The word derives from the root ح م د (ḥ-m-d), from the Arabic أَحْمَدَ (ʾaḥmad), from the verb حَمِدَ (ḥamida, "to thank or to praise"), non-past participle يَحْمَدُ (yaḥmadu).
As an Arabic name, it has its origins in a Quranic prophecy attributed to Jesus in the Quran about Muhammad. It also shares the same roots as Mahmud, Muhammad and Hamid. In its transliteration the name has one of the highest number of spelling variations in the world.
Some Islamic traditions view the name Ahmad as another given name of Muhammad at birth by his mother, considered by Muslims to be the more esoteric name of Muhammad and central to understanding his nature. Over the centuries, some Islamic scholars have suggested the name's parallel is in the word 'Paraclete' from the Biblical text, although this view is not universal considering translations, meanings and etymology.
Traditional Islamic sources, such as Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, and others contain hadith in which Muhammad personally refers to himself as Ahmad. Islamic scholars such as William Montgomery Watt, however, argue that the use of Ahmad as a proper name for Muhammad did not exist until well into the second Islamic century, previously being used only in an adjectival sense. He concludes that the development of the term being used as a name in reference to Muhammad came later in the context of Christian-Muslim polemics, particularly with Muslim attempts to equate Muhammad with the Biblical 'Paraclete', owing to a prophecy attributed to Jesus in the Quranic verse 61:6.
According to the New Encyclopedia of Islam, and the older Encyclopaedia of Islam, the word Ahmad has no etymological attachment to the word Muhammad, but instead has been defined and understood according to its form and likeness to the word Muhammad.
Interpretations and meanings of Ahmad
"Coming back to the term "Ahmad," Muslims have suggested that Ahmad is the translation of periklutos, celebrated or the Praised One, which is a corruption of parakletos, the Paraclete of John XIV, XV and XVI."
Here are three translations of the passage in question in Surat 61 verse 6:
"And [mention] when Jesus, the son of Mary, said, "O children of Israel, indeed I am the messenger of Allah to you confirming what came before me of the Torah and bringing good tidings of a messenger to come after me, whose name is Ahmad." But when he came to them with clear evidences, they said, "This is obvious magic." - Sahih International
"And when Jesus son of Mary said: O Children of Israel! Lo! I am the messenger of Allah unto you, confirming that which was (revealed) before me in the Torah, and bringing good tidings of a messenger who cometh after me, whose name is the Praised One. Yet when he hath come unto them with clear proofs, they say: This is mere magic." - Pickthall
"And when Jesus, son of Mary, said: "O children of Israel, I am God's messenger to you, authenticating what is present with me of the Torah and bringing good news of a messenger to come after me whose name will be acclaimed." But when he showed them the clear proofs, they said: "This is clearly magic." - Modern Literal Translation
The verse in the Quran attributes a name or designation, describing or identifying who would follow Jesus. In his Farewell Discourse to his disciples, Jesus promised that he would "send the Holy Spirit" to them after his departure, in John 15:26 stating: "whom I will send unto you from the Father, [even] the Spirit of truth... shall bear witness of me." John 14:17 states "[even] the Spirit of truth: whom the world cannot receive; for it beholdeth him not, neither knoweth him: ye know him; for he abideth with you, and shall be in you."
