|(80,000 cited 1978–2002)|
Agusan Manobo (consisting of the Umayam, Adgawan, Surigao, and Omayamnon dialects) is spoken in the following areas (Ethnologue).
- Agusan del Sur Province: western area, southeast of Lake Buluan
- inland areas of Surigao del Sur Province
- southwest of Lanuza Peninsula to Lianga Bay in Surigao del Sur Province
- western Agusan del Norte Province
- Compostela Valley and Davao del Norte provinces: continuous strip along northern borders
- Surigao del Norte Province: southern tip, inland
- scattered small border areas of Bukidnon and Davao Oriental provinces
Dibabawon Manobo is spoken in the following areas (Ethnologue).
- northern Compostela Valley Province: upper Agusan River area
- Davao Oriental Province: Boston and Cateel municipalities
- Davao del Norte Province: Asuncion municipality (in Manguagan)
Rajah Kabunsuwan Manobo is spoken in the following areas (Ethnologue).
- northern border of Davao Oriental Province
- southeast corner of Agusan del Sur Province
- southern Surigao del Sur Province: Lingig (in Rajah Cabungsuan)
Below is a chart showing the consonants of Agusan. The stops have unreleased variants when occurring before another consonant, silence, and in syllable final position. The glottal stop /ʔ/ occurs in all consonant positions. Of the continuants, all occur in syllable-initial position and all except /h/ in word-final position. The consonants /d/ and /j/ are used interchangeably.
|Consonant Table for Agusan Manobo|
|Plosive||p b||t d||k g||ʔ|
There are only five vowels in the Agusan language, /i/, /u/, /e/, /æ/, and /a/. Vowels may appear alone, after a consonant, or between consonants in a syllable. All vowels, with the exception of /æ/, may occur "in a sequence of identical vowels separated by a glottal stop". The vowel /e/ never occurs next to the consonant /r/.
|Vowel Chart for Agusan Manobo|
- Agusan, Omayamnon at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Dibabawon at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Rajah Kabunsuwan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "East Manobo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Weaver, Daniel H. and Weaver, Marilou. 1963. The phonology of Agusan Manobo (with special reference to æ). In Elmer Wolfenden (ed.), Papers on Philippine languages 1, 1-6. Manila: Institute for Language Teaching and Summer Institute of Linguistics.
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