Agumbe

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Agumbe
village
Clouds at Sunset point, Agumbe
Clouds at Sunset point, Agumbe
Nicknames: 
Agumbe is located in Karnataka
Agumbe
Agumbe
Location of Agumbe
Coordinates: 13°30′31″N 75°05′45″E / 13.5087°N 75.0959°E / 13.5087; 75.0959Coordinates: 13°30′31″N 75°05′45″E / 13.5087°N 75.0959°E / 13.5087; 75.0959
Country India
StateKarnataka
DistrictShimoga district
RegionMalenadu
Area
 • Total3 km2 (1 sq mi)
Elevation823 m (2,700 ft)
Population
 • Total600
 • Density200/km2 (520/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialKannada
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
577411
Telephone code08181
Vehicle registrationKA-14

Agumbe is a settlement situated in the Thirthahalli taluka of Shimoga district, Karnataka, India.[3] It is nestled in the thickly forested Malenadu region of the Western Ghats mountain range.[1][4] Owing to its high rainfall, it has received the epithet of "The Cherrapunji of South India", after Cherrapunji, one of the rainiest places in India.[5]

Agumbe is associated with rainforest conservation efforts, documentation of medicinal plants, tourism (trekking and photography), and the promotion of cottage industry.[6][2] The Agumbe Rainforest Research Station was established as a sanctuary for the King Cobra, Agumbe's flagship species.[7][8]

Location[edit]

Agumbe in Shimoga district lies on the south-western coast of India, approximately 98 km (61 mi) north-east of Mangaluru and 357 km (222 mi) north-west of Bengaluru, the state capital of Karnataka in Southern India. It is approximately 24 km (15 mi) from Shringeri and 55 km (34 mi) from the Arabian Sea. The coastal town of Udupi hosts the nearest major railway station. The nearest airport is at Bajpe near Mangaluru which lies at a distance of approximately 94 km (58 mi).[9] The elevation of Agumbe is 823 m (2,700 ft).[1] As part of the Western Ghats mountain range, Agumbe lies in a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[10] Agumbe is near the Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kudremukh National Park.

Size[edit]

Agumbe is a small hill village with very limited visitor accommodation. The population is approximately 500 people. The village covers an area of 3 square kilometres (1.2 sq mi).[11]

Economy[edit]

The villagers of Agumbe are subsistence farmers. Rice and areca are grown. The Raksha Kavacha Weavers' Cooperative Society represents the beginnings of cottage industry in the village.[12]

Tourism[edit]

Places in the vicinity of Agumbe that tourists visit include the Kundadri and Kodachadri Hills, Udupi, Malpe, Mangalore (for the airport and seaport), Karkala, Kolluru, Sringeri, Chickmagaluru, Shivamogga, Bhadravathi, N.R. Pura, Sagar, Hosanagar and Thirthahalli. In the summer, a truck can be used to reach Narasimha parvata

Sunset Point

Sunset View Point rests on one of the highest peaks of the Western Ghats on the Udupi-Agumbe Road. It is ten minutes walk from Agumbe.[13] On a fine evening, the sunset can be seen over the Arabian Sea.[14]

Geography[edit]

Agumbe lies in a hilly, wet region of the Western Ghat mountains. This geography contributes to its scenery, and suitability for trekking. In addition, there are a number of waterfalls in the locality.

Hairpin turn (Bend) 7/14- Agumbe Ghat

Waterfalls[edit]

Barkana Falls

Barkana Falls (Latitude 13.449315, Longitude 75.136015), Northeast of Agumbe, is 850 ft (259 m) in height.[15] It is the tenth highest falls in India.[16] The viewing point for the Barkana Falls is about 4 km from the end of the approaching vehicle track.[17]

Onake Abbi Falls
View from atop Onake Abbi Falls

Onake Abbi Falls (latitude 13°30'44"N, longitude 75°4'25"E) at 400 feet, is smaller than Barkana Falls.[18] In the Kannada language, "onake" means 'pounding stick', an instrument used by villagers to pound grains to flour. Trekking for 5 km through rainforest is needed in order to reach a view of the falls.[citation needed]

Jogigundi Falls

Jogigundi is a small water fall near Agumbe. This is about 800m deep. It is usually filled with water.

