Agusan language

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Native toPhilippines
Native speakers
(80,000 cited 1978–2002)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
msm – Agusan, Omayamnon
mbd – Dibabawon
mqk – Rajah Kabunsuwan

Agusan is a Manobo language of northeastern Mindanao in the Philippines. The Omayamnon, Dibabawon, and Rajah Kabunsuwan dialects are divergent.


Agusan Manobo (consisting of the Umayam, Adgawan, Surigao, and Omayamnon dialects) is spoken in the following areas (Ethnologue).

Dibabawon Manobo is spoken in the following areas (Ethnologue).

Rajah Kabunsuwan Manobo is spoken in the following areas (Ethnologue).



Below is a chart showing the consonants of Agusan. The stops have unreleased variants when occurring before another consonant, silence, and in syllable final position.[3] The glottal stop /ʔ/ occurs in all consonant positions.[3] Of the continuants, all occur in syllable-initial position and all except /h/ in word-final position. The consonants /d/ and /j/ are used interchangeably.[3]

Consonant Table for Agusan Manobo
Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Nasal m n ŋ
Fricative s h
Flap r
Approximant w l j


There are only five vowels in the Agusan language, /i/, /u/, /e/, /æ/, and /a/. Vowels may appear alone, after a consonant, or between consonants in a syllable. All vowels, with the exception of /æ/, may occur "in a sequence of identical vowels separated by a glottal stop". The vowel /e/ never occurs next to the consonant /r/.[3]

Vowel Chart for Agusan Manobo
Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e
Low æ a


  1. ^ Agusan, Omayamnon at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Dibabawon at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Rajah Kabunsuwan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "East Manobo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b c d Weaver, Daniel H. and Weaver, Marilou. 1963. The phonology of Agusan Manobo (with special reference to æ). In Elmer Wolfenden (ed.), Papers on Philippine languages 1, 1-6. Manila: Institute for Language Teaching and Summer Institute of Linguistics.