Coordinates: 31°18′17″N 48°40′42″E / 31.30472°N 48.67833°E / 31.30472; 48.67833
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Persian: اهواز
From top: The white bridge, black bridge, Ahvaz at night, the triangle building of Shahid Chamran University, the shrine of Ali ibn Mahziar, Karun river, and the 8th bridge (Ghadir-bridge).
Official seal of Ahvaz
The City of Bridges
Ahvaz is located in Iran
Coordinates: 31°18′17″N 48°40′42″E / 31.30472°N 48.67833°E / 31.30472; 48.67833[1]
 • MayorReza Amini[2]
 • City185 km2 (71 sq mi)
17 m (52 ft)
 (2021 Census)
 • Urban
 • Metro
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
Postal code
Area code(+98) 61

Ahvaz (Persian: اهواز, romanizedAhvâz [ʔæhˈvɒːz] ) is a city in the Central District of Ahvaz County, Khuzestan province, Iran, and serves as capital of the county, the district, and the province. It is home to Persians, Arabs, Bakhtiaris, Dezfulis, Shushtaris, and others.[4] Languages spoken in the area include Persian and Arabic, as well as Luri (Bakhtiari) and different persian dialects such as Dezfuli, Shushtari and etc.[5] Ahvaz's population is about 1,300,000[6] and its built-up area with the nearby town of Sheybani is home to 1,136,989 inhabitants.

At the 2006 National Census, its population was 969,843 in 212,097 households.[7] The following census in 2011 counted 1,112,021 people in 288,271 households.[8] The latest census in 2016 showed a population of 1,184,788 people in 331,556 households.[9]

One of the two navigable rivers of Iran alongside the Arvand Rud (Shatt al-Arab), the Karun, passes through the middle of the city.[10] Ahvaz has a long history, dating back to the Achaemenid period. In ancient times, the city was one of the main centers of the Academy of Gondishapur.

Ahvaz is famous for its beautiful bridges. The white bridge, the black bridge, the nature bridge and the cable bridge are the names of four of them.


The word Ahvaz is a Persianized form of the Arabic "Ahwaz," which, in turn, is derived from an older Persian word. The Dehkhoda Dictionary specifically defines the "Suq-al-Ahvaz" as "Market of the Khuzis", where "Suq" is the Elamite word for market, and "Ahvaz" is a broken plural (اسم جمع) of the form "af'āl" (افعال) of the word "Huz" or "هوز", which itself comes from the Persian Huz, from Achaemenid inscriptions where the term first appears. Thus, "Ahvaz" in Persian means "the Huz-i people", which refers to the Khuzi original inhabitants of Khūzestān.

The name of the region appears in medieval Syriac sources as ܒܝܬ ܗܘܙܝܐ Beṯ Huzáyé, literally meaning "land of the Huzis".[11]

The term "Huz", meanwhile, is the Old Persian rendition of Suz (Susa-Susiana), the native Elamite name of the region. See Origin of the name Khuzestan and Elam#Etymology for more details.


Ancient history[edit]

Ahvaz is the analog of "Avaz" and "Avaja" which appear in the Achaemenid emperor Darius's epigraph. This word also appears in the Naqsh-Rostam inscription as "Khaja" or "Khooja".

First named Ōhrmazd-Ardašēr (Persian: هرمزداردشیر Hormozd ardeshir),[12] Ahvaz was built near the beginning of the Sassanid dynasty on what historians believe to have been the site of the old city of Taryana, a notable city under the Persian Achaemenid dynasty, or the city of Aginis referred to in Greek sources[13] where Nearchus and his fleet entered the Pafitigris. The city was founded either by Ardashir I in 230 (cf. Encyclopædia Iranica, al-Muqaddasi, et al.) or (according to the Middle Persian Šahrestānīhā ī Ērānšahr (shahrestān hā-ye Irānshahr)) by his grandson Hormizd I; the city’s name either combined Ardashir's name with the Zoroastrian name for God, Ōhrmazd, or Hormizd's name with that of his grandfather. It became the seat of the province, and was also referred to as Hūmšēr. During the Sassanid era, an irrigation system and several dams were constructed, and the city prospered. Examples of Sassanid-era dams are Band-e Bala-rud, Band-e Mizan, Band-e Borj Ayar and Band-e Khak. The city replaced Susa, the ancient capital of Susiana, as the capital of what was then called Khuzestān.

The city had two sections; the nobles of the city lived in one part while the other was inhabited by merchants.[14] When Arabs invaded the area in 640, the part of the city home to the nobility was demolished but the Hūj-ī-stānwāčār "Market of Khūz State", the merchant area, remained intact. The city was therefore renamed Sūq al-Ahwāz, "Market of the Khuz", a semi-literal translation of the Persian name of this quarter - Ahwāz being the Arabic broken plural of Hûz, taken from the ancient Persian term for the native Elamite peoples, Hūja (remaining in medieval khūzīg "of the Khuzh" and modern Khuzestān "Khuz State", as noted by Dehkhoda dictionary).

Medieval history[edit]

During the Umayyad and Abbasid eras, in Ahvaz flourished as a center for the cultivation of sugarcane and as the home of many well-known scholars. It is discussed by such respected medieval historians and geographers as ibn Hawqal, Tabari, Istakhri, al-Muqaddasi, Ya'qubi, Masudi, and Mostowfi Qazvini. Nearby stood the Academy of Gundishapur, where the modern-day teaching hospital is said to have been first established.

Ahvaz was devastated in the Mongol invasions of the 13th and 14th centuries and subsequently declined into a village. The dam and irrigation channels, no longer maintained, eroded and finally collapsed early in the 19th century. During this time Ahvaz was primarily inhabited by the original Khuzhis and a small number of Sabians. Although most Arab migrants fled the city, a few stayed. Some minor cultivation continued, while all evidence of sugarcane plantations is still going on in the Haft Teppe area north of Ahvaz, although ruins of sugarcane mills from the medieval era remained in existence.[15] Several ruins of water mills also still remain in Shush and Shushtar.

Modern history[edit]

The seat of the province has, for most of its history, been in its northern reaches, first at Susa (Shush) and then at Shushtar. During a short spell in the Sasanian era, the capital of the province was moved to its geographical center, where the river town of Hormuz-Ardashir (modern Ahvaz). However, later in the Sasanian time and throughout the Islamic era, the provincial seat returned and stayed at Shushtar, until the late Qajar period. With the increase in the international sea commerce arriving on the shores of Khuzestan, Ahvaz became a more suitable location for the provincial capital. The River Karun is navigable all the way to Ahvaz (above which, the Karun flows through rapids). The town was thus refurbished by the order of the Qajar king, Naser al-Din Shah and renamed after him, Nâseri. Shushtar quickly declined, while Ahwaz/Nâseri prospered to the present day.

In the 19th century, "Ahwaz was no more than a small borough inhabited mainly by Sabeans (1,500 to 2,000 inhabitants according to Ainsworth in 1835; 700 according to Curzon in 1890)."[16]

In the 1880s, under Qajar rule, the Karun River was dredged and re-opened to commerce. A newly built railway crossed the Karun at Ahvaz. The city again became a commercial crossroads, linking river and rail traffic. The construction of the Suez Canal further stimulated trade. A port city was built near the old village of Ahvaz, and named Bandar-e-Naseri in honor of Nassereddin Shah Qajar.

Oil was found near Ahvaz in the early 20th century, and the city once again grew and prospered as a result of this newfound wealth. From 1897 to 1925, the city of Ahwaz was in the hands of heshmatoddoleh Ghajar, who acted as governor and Sarhang Reza Gholi Khane Arghoon commander of Ghajari's army based in Khuzestan. Sheikh Khaz'al was recognized by Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar as hereditary ruler of Mohammerah, Sardar Asad Bakhtiari as the most powerful leader of Khuzestan's Bakhtiaries.[citation needed] He had power and authority over most regions of Khuzestan, such as Dezful, Shushtar, Izeh, even Ahwaz and Amir mojahede bakhtiari in Ramhormoz and Behbahan. At this time, the newly founded Ahwaz was named Nâseri in honour to its founder Nassereddin Shah Qajar. Afterwards, during the Pahlavi period, it resumed its old name, Ahwaz. The government of the Khūzestān Province was transferred there from Shûshtar in 1926. The Trans-Iranian Railway reached Ahwaz in 1929 and by World War II, Ahwaz had become the principal built-up area of the interior of Khūzestān. Professional segregation remained well marked between various groups in that period still feebly integrated: Persians, sub-groupings of Persians and Arabs. Natives of the Isfahan region held an important place in retail trade, owners of cafes and hotels and as craftsmen.[17]

Iraq attempted to annex Khūzestān and Ahvaz in 1980, resulting in the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988). Ahwaz was close to the front lines and suffered badly during the war.

Iraq had pressed its claims to Khūzestān. Iraq had hoped to exacerbate ethnic tensions and win over popular support for the invaders. Most accounts say that the Iranian Arab inhabitants resisted the Iraqis rather than welcome them as liberators. However, some Iranian Arabs claim that as a minority they face discrimination from the central government; they agitate for the right to preserve their cultural and linguistic distinction and more provincial autonomy. See Politics of Khūzestān.

In 1989, the Foolad Ahwaz steel facility was built close to the town. This company is best known for its company-sponsored football club, Foolad F.C., which was the champion of Iran's Premier Football League in 2005.

Commercial Building in Kianpars street

In 2005 the city witnessed a series of bomb explosions. Many government sources relate these events to developments in Iraq, accusing foreign governments of organizing and funding Arab separatist groups. The Arab Struggle Movement for the Liberation of Ahwaz claimed credit for several of the bombings, including four bombs on 12 June 2005, that killed 8 people.[18]

Gunmen killed at least 29 people in an attack on a crowd watching a military parade on 22 September 2018.[19]


There are 9 bridges over the Karun river.[citation needed]

Pol-e Siah (Black Bridge)[edit]

Black Bridge

Black Bridge, also known as Victory Bridge, is the first bridge over of Ahvaz. The bridge was used in WWII to supply Allies in Soviet Union and it had a vast impact in Allies victory.[20]

White Bridge[edit]

White Bridge
8th Bridge

White Bridge (Persian: پل سفید), is an arch bridge completed on the 21st of September 1936 and inaugurated on the 6th of November 1936. The bridge remains a symbol of the city still today.

The other 7 bridges are :

Third bridge, Naderi bridge, Fifth bridge, Sixth bridge, Seventh bridge (also named Dialogue among civilizations bridge), Cable bridge, and Ninth bridge.

Location and roads[edit]

Ahvaz is located 100 km north-east of Abadan and is accessible via following routes in addition of a single runway airport:

Ahvaz, being the largest city in the province, consists of two distinctive districts: the newer part of Ahvaz which is the administrative and industrial center, which is built on the right bank of the Karun river while residential areas are found in the old section of the city, on the left bank.


Ahwaz has a subtropical hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) with long, hot summers and cool, short winters. Summer temperatures are regularly at least 45 °C (113 °F), sometimes exceeding 50 °C (122 °F),[21] with many sandstorms and duststorms common during the summer period. However, in winters, the minimum temperature can fall to around 5 °C (41 °F). Winters in Ahvaz have no snow. The average annual rainfall is around 230 mm. On June 29, 2017, the temperature reached 54 °C (129 °F).[22] Furthermore, the dew point peaked at 23 °C (73 °F) which is unusually humid for the usual dry heat. Despite the fact that it has never snowed in Ahvaz, it has fallen down to −7.0 °C (19.4 °F) before.

Sahel Cinema
Climate data for Ahvaz (1951–2010, records 1951-2022)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 28.0
Average high °C (°F) 17.5
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.3
Average low °C (°F) 7.2
Record low °C (°F) −7.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 48.2
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 4.9 3.6 3.6 2.8 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 2.9 4.5 24.2
Average relative humidity (%) 71 61 51 41 28 22 24 28 29 38 53 69 43
Average dew point °C (°F) 6.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 174.7 193.2 214.1 233.8 284.4 326.2 336.1 331.2 301.8 263.5 209.5 176.4 3,044.9
Source 1: Iran Meteorological Organization (records),[23] (temperatures),[24]
  • "Average Maximum temperature in Ahwaz by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 26 May 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  • "Average Mean Daily temperature in Ahwaz by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 17 April 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  • "Average Minimum temperature in Ahwaz by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 30 May 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) (precipitation),[25] (humidity),[26] (days with precipitation),[27] (sunshine)[28][29]
Source 2: IRIMO(Dew point 1957-2010)[30]


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.

According to the 2016 census, the city had an estimated population of 1.1 million people.[33]


Based on a survey taken by the Iranian ministry of culture in 2010, the most common languages in Ahvaz are Persian (44.8%), Arabic (35.7%), and Bakhtiari (15.8%).[34] Many Ahvazis are bilingual, speaking both Persian and one of the following languages/Dialects. The Arabic spoken in Ahvaz is a variety of Khuzestani Arabic.[35][36][37] Another part of Ahvazis speak Bakhtiari dialect of Luri language.[38][39][40] Modern Mandaic (or Mandae) language is also spoken among the Mandaeans of Ahvaz. It is a descendant of the Classical Mandaic language that has been partially influenced by Khuzestani Persian.