Regarding verse 61: 6 in the Quran:
"It is not clear to whom the pronoun ‘he’ refers in the concluding sentence. Bell says ‘probably Jesus,’ but ‘sometimes taken to refer to the promised messenger who is identified with Muhammad.’ Secondly, and in consequence the intervening words, ‘bearing the name Ahmad,’ are grammatically superfluous. They do not help to make the pronominal reference any clearer as to who it was whose Evidences were greeted as magic. Without the clause about Ahmad the context would appear to demand that it was Jesus rather than the next ‘messenger’ who was intended. Whether we maintain the usual reading or adopt that of ‘magician’ (as read by Ibn Masud and others), the charge of sorcery generally would seem as true to the Jewish calumnies in the Fourth Gospel as to the somewhat similar charges brought against Muhammad. In any case it was the Banu Isra'il to whom both Jesus and the ‘messenger’ came, and who regarded the mission as ‘sorcery.’ Once more, if we omit the phrase, ‘bearing the name Ahmad,’ and regard Muhammad as still drawing lessons from previous history, the dubious passage might refer to what happened at Pentecost, and other incidents recorded in the earlier chapters of the Acts. With the absence of any claim on this passage either by Ibn Ishaq or Ibn Hisham, may we go further and suggest that the two Arabic words rendered by Dr. Bell, ‘bearing the name Ahmad,’ are an interpolation to be dated after the death of Muhammad." (emphasis in original)
Contrary to the above claim that Ibn Ishaq and Ibn Hisham did not mention Ahmad and the respective passage, there is Ibn Ishaq's work with the title Kitab al-Maghazi and Ibn Hisham who mention and connect the words Mohammad & Ahmad with the Paraclete. Additionally it has been documented that there was an attempt to connect the respective quranic verse with the Paraclete even earlier then Ibn Ishaq. Moreover, a later interpolation of this passage to the Quran, just to serve as an ex eventu prove for the early muslim scholars, has also been refuted in modern Islamic Studies. This is supported by the fact that the earliest as well as the later manuscripts of the Quran contain the exact passage and wording in Surah 61.
Scholarship regarding the Greek translation
"Early translators knew nothing about the surmised reading of periklutos for parakletos, and its possible rendering as Ahmad …. Periklutos does not come into the picture as far as Ibn Ishaq and Ibn Hisham are concerned. The deception is not theirs. The opportunity to introduce Ahmad was not accepted – though it is highly improbable that they were aware of it being a possible rendering of Periklutos. It would have clinched the argument to have followed the Johannine references with a Quranic quotation."
"Furthermore the Peshitta, Old Syriac, and Philoxenian versions all write the name of John in the form Yuhanan, not in the Greek form Yuhannis.. Accordingly to find a text of the Gospels from which Ibn Ishaq could have drawn his quotation we must look for a version which differs from all others in displaying these characteristics. Such a text is the Palestinian Syriac Lectionary of the Gospels which will conclusively prove that the Arabic writer had a Syriac text before him which he, or his informant, skillfully manipulated to provide the reading we have in the Sira.".
"Muslim children are never called Ahmad before the year 123AH. But there are many instances prior to this date of boys called 'Muhammad.' Very rarely is the name 'Ahmad' met with in pre-Islamic time of ignorance (Jahiliya), though the name Muhammad was in common use. Later traditions that the prophet's name was Ahmad show that this had not always been obvious, though commentators assume it after about 22 (AH)."
"It has been concluded that the word Ahmad in Quran as-Saff 61:6 is to be taken not as a proper name but as an adjective... and that it was understood as a proper name only after Muhammad had been identified with the Paraclete."
"Note that by the middle of the 2nd century AH, Muslims already identified Muhammad with the Greek word "Paracletos" (Counsellor / Advocate) or the Aramaic translation "Menahhemana."
Alleged Historical document regarding the topic
"We recognize Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John as the authors of the Gospel, and yet I know that this truth, recognized by us Christians wounds you, so that you seek to find accomplices for your lie. In brief, you admit that we say that it was written by God, and brought down from the heavens, as you pretend for your Furqan, although we know that it was `Umar, Abu Turab and Salman the Persian, who composed that, even though the rumor has got round among you that God sent it down from heavens…. [God] has chosen the way of sending [the human race] Prophets, and it is for this reason that the Lord, having finished all those things that He had decided on beforehand, and having fore-announced His incarnation by way of His prophets, yet knowing that men still had need of assistance from God, promised to send the Holy Spirit, under the name of Paraclete, (Consoler), to console them in the distress and sorrow they felt at the departure of their Lord and Master. I reiterate, that it was for this cause alone that Jesus called the Holy Spirit the Paraclete, since He sought to console His disciples for His departure, and recall to them all that He had said, all that He had done before their eyes, all that they were called to propagate throughout the world by their witness. Paraclete thus signifies "consoler", while Muhammad means "to give thanks", or "to give grace", a meaning which has no connection whatever with the word Paraclete."
Ahmad is the most elementary transliteration. It is used commonly all over the Muslim world, although primarily in the Middle East. More recently, this transliteration has become increasingly popular in the United States due to use by members of the African American community.
Ahmet is the modern Turkish transliteration. Modern Turkish uses a Latin-based alphabet, and most Arabic-derived names have standardized Turkish spellings.
