Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi
|Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi|
|Born||14 June 1856
Muhallah Jasoli, Bareilly, NWP, British Indian Empire
|Died||28 October 1921
Muhallah Sodagraan, Bareilly, UP, British Indian Empire
|Main interest(s)||Aqeedah, Fiqh, Tasawwuf|
Part of a series on
The Barelvi movement
|Tomb of Ahmed Raza Khan|
|Literature & Media|
||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (April 2015)|
Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi (Urdu: احمد رضاخان بریلوی, Hindi: अहमद रज़ा खान, Born: 14 june 1856 AD or 10 Shawwal 1272 AH in Muhallah Jasoli Bareilly, UP __Died: 28 October 1921 AD or 25 Safar 1340 AH in Bareilly, UP), known as Aala Hazrat, was a Hanafi Sunni who founded the Barelvi movement of South Asia. Raza Khan wrote on numerous topics, including law, religion, philosophy and the sciences. He wrote numerous works on Muhammad.
Ahmad was born on 14 June 1856 in Jasuli, one of the areas of Bareilly Sharif, united India. His birth name is Mohammad however his grandfather called him Ahmad Raza and his mother named him Amman Miyān. He became famous with the name which was kept by his grandfather. Khan used the appellation "Abdul Mustafa" (slave [or servant] of Mustafa) prior to signing his name in correspondence.
Ahmed Raza Khan's beliefs regarding Muhammad include:
- That Muhammad, although human, possessed a nūr or "light" that predates creation. This contrasts with the Deobandi view that Muhammad, was insan-e-kamil ("the complete man"), a respected but physically typical human.
- He is haazir naazir (can be present in many places at the same time, as opposed to God, who is everywhere by definition).
We do not hold that anyone can equal the knowledge of Allah Most High, or possess it independently, nor do we assert that Allah’s giving of knowledge to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) is anything but a part. But what a patent and tremendous difference between one part [the Prophet’s] and another [anyone else’s]: like the difference between the sky and the earth, or rather even greater and more immense.—Ahmed Raza Khan, al-Dawla al-Makkiyya (c00), 291.
Opposition to other sects
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian claimed to be the Mahdi awaited by Muslims as well as a Ummati Nabi, a subordinate prophet to Muhammad who brings no new Sharia but instead restore Islam to its pure form. Ahmed Raza branded Mirza Ghulam Ahmad a heretic and apostate and called him and his followers kuffar.
When Ahmed Raza visited Mecca and Medina for pilgrimage in 1905, he prepared a draft document entitled Al Motamad Al Mustanad "The Reliable Proofs" for presentation to the scholars there. Ahmed Raza Khan collected opinions of the ulama of the Hejaz and compiled them in an compendium with the title "Sword of the Two Sanctuaries" (Urdu: حسام الحرمین, a work containing 34 verdicts from 33 ulama, 20 Meccan and 13 Medinese. In that work, which was to inspire a reciprocal series of fatwas between Barelvis and Deobandis continuing to the present, Ahmad Reza Khan denounced as kuffar the Deobandi leaders Ashraf Ali Thanwi, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, and Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi.
- Raza opposed labeling British India to be Dar al-Harb ("land of war"), thus opposing the Deobandi interpretation of jihad (struggle) or hijrat (migration to escape) against the proposed plans of the Deobandiyya Movement who wished to begin jihaad. Raza's stance was opposed by Deobandi scholars such as Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi.
- Hamid Raza Khan
- Muhammad Ilyas Qadri
- Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi
- Qamaruzzaman Azmi
- Syed Waheed Ashraf
- Hayat-e-Aala Hadhrat, vol.1 p.1
- See:Ala Hazrat denied and condemned Taziah,Qawwali,tawaf of mazar,sada except Allah SWT,women visit at Mazar and Fatiha.
- Illustrated Dictionary of the Muslim World (2011), p. 113. Marshall Cavendish, ISBN 9780761479291
- Globalisation, Religion & Development (2011), p. 53. Farhang Morady and İsmail Şiriner (eds.). London: International Journal of Politics and Economics.
- Rowena Robinson (2005) Tremors of Violence: Muslim Survivors of Ethnic Strife in Western India, p. 191. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, ISBN 0761934081
- Roshen Dalal (2010) The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths, p. 51. Revised edition. City of Westminster: Penguin Books, ISBN 9780143415176
- Barbara D. Metcalf (2009) Islam in South Asia in Practice, p. 342. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism (2007), p. 92. Oliver Roy and Antoine Sfeir (eds.), New York: Columbia University Press.
- Gregory C. Doxlowski and Usha Sanyal (Oct–Dec 1999). "Devotional Islam and Politics in British India: Ahmad Riza Khan Barelwi and His Movement, 1870–1920". Journal of the American Oriental Society 119 (4): 707–709. doi:10.2307/604866. JSTOR 604866.
- Elizabeth Sirriyeh (1999) Sufis and Anti-Sufis: The Defense, Rethinking and Rejection of Sufism in the Modern World, p. 49. London: Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-1058-2.
- Usha Sanyal (1998). "Generational Changes in the Leadership of the Ahl-e Sunnat Movement in North India during the Twentieth Century". Modern Asian Studies 32 (3): 635. doi:10.1017/S0026749X98003059.
- Ali Riaz (2008) Faithful Education: Madrassahs in South Asia, p. 75. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, ISBN 9780813543451
- Usha Sanyal (1996). Devotional Islam and politics in British India: Ahmad Riza Khan Barelwi and his movement, 1870–1920. Oxford University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-19-563699-4.
- Usha Sanyal, Ahmad Riza Khan Barelwi: In the Path of the Prophet, Oneworld Publications (2012), p. 52
- Ala Hadhrat by Bastawi, p. 25
- Man huwa Ahmed Rida by Shaja'at Ali al-Qadri, p.15
- Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures. Marshall Cavendish. 1 September 2010. pp. 145–. ISBN 978-0-7614-7926-0. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
- Pakistan perspectives, Volume 7. Pakistan Study Centre, University of Karachi, 2002
- Akbar S. Ahmed (1999) Islam today: a short introduction to the Muslim world. I.B. Tauris Publishers, ISBN 978-1-86064-257-9
- N. C. Asthana & A.Nirmal (2009) Urban Terrorism : Myths And Realities. Publisher Pointer Publishers, ISBN 978-81-7132-598-6, p. 67
- Zahid Aziz, Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam (2008) A survey of the Lahore Ahmadiyya movement: history, beliefs, aims and work. A.a.i.i.l. (u.k.), ISBN 978-1-906109-03-5. p. 43
- R. Upadhyay, Barelvis and Deobandhis: "Birds of the Same Feather". Eurasia Review, courtesy of the South Asia Analysis Group. 28 January 2011.
- M. Naeem Qureshi. Pan-Islam in British Indian politics: a study of the Khilafat Movement, 1918–1924. BRILL, 1999. ISBN 978-90-04-11371-8. p. 179
- Baraka, A – A Saviour in a Dark World (Article) The Islamic Times, March 2003 Stockport, UK
- Haroon, M The World of Ahmed Raza Kazi Publications, Lahore 1974
- Sanyal, Usha, Ahmed Riza Khan Barelwi: In the Path of the Prophet (Makers of the Muslim World), Oneworld, 2005.