Ahn Cheol-soo

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Ahn Cheol-soo
안철수
안철수 의원의 깜짝 방문 (cropped).jpg
Chairman of the People's Party
In office
27 August 2017 – 13 February 2018
Preceded by Park Jie-won
Succeeded by Position disestablished
In office
2 February 2016 – 29 June 2016
Serving with Chun Jung-bae
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Park Jie-won
Member of the National Assembly
In office
25 April 2013 – 15 April 2017
Preceded by Roh Hoe-chan
Succeeded by Kim Seong-hwan (2018)
Constituency Seoul Nowon C
Chairman of the New Politics Alliance for Democracy
In office
26 March 2014 – 31 July 2014
Serving with Kim Han-gil
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Moon Jae-in
Personal details
Born (1962-02-26) 26 February 1962 (age 56)
Miryang, South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea
Nationality South Korean
Political party Bareunmirae Party (2018-)
Other political
affiliations
People's Party (2016–2018)
NPAD (2014–15)
Spouse(s) Kim Mi-kyung
Children 1 daughter
Alma mater Seoul National University
University of Pennsylvania
Occupation Physician
Professor
Software entrepreneur
Known for V3 (antivirus software)
Signature
Military service
Allegiance  South Korea
Service/branch Republic of Korea Navy
Years of service 1992–1994
Rank 대위.JPG Daewi (Lieutenant)
[1][2]
Ahn Cheol-soo
Hangul
Hanja
Revised Romanization An Cheol-su
McCune–Reischauer An Ch'ŏlsu

Ahn Cheol-soo (Hangul안철수 [an tɕʰʌl.s͈u]; born 26 February 1962) is a South Korean politician, physician, and software entrepreneur. A two-time former presidential election candidate in 2012 and 2017, Ahn is currently the Bareunmirae Party's candidate for the Seoul mayorship.[3]

He ran as an independent candidate for the presidential election in 2012, but withdrew a month before the election took place to support Moon Jae-in whom he ran against in 2017 as the People's Party nominee. He was a founding co-leader and the party leader of the People's Party until his party and Bareun Party merged as Bareunmirae Party in February 2018.

Prior to politics, Ahn founded AhnLab, Inc., an antivirus software company, in 1995. He was chairman of the board and Chief Learning Officer of AhnLab until September 2012, and remains the company's largest stakeholder. Prior to entering politics, Ahn served as dean of the Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology at Seoul National University until September 2012.

Early life and education[edit]

Ahn was born on 26 February 1962, in Miryang, South Korea, while his father was on military service there; he subsequently moved with his family to Busan, where he grew up.[4] Ahn was not an academic child but had number academic hobbies such as reading.[5]

He received his Doctor of Medicine (MD), Master of Science (MS), and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degrees in physiology from Seoul National University between 1980 and 1991. He became the youngest chief of professors at Dankook University medical college at 27 years of age, marking his first career as a medical doctor.[6] Ahn met his wife whilst in university.[7]

Whilst working as a graduate student pursuing his MD, Ahn began to gain an interest in computer software as a hobby, in particular, antivirus software. Ahn soon began working on his own antivirus software after he was confronted with a virus that was mass-infecting computers in Korea. Ahn was soon infected with the same virus and reverse engineered the virus in an attempt to erase it from his disk drive which was successful. The program he wrote to help get rid of the virus was eventually called "Vaccine"[8] which Ahn distributed for free.

Business Career[edit]

AhnLab, Inc[edit]

After finishing military service as a medical officer in the South Korean navy, and leaving behind his career in the medical profession, Cheol-soo went on to establish his venture company AhnLab, Inc in March 1995[6] after being advised by a software company official to do so.[9] Ahn had previously attempted to distribute V3 via Samsung's brand though Samsung rejected Ahn's offer.[10]

Ahn, not knowing how to run a business at first, struggled for the first several years.[11] Whilst managing the company, Ahn was also attempting to get a master's degree in engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, where he graduated in 1997.[12] Ahn eventually received a $10 million offer from US software giant, McAfee[13] and Ahn met with John McAfee personally. McAfee was struggling to expand into South Korea due to AhnLab, Inc and wanted to purchase the company in an attempt to monopolize the anti-virus software market in South Korea. Ahn rejected the offer because, despite the AhnLab, Inc struggling, selling the company would lead to widespread redundancies.[14][15]