The less common transliterations of Ahmad are used by Muslims outside the Middle East proper, such as in Indonesia and Russia.
Achmat is the fairly standard transliteration used by South Africa's Muslim community, and its pronunciation shows evidence of the influence of Afrikaans: the <ch> which represents ح [ħ] is pronounced as an Afrikaans <g> [x] (i.e. closer to the Arabic خ); and the د [d] is realised as a [t] (closer to the Arabic ت) which follows Afrikaans Final-obstruent devoicing principles.
List of people with the name
- Ahmad Shah Durrani, Founder of Last Afghan Durrani Empire
- Ahmad (rapper), West Coast hip hop performer
- Ahmad (Jowzjan), a delegate to Afghanistan's Constitutional Loya Jirga
- Ahmad (Takhar), a delegate to Afghanistan's Constitutional Loya Jirga
- Ahmad Abbas, Saudi Arabian footballer
- Ahmad Abdalla, Egyptian film director
- Ahmad Adel, Egyptian footballer
- Ahmad Ahmadi, Iranian physician
- Ahmad Alaq, Khan of eastern Moghulistan
- Ahmad A'zam, Uzbek writer
- Ahmed Ibrahim Artan, Somali diplomat, author and politician
- Ahmad Bahar, Iranian politician
- Ahmad Belal, Egyptian former football player
- Ahmad Black, American football safety for the Florida Gators
- Ahmad Bradshaw, American football running back for the Indianapolis Colts, released via free agency from the New York Giants
- Ahmad Brooks, American football linebacker for the San Francisco 49ers
- Ahmad Bunnag of Siam
- Ahmad Bustomi, Indonesian footballer
- Ahmad Carroll, American football free agent
- Ahmad Dahlan, Indonesian Islamic revivalist
- Ahmad Dhani, Indonesian musician
- Ahmad Dukhqan, Jordanian politician
- Ahmad Fanakati, financial officer of Kublai Khan's Yuan Dynasty
- Ahmad Fuadi, Indonesian writer
- Ahmad Gooden (born 1995), American football player
- Ahmad Hardi, Kurdish poet
- Ahmad Hawkins, American football defensive back for the Alabama Vipers
- Ahmad Hijazi (born 1994), Lebanese footballer
- Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Founder of the Hanbalite school of Muslim jurisprudence
- Ahmad ibn Fadlan, Abbasid ambassador to the Volga Bulgars
- Ahmad ibn Tulun, founder of the Tulunid dynasty
- Ahmad-Jabir Ahmadov, "Honored teacher" of Azerbaijan
- Ahmad Jalloul (born 1992), Lebanese footballer
- Ahmad Jamal, American jazz pianist
- Ahmad Kasravi, Iranian linguists and historian
- Ahmad Khatib, first Masjid al-Haram Imam of Indonesian origin
- Ahmad Maher (disambiguation), various people
- Ahmad Majid, Mughal faujdar of Sylhet
- Ahmad Mohammad Hasher Al Maktoum
- Ahmad Miller, former defensive tackle for the National Football League
- Ahmad Mirfendereski (1918–2004), Iranian diplomat
- Ahmad Merritt, American football free agent
- Ahmad Nivins, American basketball player
- Ahmad ibn Rustah, Persian chronicler born in Isfahan, Persia
- Ahmad Rashād, sportscaster and former football player
- Ricky Ahmad Subagja, Indonesian badminton player
- Ahmad Saad, a Saudi Arabian football player.
