Ahmed al-Assir

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Shiekh Ahmad Al-Assir
Personal
Born (1968-05-05) 5 May 1968 (age 51)[1]
ReligionIslam
NationalityLebanese
DenominationSalafi
OccupationCleric

Ahmad Al-Assir (born 5 May 1968) is the former Imam of the Bilal Bin Rabah Mosque in Sidon, South Lebanon. With his increasing involvement in regional politics after the Syrian Civil War began and his interaction with the media, he has become a notorious personality in Lebanon's current political landscape. Al-Assir is a Salafi.[2][3] He frequently agitates against Iran and Hezbollah, whom he accuses of being a threat to the fragile sectarian balance and democracy of Lebanon.[4]

After being a wanted fugitive for years, Al-Assir was detained on 15 August 15, 2015 by Lebanese General Security officials while attempting to flee to Egypt using a forged passport in Beirut International Airport.[5] Upon his capture, it was revealed that Al-Assir had undergone physical changes in appearance and attire; with a shaved beard and new clothing style and facial modifications suggesting the use of plastic surgery. On 28 September 2017 Al-Assir was sentenced to death.[6]

Background[edit]

Al-Assir is from a mixed background - his mother is a Shia from the south of Lebanon, and his father is a Sunni from Sidon.[7] He came from a non-religious artistic home, but later convinced his father not to play music. He has two wives and three children. According to one of his sisters, he was once a supporter of Hezbollah,[8] but withdrew his support when Hezbollah and the Lebanese Shiite withdrew their focus from Israel and begun to exert excessive force on the delicate sectarian balance of Lebanon.[9]

Assir's notoriety increased after a series of sermons and public exhibitions criticizing Hezbollah, a once untouchable symbol in the Lebanese political landscape. He also caused controversy by openly criticizing figures within the militia such as secretary general and spokesperson Sayed Hassan Nasrallah. Many of his speeches are critical of Hezbollah's, Iran's and the Arab Baath Party's support for Syrian President Bashar Al-Asad.[10] Assir has stated that he is only against Shias that follow the teachings of Khomeini.[11] Assir has attempted to become a leader of the Sunnis of Lebanon, without success.[12] Currently he is not considered a mainstream Sunni Scholar;[by whom?] however, his aggressive and emotional rhetoric against Hezbollah's intervention in Syria has gained him headlines and controversy, along with attracting many supporters and followers disillusioned with the traditionally Sunni Future Movement party and the leadership of Saad Hariri.[13][14]

2012 sit-ins[edit]

In August 2012, Al-Assir and his supporters staged a sit in in the southern city of Sidon to protest against Hezbollah's weaponry.[15] This led to tensions, and later clashes between Assir-supporters and members of the Popular Nasserist Organization.[16][17] An AFP photographer was beaten by security forces during the clashes.[18] The following day, counter-protests were held by members of the PNO.[16]

On 8 August, a gunfight between supporters and rivals of Assir wounded five, including two women.[19]

Access to the media[edit]

Marcel Ghanem hosting Ahmed al-Assir in his political talk show Kalam El-Nas

As Lebanon is a freedom of speech country, every Lebanese was able or obliged to hear Assir speech. Some media went far in hosting him in their studios in particular Marcel Ghanem who hosted him in his political talk show Kalam El-Nas. Some Lebanese criticized the fact that Assir was given a media platform despite his provocative speeches and referred to the fact that Bin Laden was not able to speech on CNN or Fox News despite that the United States is a freedom of speech country.[citation needed]

Attacking other religions[edit]

Assir has usually provocative speeches attacking Shias. His hate touched also other religions especially the Christians and he expressed it in a public preaching: Our mind is forgiveness and selves-control. How can an engineer pray for a cow or an atomic scientist worship rats or trees and this one worships Jesus and the other worships a rock and fire and hell. Where will they go when they die? This is our matter.[citation needed]

Military Clashes[edit]

2012 Sidon clash[edit]

On 11 November 2012, three people were killed and four others wounded after supporters of Assir clashed with supporters of Hezbollah in the southern city of Sidon.[20][21] Assir stated "We have a blood score to settle with Hezbollah that can only be settled with blood", and that he considered forming an "armed resistance group" to defend Lebanon from Israel as he believed that Hezbollah's weapons had now been pointed internally.[22]

Syrian civil war[edit]

In April 2013, Assir urged his followers to join the Syrian rebels by claiming that "There is now no other choice but to defend our (Sunni) people in Syria," and assuring that "There is a religious duty on every Muslim who is able to do so... to enter into Syria in order to defend its people, its mosques and religious shrines, especially in Qusayr and Homs," adding that "This fatwa (religious decree) affects us all, especially those who have military experience." Assir also announced the establishment of "Free resistance battalions" in Sidon.[3] Such announcements came after there was enough evidence that Hezbollah militias had been involved in Syria who were fighting alongside Bashar's army.