In 1999, the company began to run a surplus after the CIH virus became widespread in Korea and people needed to buy V3 to protect against it.[16] By the end of 1999, AhnLab, Inc became the second biggest computer security company in South Korea.[17]

The same company later became the largest computer security company in South Korea,[18][19][20] and was included in annual lists of Korea's most admired companies by Korea Management Association Consulting between 2004 and 2008.[21][22][23][24][25] He resigned as CEO in 2005 and served as chairman of the board until 2012.

Ahn revealed that John McAfee once suggested it would acquire AhnLab for $10,000,000 but rejected the offer. He mentioned patriotic reasons about the decision saying that selling AhnLab might allow a foreign firm to dominate the Korean market.

Later life and education[edit]

Ahn became an outside director of POSCO in 2005, and from 2010 to 2011 was chairman of the company.

Ahn was awarded an Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA) degree from the Wharton School (San Francisco campus) in 2008. He then became a professor at KAIST in 2008, and later in the beginning of 2011 became the Dean of the Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology at Seoul National University.[6]

Political career[edit]

Entry into politics[edit]

Since 2006, Ahn had been offered places in the main political parties but was constantly denied any chance to run as an independent due to opposing factions.

In early September 2011, speculation spread that Ahn would enter politics by competing in the 26 October Seoul mayoral by-election. The Democratic Party and Liberty Korea Party attempted to recruit Ahn for the mayoral by-election though they failed due to Ahn feeling like he, and many other voters, had become disenfranchised with the main two choices.[26] Ahn eventually made an announcement, denouncing the opposition and ruling party[27] and saying he was not sure on his candidacy, deciding to watch the polls before making a choice though he shared the sentiment that he felt like it'd take a lot of work to help Seoul, saying "ten years of work" would be needed to help the city.[28]

Analysts stated that if positioned as an independent, Ahn would attract a degree of support from those disaffected by mainstream political parties in the wake of corruption allegations and continuing policy failures.

Ahn's polling was higher than other potential candidates, at 35% with second place coming in at 17%.[29] His approval rating was subsequently polled afterwards, reaching over 50%.[30] Ahn eventually didn't run despite his positive poll ratings[31] instead endorsing Park Won-soon who went on to win the by-election.[32] Park's win has been attributed to Ahn's endorsement due to centrist voters moving to Park's side after the endorsement.[33]

He alluded to standing as a presidential candidate in his 2012 book Thoughts of Ahn Cheol-Soo.[34]

First presidential campaign (2012)[edit]

On 19 September 2012, at 3 p.m. Korea Standard Time, Ahn held a press conference and announced his intention to run for the 2012 presidential election. This announcement came after months of speculation on whether or not Ahn was going to run for the presidency. The South Korean presidential election was to be held on 19 December 2012. In an address that lasted around 20 minutes, Ahn spent a considerable amount of time explaining how he came to the decision to run for President of the Republic of Korea, quoting the people he had met while exploring his candidacy, who had expressed their desire for a "new politics". Ahn at one point showed to be polling stronger than Moon Jae-in, with a few polls showing he could win against Park Geun-hye, the candidate who would go on to win the election. On 23 November 2012, at 8:20 p.m. KST, Ahn announced that he would drop out of the race,[35] endorsing Moon Jae-in, the Democratic United Party presidential candidate.

