Ahiri

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Ahiri
ArohanamS R₁ M₁ G₃ M₁ P D₁ N₂ 
AvarohanamS R₁ S G₃ M₁ P D₁ N₂ 

Ahiri (pronounced āhiri) is a rāgam in Carnatic music. It is a janya rāgam (derived scale), and associated with the 14th melakarta scale Vakulabharanam.[1][2] It has also been associated with the 8th melakarta scale Hanumatodi.[1][2] Though it has all the seven swaras (musical notes) in the ascending and descending scale, the presence of zig-zag notes (vakra swaras) makes it a janya rāgam.

Ahiri is an ancient rāgam mentioned in Sangita Makarandha and Sangita samayasara.[2] It is a difficult rāgam but the most rewarding (karuna rasa or pathos).[1][2] It is considered an early-morning scale.[2]

Structure and Lakshana[edit]

Ahiri is an asymmetric rāgam which has vakra swaras (zig-zag notes) in the ascending scale. It is a sampurna rāgam (containing all 7 notes).[1][2] Several ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structures (ascending and descending scale) are assigned due to the usage of foreign notes (bhashanga prayogas):

  • ārohaṇa : S R₁ M₁ G₃ M₁ P D₁ N₂ [a] (also S R₁ S G₃ M₁ P D₁ N₂ [b])
  • avarohaṇa :  N₂ D₁ P M₁ G₃ R₁ S[c]

The notes used in this scale are shadjam, shuddha rishabham, antara gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, panchamam, shuddha dhaivatam and kaisiki nishadham in the scale. For the details of the notations and terms, see swaras in Carnatic music.

Since there is additional usage of external (foreign) notes, in comparison to its parent scale, it is considered a bhashanga rāgam.[1][2] Notes Ri, Ga, Dha and Ni which are different from the parent scale are used in this scale and is considered to have lot of subtle srutis.

Popular compositions[edit]

There are many compositions set to Ahiri rāgam. Here are some popular kritis composed in this rāgam.

A popular Hindi film song in Ahiri Ragam is - Ay Chand Teri Chandni Ki Kasam from the movie Tera Jadoo Chal Gaya, composed by Ismail Darbar and sung by Sonu Nigam & Alka Yagnik

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani: S  M G M P   
    • Western: C C# F E F G G# A# C
  2. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani: S  S G M P   
    • Western: C C# C E F G G# A# C
  3. ^ Alternate notations:
    • Hindustani:    P M G  S
    • Western: C A# G# G F E C# C

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications