Army of the Mughal Empire

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Mughal Army
Alam of the Mughal Empire.svg
Flag of the Mughal Empire
Founded Late 15th Century
Disbanded 1805
Leadership
Commander-in-Chief Mughal emperor

The Army of the Mughal Empire was the force by which the Mughal emperors established their empire in the 15th century and expanded it to its greatest extent at the beginning of the 18th century. Although its origins, like the Mughals themselves, were in the cavalry-based armies of central Asia, its essential form and structure was established by the empire's third emperor, Akbar.

Great Mogul And His Court Returning From The Great Mosque At Delhi India - Oil Painting by American Artist Edwin Lord Weeks

The army had no regimental structure and the soldiers were not directly recruited by the emperor. Instead, individuals, such as nobles or local leaders, would recruit their own troops, referred to as a mansab, and contribute them to the army.

Origin

The Mughal are originated in Central Asia. As like much of Central Asian Armies The mughal army also much of horse oriented. The ranks and pay of the officers based on the horses they must retained.Babur army was some what small and look like a an afghan origin. The Akbar restructured the army and introduced new system called mansabdari system. Later emperors follow this system.

Organisation and troop types

Mughal emperors mainted a small standing army. They numbered only in thousands. Instead the officers called as mansbadars provides much of the troops.

Standing Army

Sawar Khan, one of the Royal Guards of the Emperor Shah Jahan

The Mughal Emperors mainted small stsnding armies. The emperor own troopers called as Ahadis. They are directly recruited by mughal emperor himself. They have their own pay roll and pay master. They are mainly recruited from emperor own blood relatives and his own tribesmen. They are better paid than normal hormen sowars.

They are gentle men troopers.They are normally in administrative duties in palace. They also include palace guards, emperor own body guards shahiwalas, gate keepers etec. They are better equipped and have own horses.

Emperor also maintain a division of foot soldiers and have his own artillary brigade.

Mansabdars

Standing figure of an officer

Akbar introduced this system. It was an an unique system in the world. Mughal army has no regimental structure. In this system each officer worked for government was an military officer. He must recruit and maintain his quota of horsemen. His rank is based on the horse men he maintain. Normally the highest rank 5000 to lowest 10. Prince has the rank of 25000. This called as zat and sowar system.

He must maintain 1:2 ratio of men to horses. Horses must be carefully verified and branded. The good horses Arabian breed. He must also maintain his quota of horses, elephants and cots for transportation. He also maintain foot soldiers and artillery. He had paid in cash or jagir, cash paid for month to maximum one year. but many choose jagir. Emperor allocated jagir for maintenance of mansabs.

Branches

Mughal army had no real branches. But virtually it has four branches cavalry, infantry, artillery and navy. Cavalry has main role others are auxillary and neglegible.

Cavalry

Man in Armor )

It was superior branch in Mughal army. The horsemen normally recruited by masabdars are high class people. They are better paid than foot soldiers and artillery men. They must have own atlest two horses and good equipment. Normally they used swords, lances, shields, pistols rarely guns. Their armour are made up of steel or leather. They wear their traditional tribal dress which he belogs to. The normal horseman is called as sowar

A Mughal Infantryman

Mughal cavalry also consists of elephants. Normally the generals use elephants. They bore well ornamented and good armour. Mainly they use for traportation to carry heavy goods and heavy guns. Some of rajput mansabdar provides camel cavalry also. They are men from desert areas like Rajastan.

Infantry

Emperors' Own infantry called as Ahsam. Mansabadars also provied infantrymen. They are noramally ill paid and ill equipped. They have no discipline. They include bandukchi or gun bearers, swordsmen.They also include sevants and artisans.

They use a large array of weapons like swords, sheilds, lances, clubs, pistols rifles muskets etc. They normally wear no armour.

Artillery

Main article: Mughal artillery
Mughal Artillery in position

It was an important brach of mughal army. Earlier mughal rulers made good use of it. It is used by babur to achieve an empire Hindustan.

Mughal artillery consists of heavy cannons and light artillery. Heavy cannon are very expensive and very heavy for transportstion. Used in battle field is also some what risky. They were dragged by elephants to battlefields. They to slow to load. Some times ot explodes kill the crew members also.

1565-Battle Scene with Boats on the Ganges-Akbarnama

Light artillery was most useful in battle field. They were mainly made up of bronze and drwan with horses. This also include camel bear swivel guns. They are very effective in battlefield. But time to time the emporers show no interst in development of cannons. They became much out of date when used against europian cannons built with iron.

Granadiers and raketies also came under this category

Navy

It was very very poorest branch in mughal military. Mughal emperos does not show any interest in their navy but they maintain war boats. But theu have no large warships. It also consists pf transport ships. The war boats mainly used to control pirates and some time in war also.

See also

References

Further reading

  • Edwardes, Stephen Meredyth; Garrett, Herbert Leonard Offley. Mughal Rule In India. 
  • Sharma, S. R. Mughal Empire in India: A Systematic Study Including Source Material.