Early Assembly career (2013–2016)[edit]

On 11 March 2013, Ahn announced that he would run for a seat in the National Assembly of South Korea as an independent candidate in the by-election in the district of Seoul Nowon C. He won the election on 24 April, entering his first elected office.[36] In May 2013, he launched a new think tank named Policy Network Tomorrow.[37]

New Politics Alliance for Democracy Chairmanship (2014)[edit]

Having entered the Assembly, Ahn began to explore the creation of a new party, which was provisionally named the New Political Vision Party on the basis of public surveys.[38] On 26 March 2014, however, while the party was in the process of being set up, Ahn merged his faction with the liberal Democratic Party to form the New Politics Alliance for Democracy (NPAD), becoming co-chairman of the new party alongside Kim Han-gil.[39][40] Ahn and Kim both resigned from their position three months later in July following the new party's disappointing performance in by-elections that year, which had seen the liberals lose a seat in Jeolla to conservatives for the first time in 26 years.[41]

Defection from the NPAD (2015)[edit]

Ahn remained in the NPAD, but came into increasing conflict with Moon Jae-in, who had taken over sole leadership of the party after his resignation, and the "pro-Roh" faction that Moon represented. In December 2015, Ahn issued an ultimatum to Moon demanding that a convention be held at the beginning of 2016 to elect a new party leader. Moon rejected the demand.[42] Ahn then left the NPAD along with a range of other lawmakers opposed to Moon, including Kim Han-gil.[43] Announcing that he would form a new party, he subsequently joined forces with Chun Jung-bae, who had left the party earlier in the year,[44] to form the People's Party in January 2016.[45] Moon resigned as leader after Ahn's defection, describing his experience as "a series of difficult days without a single one of respite".[46]

People's Party (2016–2018)[edit]

Ahn positioned the new People's Party as an anti-establishment centrist force, attracting support from both political wings.[47] He labeled the remaining NPAD "anachronistic progressives",[48] and accused contemporary Korean politicians of lacking policies beyond "short-term gimmicks".[49] In the lead-up to the April 13 parliamentary election, he came into conflict with his co-leader Chun and other members of the party after Kim Chong-in, the interim leader of the Democratic Party, the NPAD's successor, called for the two parties to form an electoral alliance. Kim Han-gil and Ahn's co-leader Chun both supported the plan, but Ahn rejected any prospect of an alliance with his former party.[50] The proposal was ultimately scotched, with Kim Han-gil withdrawing from the upcoming election in protest.[51]

In the event, the People's Party performed better than anticipated, coming second in party-list voting and winning 38 seats overall, including 23 of the 28 districts in the liberal stronghold of Jeolla.[52] The People's Party held the balance of power in the new Assembly, establishing a three-party system.[53] Ahn was credited for the victory, which was seen as giving him a position as kingmaker and support for contesting the presidential elections in the following year.[54][55] Following the election, Ahn rejected continued calls to regroup with the Minjoo Party, stating that "it would be inappropriate to speak of politically realigning at this point in time". He added that the People's Party would not be "a mere tie-breaking third party, but ... a new opinion leader in parliamentary affairs".[56]

Second presidential campaign and defeat (2017)[edit]

Ahn was widely known to be a likely contender for the 2017 South Korean presidential election. He was selected as the People's Party's nominee,[57] defeating Sohn Hak-kyu and Park Joo-sun.[58] Despite rapid increase in opinion polling which briefly bypassed Moon Jae-In, Ahn floundered in TV debates that led to his loss finishing third in a field of five total candidates.[59]

Return of party chairmanship (2017-2018)[edit]

The underperformance of his presidential campaign and a party scandal that found People's Party members fabricating evidence to smear Moon Jae-in's campaign led Ahn to declare in July 2017 to both apologize and take a step back from politics in "self-reflection." He returned a month later to run, and later win, the party chairmanship.[60]

Bareunmirae Party (2018-present)[edit]

As head of the People's Party, Ahn was a strong advocate for merging with the center-right Bareun Party. The two leaders of the respective parties, Ahn and former presidential contender Yoo Seung-min, pushed forward with the merger which was completed in February 2018.