2013 Sidon clashes[edit]

In June 2013, clashes broke out in an eastern suburb of Sidon after several people attacked, threw stones and shattered windows in a car belonging to Assir's brother, Amjad al-Assir. Assir then gave Hezbollah a one-week ultimatum to vacate apartments occupied by the group's supporters in the mostly Sunni city, as clashes broke out with gunmen wielding automatic rifles and rocket-propelled grenades. Officials stated that the gunmen fighting Assir's followers were believed to be Hezbollah sympathizers.[23]

Lebanese army troops deployed in the area of the fighting, which subsided after several hours. The military called on gunmen loyal to Assir to withdraw immediately from the streets whilst ignoring the presence of Hezbollah gunmen.

A group of Assir's followers were believed[by whom?] to stage armed attacks on several civil apartments in Saida, which were reportedly identified as Hezbollah offices.[by whom?] Some Lebanese saw the attacks as highlights of a series of provocations initiated by Saudi and Qatar-backed Sunni fundamentalists whilst many others believed Iran was the real reason for the provocations.

On 23 June 2013, according to news channels loyal to Hezbollah said that 10 Lebanese Army soldiers were killed and 35 wounded in a clash with armed men loyal to Assir, in Sidon at an Army post near the Abra complex that houses the Bilal bin Rabah Mosque.[24] Other Lebanese news channels denied this and accused Hezbollah militias of being involved. Violence started with a deadly attack on an army checkpoint. Roads were later blocked in other parts of the country, and the army came under fire in the Ain el-Hilweh camp.[25]

During 23–24 June 2013, heavy street fighting erupted between the Lebanese Army and gunmen loyal to Assir in Sidon as they were accused of provoking the attack. Sixteen Lebanese soldiers, thirteen Assir supporters and approximately 4 Hezbollah militants were killed.[26] A bodyguard of a cleric, who tried to reach the fighting to negotiate a ceasefire, also died.[27] More than 100 Lebanese soldiers were wounded,[28] as well as 13 pro-Assir militants.[29] The Lebanese army requested for the country's politicians to intervene.[30] On Monday June 24, 2013, Lebanese Army commandos seized a complex controlled by gunmen loyal to Assir in the southern city of Sidon, shortly after he fled the premises to an unknown destination.

Assir reportedly fled the complex at around 10 a.m., shortly after the Army stormed the premises which the military gradually gained control over throughout the day. Sources said soldiers were still trading gunfire with snipers located on the rooftops of nearby buildings. Sixty-five gunmen, including several Palestinian and Syrian refugees, reportedly either surrendered or were captured by Army units during the raid on the complex. Lebanon's military prosecutor issued arrest warrants against Assir and 123 of his followers. The warrants also included the name of Assir's brother.

The raid on the compound at noon came after an attempt by a group of Salafi preachers to mediate a truce reached a dead end, with the Army determined to continue its operations. There is no factual basis for the claim that Assir was captured and his followers crushed.[31] His fate remains unknown, however, the army is treating the matter as a capture or kill operation on the basis that they believe it was only Assir that killed Lebanese soldiers in "cold blood", according to a military statement.[14][32][33]

Military Court prosecution[edit]

