say, Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in heaven, so in earth. Give us day by day our daily bread. And forgive us our sins; for we also forgive every one that is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from evil.[9]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Haspelmath, Martin. 1993. A grammar of Lezgian. (Mouton grammar library; 9). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. – ISBN 3-11-013735-6
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), The Sounds of the World's Languages, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-19815-6 
  • Talibov, Bukar B. and Magomed M. Gadžiev. 1966. Lezginsko-russkij slovar’. Moskva: Izd. Sovetskaja Ėnciklopedija.

External links[edit]