- Ahmad Said (politician), Malaysian politician
- Ahmad Shah Massoud, Afghan military leader Deputy Justice on the Supreme Court of Afghanistan
- Ahmad Shah Qajar, Last Shah of the Qajar dynasty
- Ahmad Shamlou, Persian poet and writer
- Ahmad Shukeiri, first Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization
- Ahmad Sohrab, Persian author
- Ahmad Syafi'i Maarif, Indonesian intellectual
- Ahmad Tajuddin, 27th Sultan of Brunei
- Ahmad Taktouk (born 1984), Lebanese footballer
- Ahmad Tekuder (died 1284), leader of the Mongol Ilkhanate
- Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, President of Sierra Leone
- Ahmad bin Ali Al Thani, Emir of the State of Qatar
- Ahmad Thomas (born 1994), American football player
- Ahmad Treaudo, American football cornerback for the California Redwoods
- Ahmad Yani, Indonesian Army general
- Ahmad Zarruq, Shadhili Sufi Sheikh
- Ahmad Yaakob, Malaysian politician; Menteri Besar of Kelantan
- Ahmad Najib Aris, Malaysian convicted rapist and killer who was hanged for the rape and murder of Canny Ong
- Aĥmad, from Malatily Bathhouse
- Ahmed I, sultan of the Ottoman Empire
- Ahmed II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire
- Ahmed III, sultan of the Ottoman Empire
- Ahmed Abukhater, urban and regional planner and Palestinian-American powerlifter
- Ahmed Ahmed, Egyptian American actor and comedian
- Ahmed Arif (1927–1991), Turkish poet
- Ahmed Ali Awan (born 1980), convicted of the racially motivated murder of Ross Parker
- Ahmed Baduri, Eritrean diplomat
- Ahmed Elmi Osman, Somali politician
- Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, former President of Iraq
- Ahmed Ben Bella, the first President of Algeria
- Ahmed Sheikh Ali "Burale", Somali writer and politician
- Ahmed Chalabi, leader of the Iraqi National Congress
- Ahmed al-Ghamdi (1979–2001), Saudi hijacker of United Airlines Flight 175
- Ahmed al-Haznawi (1980–2001), Saudi hijacker of United Airlines Flight 93
- Ahmed Hulusi, Turkish writer and Sufi
- Ahmed Hussen, Somali-Canadian lawyer
- Ahmed Imamovic, Bosnian film director
- Ahmed Mohamed Kathrada (1929–2017), South African politician, political prisoner and anti-apartheid activist.
- Ahmed Khadr, Egyptian-Canadian senior associate and financier of al-Qaeda
- Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi, Mujaddid of 14th century of Islam
- Ahmed Köprülü, Ottoman Grand Vizier of the Köprülü family
- Ahmed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, United Arab Emirati politician
- Ahmed bin Saeed Al Maktoum, United Arab Emirati businessman
- Ahmed M. Hassan Somali politician
- Ahmed Marei, Egyptian basketball coach and former player
- Ahmed Mohiuddin, Pakistani biologist
- Ahmed Musa, Nigerian footballer
- Ahmed Naamani (born 1979), Lebanese footballer
- Ahmed Nadeem, cricketer
- Ahmed bin Saif Al Nahyan, founder and chairman of Etihad Airways
- Ahmed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Emirati businessman
- Ahmed al-Nami (1977–2001), Saudi hijacker of United Airlines Flight 93
- Ahmed Nazif (born 1952), Egyptian politician
- Ahmed Nizam, Indian cricketer
- Ahmed Patel, Indian politician
- Ahmed Plummer, former NFL player
- Ahmed Rushdi, Pakistani singer
- Ahmed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, member of the royal family of Saudi Arabia
- Ahmed Sanjar, ruler of the Seljuk Turks
- Ahmed Santos, Mexican newspaper columnist
- Ahmed Al Saqr (born 1970), Lebanese footballer
- Ahmed Şerafettin, Turkish football manager
- Ahmed Sheikh, Palestinian journalist
- Ahmed Talbi, Moroccan footballer
- Ahmed Sékou Touré, African political leader and president of the Republic of Guinea
- Ahmed Yassin, former leader of Palestinian Hamas
- Ahmed Yesevi, leader of Sufi mysticism
- Ahmed H. Zewail, the winner of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on femtochemistry
- Ahmet Akdilek (born 1988), Turkish cyclist
- Ahmet Alkan, Turkish economist
- Ahmet Almaz, Turkish journalist
- Ahmet Bilek (1932–1971), Turkish Olympic champion
- Ahmet Bozer (born 1960), Turkish business executive
- Ahmet Burak Erdoğan (born 1979), a son of Turkish prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