Koodlu Theertha Falls

Koodlu Theerthra waterfall is located 20 km from Agumbe.

Koodlu Theertha Falls
Sirimane Falls

Climate[edit]

Agumbe hosts India's first automatic weather station, founded by Romulus Whitaker b. 1943, New York, NY.[19] Agumbe lies in a rainforest region with a tropical climate, warm and humid. Under the Köppen system of climate classification Agumbe is an 'Am' climate, that is, a tropical monsoon climate.[20] A dense silvery fog forms over the Western Ghats at Agumbe.[21]

Rainfall[edit]

The driest month in Agumbe is February with an average rainfall of 1 mm. The wettest month is July with an average rainfall of 2,647 mm. The mean annual rainfall is 7,620 millimetres (300 in).[22] The highest recorded rainfall in a single month was 4,508 millimetres (177.5 in) in August 1946.[23]

The table below is comparison of rainfalls for between Agumbe in Thirthahalli taluk in Shimoga district, Hulikal in Hosanagara taluk in Shimoga district, Amagaon in Khanapur Taluk in Belgaum district and Talacauvery in Madikeri taluk in Kodagu district, Kokalli of Sirsi Taluk, Nilkund of Siddapur Taluk, CastleRock of Supa(Joida) Taluk in Uttara Kannada District to show which one can be called the "Cherrapunji of South India".[24]

Year Hulikal Rainfall (mm) Agumbe Rainfall (mm) Amagaon Rainfall (mm) Talacauvery Rainfall (mm)[25] Kokalli(Sirsi) Rainfall (mm) Nilkund Rainfall (mm) Castle Rock Rainfall (mm)
2017 5,700 6,311 4,733 5,859 3130 4981 5560
2016 5,721 6,449 4,705 5,430 2682 4655 4968
2015 6,035 5,518 4,013 5,319 2730 4367 3667
2014 7,907 7,917 5,580 7,844 8746 6710 5956
2013 9,383 8,770 8,440 8,628 4464 7082 3667
2012 8,409 6,933 5,987 5,722 5036 5398 6165
2011 8,523 7,921 9,368 6,855 4437 6593 7083
2010 7,717 6,929 10,068 6,794 4002 - -
2009 8,357 7,982 - - - - -
2008 7,115 7,199 - - - - -
2007 9,038 8,255 - - - - -
2006 8,656 8,457 - - -[26][27] - -

Temperature[edit]

Maximum temperatures in Agumbe vary between 24.4 and 31.5 degrees Celsius. Minimum temperatures vary between 16.2 and 21.4 degrees Celsius. Average temperatures vary between 22.2 degrees Celsius and 23.6 degrees Celsius with an annual average temperature of 23.5 degrees Celsius. April is the hottest month of the year and December the coolest. The average annual variation in temperature is 4.1 degrees Celsius.[20] The lowest recorded temperature was 3.2 degrees Celsius in 1975 and the highest, 37 degrees Celsius in 2008-9.[21]