Although Yoo retained a leadership position within the new party and Ahn stepped down from any leadership role, as of March 2018 took on the role of leading the party's talent recruiting committee - a formal position speculated to signal his preparation to run for the Seoul mayorship later in the year.[61]

Seoul Mayorship campaign (2018)[edit]

Political positions[edit]

"New Politics"[edit]

Ahn has stated that he considers Franklin D. Roosevelt to be a role model,[54] and has referred to himself as the Bernie Sanders of Korea.[62] He supports an increased capital gains tax, higher public welfare spending, and a cautious approach to free trade agreements.[54]

Centrism[edit]

Ahn has also made appeals to conservatives, however, and has associated the People's Party with "reformative" currents of Korean conservatism.[63] In September 2012, Ahn visited the graves of Syngman Rhee, Park Chung-hee, and Kim Dae-jung. Park and Rhee are often praised by Korean conservatives, and Kim by liberals. Ahn stated at the time that it would be "hypocritical to paint half the people as enemies and at the same time call for 'unity'".[64] Ahn has been considered "more palatable for conservative voters" in part due to his business background.[57]

National security (THAAD)[edit]

Ahn was among the first who opposed the American deployment of the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense system, commonly referred to as THAAD, alongside Moon Jae-in. However, he changed his stance suggesting it was "irresponsible" for any future president to reverse an agreement already made between the United States and Korea.[57]

LGBT rights[edit]

Ahn has stated he opposes the legalization of same-sex marriage, although in a more detailed article on broadcasting network SBS' website, he said that same-sex marriage needs to be achieved through social discussion.[citation needed]

Philanthropy[edit]

In December 2011, Ahn has expressed his willingness to donate half of his shares in AhnLab for the education of children from low-income families. He owns 37.1 percent of AhnLab shares, and as of 9 December 2011, the value of the shares to be donated is about 250 billion won ($218 million).[65]

Legal problems[edit]

In September 2012, Ahn made a public apology as reports surfaced that his wife evaded taxes by under-pricing a 2001 apartment she bought worth ₩450 million to ₩250 million, thus reducing the acquisition and registration taxes by up to ₩10 million. However, a statement by the Korea Taxpayers' Association claimed that the "down contract" was in accordance with trade customs and thus not unlawful due to flaws in the local tax law between 1996 and 2005.[66]

Personal life[edit]

In 1988 he married Kim Mi-kyung, who is currently a professor at the Seoul National University College of Medicine. Ahn has a daughter with Kim.[67]

Bibliography[edit]