- Ahmet Cömert (1926–1990), Turkish amateur boxer, coach, referee, boxing judge and sports official
- Ahmet Davutoğlu, Turkish diplomat and political scientist
- Ahmet Dursun (born 1978), Turkish footballer
- Ahmet Emin Yalman (1888–1972), Turkish journalist
- Ahmet Enünlü (born 1948), Turkish bodybuilder
- Ahmet Ertegun, Turkish American founder and president of Atlantic Records
- Ahmet Gülhan (born 1978), Turkish wrestler
- Ahmet Hromadžić (1923–2003), Bosnian writer
- Ahmet Mete Işıkara (1941–2013), Turkish seismologist
- Ahmet İzzet Pasha (1864–1937), Ottoman general
- Ahmet Kireççi (1914–1979), Turkish sports wrestler
- Ahmet Koç, Turkish musician
- Ahmet Kuru (born 1982), Turkish footballer
- Ahmet Li (born 1991), Chinese-Turkish table tennis player
- Ahmet Öcal (born 1979), Belgian footballer
- Ahmet Örken (born 1993), Turkish cyclist
- Ahmet Suat Özyazıcı (born 1936), Turkish footballer
- Ahmet Cevdet Pasha (1822–1895), Ottoman statesman
- Ahmet Peker (born 1989), Turkish wrestler
- Ahmet Sağlam (born 1987), Turkish footballer
- Ahmet Necdet Sezer (born 1941), tenth President of the Republic of Turkey
- Ahmet Burak Solakel (born 1982), Turkish footballer
- Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar (1901–1962), Turkish writer
- Ahmet Türk (born 1942), Turkish politician
- Ahmet Fikri Tüzer (1878–1942), Turkish politician
- Ahmet Ümit (born 1960), Turkish author
- Ahmet Uzel (1930–1998), Turkish composer
- Ahmet Üzümcü (born 1951), Turkish diplomat
- Ahmet Uzun, Turkish Cypriot politician
- Ahmet Vardar (1937–2010), Turkish journalist
- Ahmet Yıldırım (born 1974), Turkish footballer
- Ahmet Yıldız (born 1979), Turkish scientist
- Ahmet Zappa (born 1974), American musician, actor and novelist
- Achmad Jufriyanto, Indonesian footballer
- Achmad Nawir, Dutch East Indies footballer
- Achmad Saba'a, Arab-Israeli footballer
- Achmad Soebardjo, Indonesian diplomat
- Achmat Dangor, South African writer
- Achmed Abdullah, Russian writer
- Achmed Akkabi, Moroccan-Dutch presenter and actor
- Achmed Labasanov, Russian mixed martial artist
- Achmet (oneiromancer), Occultist
- Ahmat Acyl, Chadian Arab insurgent leader
- Ahmat Brahim, Chadian footballer
- Ahmat Taboye, Chadian writer
|Look up Ahmad, Ahmed, or Ahmad raja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Fitzpatrick, Coeli; Walker, Adam Hani (2014-04-25). Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 312. ISBN 978-1-61069-178-9.
- Humanism, Culture, and Language in the Near East: Asma Afsaruddin, A. H. Mathias Zahniser – 1997 p 389
- "Muhammad: Prophet of Islam", Encyclopædia Britannica, 28 September 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
- Al-Masāq: studia arabo-islamica mediterranea: Volumes 9 à 10; Volume 9 University of Leeds. Dept. of Modern Arabic Studies, Taylor & Francis – 1997 "Many Muslim writers, including Ibn Hazm, al-Taban, al-Qurtubi, and Ibn Taymiyya, have identified the Paraclete with Muhammad. Probably the first to do so was his biographer Ibn Ishaq in the mid eighth century."
- "Isa", Encyclopedia of Islam
- Watt (1991) pp. 33–34
- Glasse, p. 151.
- A. Guthrie and E. F. F. Bishop, p. 253–254.
- Mishkat Al-Masabih, Volume 2, University of Virginia, 1981, p. 1239CS1 maint: others (link)
- W. Montgomery Watt (1953) ‘HIS NAME IS AHMAD’ The Muslim World, 43 (2):110–117
- Glasse, Cyril (11 July 2008). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. Maryland, U.S.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-7425-6296-7.
- Schacht, J. (2012-04-24). "Aḥmad". In Bearman, P. (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Netherlands: Brill Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-16121-4. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
- Liddell and Scott`s celebrated Greek-English Lexicon gives this definition for periklutos: "heard of all round, famous, renowned, Latin inclytus: of things, excellent, noble, glorious". Rev. James M. Whiton, ed. A Lexicon abridged from Liddell and Scott`s Greek-English Lexicon. New York: American Book Company, N.D. c.1940s, p. 549. Periklutos occurs in The Iliad and The Odyssey, and Hesiod`s Theogony.