Climate data for Agumbe (1981–2010, extremes 1951–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34.5
(94.1)
36.5
(97.7)
38.0
(100.4)
36.5
(97.7)
35.0
(95.0)
33.0
(91.4)
30.5
(86.9)
31.2
(88.2)
34.0
(93.2)
32.0
(89.6)
32.5
(90.5)
33.0
(91.4)
38.0
(100.4)
Average high °C (°F) 29.4
(84.9)
30.3
(86.5)
31.3
(88.3)
31.4
(88.5)
30.0
(86.0)
25.6
(78.1)
23.7
(74.7)
23.7
(74.7)
25.5
(77.9)
27.4
(81.3)
28.5
(83.3)
29.0
(84.2)
28.0
(82.4)
Average low °C (°F) 11.4
(52.5)
12.3
(54.1)
14.8
(58.6)
17.6
(63.7)
18.7
(65.7)
18.0
(64.4)
17.6
(63.7)
17.7
(63.9)
17.4
(63.3)
17.1
(62.8)
14.9
(58.8)
12.1
(53.8)
15.8
(60.4)
Record low °C (°F) 3.2
(37.8)
4.0
(39.2)
4.7
(40.5)
8.2
(46.8)
10.2
(50.4)
10.7
(51.3)
10.0
(50.0)
10.0
(50.0)
10.0
(50.0)
8.7
(47.7)
6.5
(43.7)
3.7
(38.7)
3.2
(37.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 3.8
(0.15)
2.2
(0.09)
10.6
(0.42)
34.8
(1.37)
181.0
(7.13)
1,617.3
(63.67)
2,432.2
(95.76)
2,145.8
(84.48)
672.0
(26.46)
289.2
(11.39)
78.5
(3.09)
15.1
(0.59)
7,482.3
(294.58)
Average rainy days 0.4 0.1 0.8 2.4 7.7 25.2 30.0 29.1 20.2 12.3 4.2 0.8 133.1
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 67 68 74 78 81 92 95 95 92 88 79 70 82
Source: India Meteorological Department[28][29]

Ecology and biodiversity[edit]

Someshwara (Udupi dist.) below Agumbe
Fog filled valley, Sunset point

Rainforest is a dense, wet, tropical evergreen ecosystem, high in its level of biodiversity. According to the 'Champion and Seth' classification, Agumbe is an area of "Southern tropical wet evergreen forests" (1A/C4). R.S. Troup, an eminent forester of his day, said,

"The tropical evergreen rain forests are characterised by the great luxuriance of their vegetation which consists of several tiers, the highest containing lofty trees...covered by numerous epiphytes"[30]

Agumbe rainforest research station[edit]

The Agumbe Rainforest Research Station (ARRS) was founded in 2005 by Romulus Whitaker, a herpetologist. Whitaker had been familiar with Agumbe since the 1970s when he began studying the King Cobra.[31] Its purpose is to create a local biodiversity database, encourage individual scientific research, collaborate with India's Department of Forestry and conserve the rainforest of the Western Ghats as well as to educate the residents of the region in the importance of forestry conservation. The King Cobra, an endangered species is the station's "flagship species".[11] The station occupies an area of 8 acres (32,000 m2). Funding for the station came from Whitaker's mother, Doris Norden and from the Whitley Award received by Whitaker in 2005.

Medicinal plants conservation area[edit]

The Agumbe Medicinal Plants Conservation Area (MPCA) was established in 1999 to protect the important medicinal plants of the region. The "Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions" (FRLHT) recorded 371 plant species in the MPCA at Agumbe, of which 182 were medicinal.[30][32]

Flora[edit]

Endangered plant species

Endangered plant species in the area include[33]

Plant species named for Agumbe
Other plant species discovered at Agumbe
A Panorama of Agumbe

Fauna[edit]

Mammals

Agumbe provides an environment for large and small mammals such as the endangered lion-tailed macaque,[40][41] tiger,[42] leopard, sambar, giant squirrel, dhole, a wild dog of India, gaur, the Indian bison and barking deer.

The endangered Lion-tailed macaque found in Western Ghat
Reptiles and amphibians

In creating funds for conservation of the Agumbe rainforest, the Ophiophagus hannah, king cobra is a 'flagship' species.[43] An Agumbe-based scientific project to radio-locate rescued king cobras aims to determine whether relocation is helpful to their survival.[44] other reptiles and amphibians of the area include the cane turtle and a flying lizard.