  • 2012. Thought of Ahn Cheol-Soo (안철수의 생각). 김영사. 276 pages. ISBN 9788934958710
  • 2009. Happy Virus by Ahn Cheol-soo (행복 바이러스 안철수: 안철수 박사가 쓴 안철수 이야기). 리젬. 136 pages. ISBN 9788992826259.[68]
  • 2009. My Mother Who Fostered My Ability (재능을 키워 준 나의 어머니). Jaeneung Academy. 143 pages. ISBN 9788976492456.
  • 2007. My Turning Point (내 인생의 결정적 순간: 그 순간이 없었으면 지금의 나는 없다). IMAGE Box. 247 pages. ISBN 9788991684348.
  • 2004. What We Need (CEO 안철수, 지금 우리에게 필요한 것은). KimYoung. 259 pages. ISBN 8934917202.
  • 2003. My Choice (나의 선택: 무엇이든지 하고 싶지만 쉽게 결단을 내리지 못하는 젊음에게). JeongEum. 231 pages. ISBN 8990164192.
  • 2001. Spiritual Showdown (CEO 안철수, 영혼이 있는 승부). KimYoung. 291 pages. ISBN 8934907525.
  • 2000. Ahn’s Internet Shortcut (안철수의 인터넷 지름길). BookMark. 396 pages. ISBN 8988351142.
  • 1997. Ahn’s Protection and Healing Computer Virus (안철수의 바이러스 예방과 치료). Information Age. 222 pages. ISBN 8985346865.
  • 1996. Analysing Computer Virus and Making Antivirus Software (바이러스 분석과 백신 제작). Information Age. 391 pages. ISBN 8985346180.
  • 1995. Eccentric Computer Doctor, Ahn Cheol-soo (별난 컴퓨터 의사 안철수). Vision. 336 pages. ISBN 8985456148.
  • 1995. Learning Computer Easily (컴퓨터, 참 쉽네요!). Youngjin. 396 pages. ISBN 8931406509.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "AhnLab". AhnLab. 2002-07-08. Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2010-01-22. 
  2. ^ Ahn Chul-soo: “Korea needs horizontal thinking to make a Nintendo game player.” at Korea Foundation.
  3. ^ "Ahn Cheol-soo declares bid for Seoul mayor". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2018-04-05. 
  4. ^ "The vetting of Ahn Cheol-soo". The Hankyoreh. 12 October 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2016. 
  5. ^ http://entertain.naver.com/read?oid=109&aid=0002032901
  6. ^ a b c "Who is Ahn Cheol-soo". koreatimes. 2011-09-05. Retrieved 2017-03-29. 
  7. ^ 재경일보 (2009-06-18). "'무릎팍도사' 출연 안철수, "부인과는 유명한 캠퍼스 커플, 프러포즈는…"". 재경일보 (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-05-10. 
  8. ^ http://www.newsen.com/news_view.php?uid=200906180048251001.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. ^ "안철수 KAIST 교수, 17일 무릎팍 도사 출연" (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-05-10. 
  10. ^ "안철수, 1000만 불 인수제의 거절한 이유!! | 아츠뉴스". artsnews.mk.co.kr. Retrieved 2018-05-10. 
  11. ^ "'무릎팍도사' 안철수, 반쪽짜리 감동". 
  12. ^ http://news.hankooki.com/lpage/society/201103/h2011031821075622020.htm.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. ^ 민도식, 나를 확바꾸는 실천 독서법 북포스 155페이지 '1997년 직원들에게 안철수연구소를 맡겨둔채 미국에서 유학하며 실리콘벨리에 머물던 중 현재 경쟁회사 맥아피에게 1천만달러 제안 받았지만 거절'
  14. ^ "'무릎팍도사' 출연 안철수, 온화한 카리스마로 시청자 압도" (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-05-10. 
  15. ^ "무릎팍 안철수 "외국회사 1000만불 매각제의 단호히 거절" - 헬스코리아뉴스" (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-05-10. 
  16. ^ "안철수 "정치할 생각 있냐고요?"" (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-05-10. 
  17. ^ "'무릎팍도사' 출연 안철수, "한국의 빌게이츠(?)...너무 과분해"". 종합일간지 : 신문/웹/모바일 등 멀티 채널로 국내외 실시간 뉴스와 수준 높은 정보를 제공 (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-05-10. 
  18. ^ AhnLab Looks to Perform in International Stage at Korea Times.
  19. ^ AhnLab Considers Overseas M&A at Korea IT Times.
  20. ^ Gladstone, Rick; Lee, Su-hyun (2012-09-19). "New Voice in South Korean Politics, Ahn Cheol-soo, Enters Presidential Race". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-03-29. 
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-08-05.  (in Korean)
  22. ^ AhnLab, "The Korea's Most Admired company" Consecutive 5 years at Asia Economy (2008.02.20). (in Korean)
  23. ^ "AhnLab". Kr.ahnlab.com. Retrieved 2010-01-22. 
  24. ^ Samsung Electronics Most Admired Company in Korea: Survey Archived 23 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. at Maeil Business Newspaper & mk.co.kr
  25. ^ Book review "세상에서 가장 안전한 이름 안철수 연구소" at The Hankyoreh. (in Korean)
  26. ^ "다시보기 | 시사매거진 2580". www.imbc.com (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-05-10. 
  27. ^ "안철수, "야권과 단일화 얼마든지 고려할 수 있다"". 네이트뉴스 (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-05-10. 
  28. ^ "안철수 "윤여준이 기획자? 그건 언론의 오보"". 네이트뉴스 (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-05-10. 
  29. ^ "안철수, 서울시장 보선 여론조사서 압도적 선두". 네이트뉴스 (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-05-10. 
  30. ^ 미디어오늘 (2011-09-06). "조국 "안철수에 큰박수" 진중권 "과연 인물"". 미디어오늘 (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-05-10. 
  31. ^ ""아무 조건 없습니다" 안철수 깨끗한 양보". 다음 뉴스 (in Korean). 2011-09-07. Retrieved 2018-05-10. 
  32. ^ "박원순, 안철수 지지율 흡수 여부가 변수". 다음 뉴스 (in Korean). 2011-09-07. Retrieved 2018-05-10. 