- John by Andreas J. Köstenberger 2004 ISBN 978-0-8010-2644-7, page 442.
- The Gospel of John: Question by Question by Judith Schubert 2009 ISBN 978-0-8091-4549-2, pages 112–127.
- A. Guthrie and E. F. F. Bishop, The Paraclete, Almunhamanna and Ahmad, Muslim World XLI (October, 1951), p. 254–255: italics: emphasis in original
- Anthony, Sean (2016). Muḥammad, Menaḥem, and the Paraclete: New Light on Ibn Isḥāq's (d. 150/767) Arabic Version of John 15:23–16:1," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 79.2. Cambridge. p. 257.
The earliest exemplar of muslim attempts to connect Q61:6 and the Paraclete is the translation of John 15:26–16:1, found in Ibn Ishaqs Kitab al-Maghazi [...]
- Anthony, Sean. "Muḥammad, Menaḥem, and the Paraclete: new light on Ibn Isḥāq's (d. 150/767) Arabic version of John 15: 23–16: 1".
- Ibid. p. 262.
Yet, Ibn Ishāq’s citation of the CPA (note: christian palestinian aramaic translation of John) 'mnhmn' to demonstrate Muhammad's identity with the Paraclete is nearly without parallel –virtually all discussions of Muhammad as 'mnhmn' elsewhere derive from Ibn Hishām’s recension of his text.
- Ibid. pp. 262, note 29.
The sole exception to this general rule (note: the earliest mention of Mohammad, Ahmad and the Paraclete) is a tradition attributed to the early Basran traditionist Muhammad ibn Sīrīn (d. 728).
- Ibid. p. 274.
The scenario is so convoluted as to be absurd.
- Déroche, Catalogue Des Manuscrits Arabes: Deuxième Partie: Manuscrits Musulmans - Tome I, 1: Les Manuscrits Du Coran: Aux Origines De La Calligraphie Coranique, 1983.
- Sahin et al., The 1400th Anniversary Of The Qur'an, 2010, Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art Collection, Antik A.S. Cultural Publications: Turkey, pp. 144–145.
- A. George, The Rise Of Islamic Calligraphy, 2010, Saqi Books: London (UK), pp. 75–80 & p. 148; F. B. Flood, The Qur'an, in H. C. Evans & B. Ratliff (Eds.), Byzantium And Islam: Age Of Transition 7th - 9th Century, 2012, Metropolitan Museum of Art: New York (USA), pp. 270–271.
- A. Guillaume. The Version of the Gospels Used in Medina Circa 700 A.D. Al-Andalus, 15 (1950) pp. 289–296.
- Guillaume`s note: Evangeliarum Hierosolymitanum ed. Count F.M. Erizzo, Verona, 1861, p. 347, and The Palestinian Syriac Lectionary of the Gospels re-edited from two Sinai MSS and from P. de Lagarde`s edition of the Evangeliarum Hierosolymitanum by Agnes Smith Lewis and Magaret Dunlop Gibson, London, 1899, p. 187.
- WATT, W. MONTGOMERY (April 1953). "His Name is Ahmad". The Muslim World. 43 (2): 110–117. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.1953.tb02180.x.
- W. M. Watt who researched the name "Ahmad", as quoted by G. Parrinder, Jesus in the Koran, Sheldon Press, pp. 98–99.
- J. Schacht, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol I, 1960, p. 267.
- New Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol I, 1960.
- Arthur Jeffery. Ghevond`s Text of the Correspondence Between `Umar II and Leo III. Harvard Theological Review. XXXVII (1944), 269–332. Pp. 292–293.
- Palombo, Cecilia (2015). "The "correspondence" of Leo III and 'Umar II: Traces of an early Christian Arabic apologetic work". Millennium. 12: 231–264. doi:10.1515/mill-2015-0110. S2CID 150172579.
- Bart D. Ehrman Forgery and Counterforgery: The Use of Literary Deceit in Early Christian Polemics, Oxford University Press, USA (2012) 978-0199928033