Birds

Agumbe is a popular destination for bird watchers and photographers. Among the endemic birds are the Malabar trogon, the yellow-browed bulbul and Sri Lankan frogmouths.[45]

Great Hornbil
Insects and marine species

Agumbe's many insect species include the Atlas moth, Cyclotoma alleni (a beetle discovered in Agumbe),[46] Selenops agumbensis, a spider and Drosophila agumbensis a small fly species. Cremnoconchus agumbensis is a local small fresh water snail.[47]

Temples[edit]

The Agumbe Venugopalakrishna Hindu temple is an old structure known for beautiful architecture and peacefulness. The temple deity is Sri Venugopala Krishna. An annual fair is conducted each year in February in honour of the deity.

Another local temple is the Sringeri Sharadamba temple.

Malgudi Days[edit]

Malgudi Days (1985) is a television serial directed by Shankar Nag. It was based on novels written by R. K. Narayan. Many episodes were filmed in Agumbe.[48] In 2004, a new set of episodes of Malgudi Days was filmed at Agumbe by Kavitha Lankesh (director).[48][49]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c V P, Vathsala (20 July 2019). "Alluring Agumbe". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  2. ^ a b Nair, Roshni (22 May 2017). "I lived for two weeks in a rainforest in the Western Ghats. Here's what it was like". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  3. ^ ET Bureau (17 August 2017). "Plan a monsoon date with the rainforests at Agumbe". The Economic Times. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  4. ^ Jayadevan, Anisha (15 July 2017). "Exploring the wet and wild Agumbe in Western Ghats". Mint. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  5. ^ Manvi, Dheeraja (17 March 2018). "Agumbe: The Cherrapunji of South India". Telangana Today. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  6. ^ Shenoy, Niharika (25 March 2017). "If you have a wild streak, go to Agumbe". The Hindu. Bengaluru (published 29 August 2016). Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  7. ^ Menon, Priya (15 July 2018). "On the royal snake trail". The Times of India. Chennai. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  8. ^ "In the king's own country". Frontline. 10 June 2016.
  9. ^ Mangalore to Agumbe - Distance [1] Google Maps. Accessed 15 October 2017
  10. ^ "Decisions adopted by the world heritage committee at its 35th session". [2] UNESCO. 7 July 2011. In English and French. Accessed 24 October 2013.
  11. ^ a b ARRS. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Karnataka. Accessed 24 October 2013
  12. ^ Veerendra P. M. "Spinning a wheel of change in naxal-hit villages" [3] The Hindu. 15 October 2012. In English. Accessed 25 October 2013
  13. ^ "Sunset point, Agumbe" [4] Holidayiq.com Accessed 25 October 2013.
  14. ^ "Agumbe Sunset Point" [5] Archived 29 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Udupi Tourism. Accessed 25 October 2013
  15. ^ "Barkana Falls." [6] World Waterfall Database.21 May 2011. Accessed 25 October 2013
  16. ^ "Barkana Falls" [7] Tourist Link. Accessed 25 October 2013
  17. ^ Team G Square Blog. [8] Blogger 14 November 2010. Accessed 25 October 2013
  18. ^ "Onake Abbi Falls" [malnadinfo.webs.com/file_oa.html] Thirthahalli Tourist Information. Accessed 25 October 2013
  19. ^ Chandra N. S. "New weather station at Agumbe" [9] Deccan Herald, Bangalore. Accessed 24 October 2013
  20. ^ a b "Climate-Agumbe" [10] Climatedata.org. Accessed 24 October 2013
  21. ^ a b Sampalli, Jagadeesh. "The changing face of Agumbe". [11] IBNlive.In.com (CNN). 23 January 2012. In English. Accessed 24 October 2013.
  22. ^ http://www.imdbangalore.gov.in/page2.pdf
  23. ^ "Climate" [12] Archived 2 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine Western Ghats Biodiversity Information System. Environment Information System (ENVIS) Centre for Ecological Sciences [CES] Indian Institute of Sciences [IISc], Bangalore. Accessed 24 October 2013