In February 2014, it was reported that military courts were seeking the death penalty for Ahmed al-Assir, and prison terms for up to 20 of his followers.[34] According to Lebanese authorities, al-Assir was arrested at Beirut airport in August 2015.[35] On 28 September 2017, the Lebanese Military Courts declared the verdict of death penalty for Assir.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Al-Assir: A New parasite of "Sunni Terrorism" in Lebanon". Al Akhbar English. March 2, 2012. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
  2. ^ "Lebanese Salafist Cleric Organizes Militia Forays into Syria". Jamestown Foundation (Terrorism Monitor vol. 11, Issue 10). May 17, 2013. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Lebanese Sunni cleric calls for jihad to aid Syrian rebels against Hezbollah". Al Arabiya. April 23, 2013. Retrieved June 28, 2013.
  4. ^ Filkins, Dexter (March 25, 2013). "How Syria's War Brought Down Lebanon's Prime Minister". The New Yorker. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
  5. ^ Agencies Beirut (August 15, 2015). "Lebanon arrests fugitive cleric Ahmad al-Assir". Al Arabiya. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  6. ^ Josh Wood (August 15, 2015). "Years after battling Lebanon's military, Al Assir detained while fleeing abroad". The National. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  7. ^ Nour Samaha (June 26, 2013). "Who is Lebanon's Ahmed al-Assir?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
  8. ^ "Breaking down Ahmad al-Assir: the man behind the beard". Alarabiya.net English. June 25, 2013. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
  9. ^ Mansoor Moaddel, Jean Kors, Johan Gärde "Sectarianism and Counter-Sectarianism in Lebanon," Archived May 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Population Studies Center Research Report 12-757 (May 2012)
  10. ^ "Ahmed al-Assir and Salafism in Lebanon | Near East Quarterly". Neareastquarterly.com. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  11. ^ "Al-Assir: A New Guardian of "Sunni Interests" in Lebanon". Al Akhbar English. March 2, 2012. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
  12. ^ "Has Lebanon's Sheikh Assir Reached a Dead End? - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  13. ^ Gary C. Gambill, “Salafi-jihadism in Lebanon,” Mideast Monitor 3.1 (2008)
  14. ^ a b "Ahmad al-Assir and Lebanon's Despondent Sunnis". Al Akhbar English. March 4, 2013. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
  15. ^ "Assir sit-in raises tension in south as preacher awaits Dialogue". The Daily Star. July 17, 2012. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
  16. ^ a b "Bahia Hariri Says Seeking Pacification in Sidon after Rival Demos, Unrest". Naharnet. July 27, 2012. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
  17. ^ "Scuffle at south Lebanon sit-in, two men roughed up". The Daily Star. July 27, 2012. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
  18. ^ "AFP Photographer Beaten in Clash between Asir Supporters, Passersby". Naharnet. July 26, 2012. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
  19. ^ "Gunfight in Sidon between Assir and local rivals wounds five". The Daily Star. August 9, 2012. Retrieved August 25, 2012.
  20. ^ "Asir's Bodyguard Killed, Hizbullah Official Wounded in Sidon Gunfight". Naharnet. November 11, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
  21. ^ "Two killed, three wounded in Sidon clashes". The Daily Star. November 11, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
  22. ^ "Asir: We Suspended Decision to Form Armed Brigade Pending Consultations". Naharnet. 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
  23. ^ BARBARA SURK (June 18, 2013). "Lebanon Clashes: Security Officials Clash With Gunmen Loyal To Hezbollah Critic In Port City Of Sidon". Huffington Post. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
  24. ^ "10 Troops Martyred in Clashes with al-Asir's Gunmen in Abra — Naharnet". Naharnet.com. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
  25. ^ "Sidon Clashes Spill Over as Roads Were Blocked in Tripoli, Army Positions Become Target to Fire — Naharnet". Naharnet.com. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
  26. ^ "Lebanon Clashes Rage Near Mosque; 16 Soldiers Dead". Npr.org. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
  27. ^ "12 troops killed in Lebanon clashes with Sunni radicals". English.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
  28. ^ "Lebanon clashes: At least 16 soldiers killed in Sidon". Bbc.co.uk. June 24, 2013. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
  29. ^ "Army moves to crush Assir, secure Sidon". Dailystar.com.lb. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
  30. ^ "Deadly fighting rages in Lebanon". Aljazeera.com. June 24, 2013. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
  31. ^ Mohammed Zaatari. "Lebanese Army storms Assir complex, preacher flees". The Daily Star. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
  32. ^ Reuters (June 24, 2013). "Lebanese army storms Islamist mosque as Syria crisis spreads - 16 soldiers killed 24 June 2013". Haaretz.com. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
  33. ^ "Bomb explodes in eastern Lebanon near Syria". English.alarabiya.net. June 25, 2013. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
  34. ^ "Lebanese judge seeks death penalty for Ahmad al-Assir". english.al-akhbar.com. Al Akhbar (Lebanon). February 28, 2014. Archived from the original on May 13, 2014. Retrieved August 2, 2016.
  35. ^ Laila Bassam: "Lebanese authorities detain militant Islamist cleric" 15 August 2015 Reuters