  33. ^ "박원순 '안철수 지지' 업고 나경원과 오차내 접전" (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-05-10. 
  34. ^ Yeong-doo, Kang (19 July 2012). "Ahn Cheol-soo to announce his candidancy virtually". Yonhapnews. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  35. ^ http://news.naver.com/main/president2012/news/read.nhn?mid=hot&sid1=154&cid=909465&iid=39207146&oid=003&aid=0004843794&ptype=011
  36. ^ "전국 12개 재보선 개표 마무리…安·金·李 당선". News1. Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
  37. ^ "안철수 싱크탱크 출범, 신당 창당 궤도에 올라". Newdaily. Retrieved 25 May 2013. 
  38. ^ "Ahn's party to establish new name at gathering". Korea JoongAng Daily. 17 February 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  39. ^ "Political shocker as DP, Ahn Cheol-soo merge". Korea JoongAng Daily. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  40. ^ "Democratic Party, Ahn Cheol-soo agree to create new party". The Dong-A Ilbo. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  41. ^ "Co-chairmen quit amid election rubble". Korea JoongAng Daily. 1 August 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  42. ^ "NPAD's Moon rejects Ahn demand". Korea JoongAng Daily. 9 December 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  43. ^ "Ahn Cheol-soo calls it quits with NPAD". The Korea Times. 13 December 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  44. ^ "Party feud erodes Moon's leadership". The Korea Herald. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2016. 
  45. ^ "Ahn Cheol-Soo, Chun Jung-Bae To Create New Party". TBS eFM. 25 January 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016. [permanent dead link]
  46. ^ "Moon Jae-in steps down as leader of The Minjoo Party of Korea". The Hankyoreh. 28 January 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  47. ^ "Ahn's popularity baffles parties". The Korea Times. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  48. ^ "Debate over first President Rhee reignites". The Korea Herald. 18 January 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  49. ^ "The Bernie Sanders of Korea? An Interview With Ahn Cheol-soo". The Huffington Post. 11 February 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  50. ^ "Ahn stumbling on internal feud". The Korea Times. 7 March 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  51. ^ "Rep. Kim not to run in April elections". The Korea Times. 17 March 2016. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  52. ^ "In liberal stronghold, voters give main opposition party a lashing". The Hankyoreh. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  53. ^ "Minority People's Party steals show: Ahn's Party holds balance of power as three party system dawns". The Korea Herald. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  54. ^ a b c "Software Tycoon Turns Political Kingmaker in Korea Stalemate". Bloomberg. 14 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  55. ^ "Attention to shift to 2017 presidential race". The Korea Times. 13 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  56. ^ "Ahn gestures at moving onto presidential race". The Korea Herald. 17 April 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2016. 
  57. ^ a b c Sang-hun, Choe (2017-04-14). "South Korea Election Turns Into 2-Way Race as Dark Horse Surges". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-04-15. 
  58. ^ http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=100&oid=079&aid=0003072580
  59. ^ '"Ahn And Hong Exchanges 2nd Place In Polling". 
  60. ^ "Ahn Cheol-soo hails his comeback as People's Party head". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2017-09-15. 
  61. ^ Herald, The Korea (2018-03-16). "Parties ready for Seoul mayoral election". Retrieved 2018-03-28. 
  62. ^ "The Bernie Sanders of Korea? An Interview With Ahn Cheol-soo". The World Post. 11 February 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2016. 
  63. ^ "Ahn backs Yoo to woo conservatives". The Korea Times. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  64. ^ "Ahn visits National Cemetery in first political act". The Hankyoreh. 21 September 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2016. 
  65. ^ Lee (이), Gwang-bin (광빈) (2011-12-11). 안철수 기부주식 2천500억원 넘어. Yonhap News (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  66. ^ Bae, Hyun-jung (28 September 2012). "Ahn apologizes for wife's tax-dodging". Korea Herald. Seoul. 
  67. ^ http://news.mk.co.kr/newsRead.php?year=2012&no=610838 (in Korean)
  68. ^ Book review "Happy Virus by Ahn Cheol-soo" at The Hankyoreh. (in Korean)

External links[edit]