  24. ^ Hulikal in Shimoga district is wettest in State from TheHindu.com accessed 23 March 2013
  25. ^ Amagaon has got over 10,000 mm annual rainfall twice in the five years (2006-2010). The exact amount of rainfall is not available. See Amagaon is now Cherrapunji of South from DeccanHerald.com accessed 23 March 2013
  26. ^ "Govt of Karnataka Rainfall Statistics (Kokalli)" (PDF). DES.
  27. ^ "Rainfall Statistics of Karnataka". DES Karanataka.
  28. ^ "Station: Agumbe Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 11–12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  29. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M87. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  30. ^ a b Prabhakaran V. "Agumbe Medicinal Plants Conservation Area – A tribute to Kuvempu" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 25 October 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Medplant Network News, Volume 3, September–October 2003. International Development Research Centre (pub), Canada. In English. Accessed 24 October 2013
  31. ^ Opili, P. "Whitaker gets top U.K. conservation prize" [13] The Hindu (Tamil Nadu News) 28 April 2005. In English. Accessed 24 October 2013.
  32. ^ Ved D. K. and Goraya G. S. "Demand and supply of medicinal plants in India" Dehra Dun : Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh (publishers), 2008.
  33. ^ "10 per cent of native plant species in Western Ghats on endangered list." [14] The Hindu. 11 November 2011. In English. Accessed 25 October 2013.
  34. ^ "Meliola agumbinensis" [15] International Mycology Association: Fungal databases, nomenclature and species banks. Accessed 24 October 2013
  35. ^ "Tarenna agumbensis" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Mongabay.com Accessed 25 October 2013
  36. ^ "Meliola agumbinensis" [16] International Mycology Association: Fungal databases, nomenclature and species banks. Accessed 24 October 2013
  37. ^ "Dactylaria agumbinensis" [17] International Mycology Association: Fungal databases, nomenclature and species banks. Accessed 24 October 2013
  38. ^ Udar et al. The Bryologist Vol. 85, No. 3, Autumn, 1982. "A new Caudalejeunea from India" [18] JStor.org Accessed 25 October 2013
  39. ^ "Notothylas dissecta, A Hornwort new to India" The Bryologist, Vol. 82, No. 4, Winter, 1979. [19] Jstor.org Accessed 25 October 2013.
  40. ^ "Lion-tailed macaque" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Friends of the Smithsonian National Zoo. 2005. Accessed 25 October 2013
  41. ^ Karanth K. U. "Conservation prospects for lion-tailed macaques in Karnataka, India." [20] Wiley, publisher. Accessed 25 October 2013
  42. ^ "India's work for tigers" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) WWF - India. Accessed 25 October 2013
  43. ^ Mohamed bin Zayed Species project number 0925556, King Cobra. [21] Speciesconservation.org. 24 October 2009. Accessed 25 October 2013
  44. ^ "King cobra radio telemetry project – six-month report." "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) ARRS. Accessed 25 October 2013
  45. ^ "Rainforest Rendezvous – Photography Tour of Agumbe" [22] Darter Photography Tours. Accessed 25 October 2013
  46. ^ Tomaszewska, K.W. 2003: Cyclotoma alleni, new species from India (Coleoptera: Endomychidae). Annales zoologici, 53: 203-204. ISSN 0003-4541 [not seen]
  47. ^ Reid et al. "A unique radiation of marine littorinid snails in the freshwater streams of the Western Ghats of India: the genus Cremnoconchus" [23] WoRMS. Accessed 25 October 2013
  48. ^ a b "The Malgudi that is Agumbe" [24] The Hindu. 20 February 2011. In English. Accessed 25 October 2013
  49. ^ "Malgudi Days are back". Online Edition of The Deccan Herald, dated 11 April 2004. 2004, The Printers (Mysore) Private Ltd. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2007.