Languages of Khuzestan Province
Language Percente


In 2011, the World Health Organization ranked Ahvaz as the world's most air-polluted city.[41] The reason Ahvaz is so polluted is because of its oil industry. The pollution can be very dangerous, causing different types of diseases, and can be harmful to plants.[42]



Ahvaz International Airport --of "Martyr Major-General Haj Qasem-Soleimani"[43]

Ahvaz International Airport (IATA: AWZ, ICAO: OIAW) (Persian: فرودگاه بین‌المللی اهواز) is an airport serving the city of Ahvaz, Iran.


Ahvaz Railway Station

Ahwaz railway station (Persian: ايستگاه راه آهن اهواز, Istgah-e Rah Ahan-e Ahvaz) is located in Ahvaz, Khuzestan Province.

  • Ahwaz is accessible via freeways from Isfahan and Shiraz, and roadways to Tehran.
  • A metro urban railway system is being built by the Ahvaz urban railway. The system is planned to have a total of four lines. Line 1 will be a 23 km underground line with 24 stations.[44]


Traditionally, Khuzestan province has been a major soccer hub in Iran. The city has two existing sport complexes: Takhti Stadium and the newly constructed Ghadir Stadium. There are several other smaller complexes for martial arts, swimming pools and gymnasiums. Also, a new privately owned stadium is currently under construction by Foolad F.C. in Ahvaz.


Image of a flare stack in Ahvaz, due to inefficient combustion, emits tons of black colored soot into the atmosphere, causing problems like climate change and cancer around the country.[45]
Foolad Arena, home of Foolad FC

Football is a major part of the city's culture. The abundant enthusiasm has made Ahvaz home to three Iranian major Football clubs: Foolad, Esteghlal Khuzestan are currently playing in the Persian Gulf Pro League, and Esteghlal Ahvaz is playing in Azadegan League.

Foolad have won the league on two occasions, the 2013–2014 season and the 2004–2005 season. Esteghlal Ahvaz finished runners–up in the league in the 2006–2007 season. In 2016, Esteghlal Khuzestan won the league for the first time.

A number of other teams such as Foolad B the second team of Foolad and Karun Khuzestan play in the 2nd Division.


Ahvaz has also two teams in the Iranian Futsal Super League, which are Sherkat Melli Haffari Iran FSC and Gaz Khozestan FSC.

Colleges and universities[edit]

Ahvaz is also known for its universities as well as its role in commerce and industry. Ahvaz institutes of higher learning include:

Notable people[edit]

Hamed Haddadi


Panoramic view of Ahvaz at night
Panoramic view of Ahvaz at night

See also[edit]


  1. ^ OpenStreetMap contributors (22 July 2023). "Ahvaz, Ahvaz County" (Map). OpenStreetMap. Retrieved 22 July 2023.
  2. ^ امینی شهردار منتخب اهواز شد Iranian Students' News Agency
  3. ^ "Statistical Center of Iran > Home". www.amar.org.ir.
  4. ^ Getting know to Ahwaz aparat.com Retrieved 5 May 2018
  5. ^ AbdulHussain Sa'dian, Land and people of Iran, Anthropology and ceremonies of Iranian ethnicities, publishers science and life, pp. 463–463.
  6. ^ Public statistics of population and housing amar.org.ir 5 May 2018
  7. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 06. Archived from the original (Excel) on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  8. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1390 (2011)" (Excel). Iran Data Portal (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 06. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  9. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1395 (2016)". AMAR (in Persian). The Statistical Center of Iran. p. 06. Archived from the original (Excel) on 21 October 2020. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
  10. ^ "Khuzestan (Iran): Counties & Cities - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". www.citypopulation.de.
  11. ^ Bar Bahlul, Hasan. "Bar Bahlul Dictionary". Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  12. ^ Dodgeon M. H. and Lieu S. N. C., The Roman Eastern Frontier and The Persian Wars; A Documentary History, London (1991), p.35; ISBN 0-415-10317-7
  13. ^ "Ahvaz". toiran.com. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
  14. ^ cf. Encyclopædia Iranica
  15. ^ X. de Planhol, Encyclopædia Iranica
  16. ^ Encyclopædia Iranica, p.690, see entry: Ahvaz
  17. ^ Ibid, p.690
  18. ^ Arab Struggle Movement for the Liberation of Ahwaz MIPT Terror Knowledge Base
  19. ^ "29 killed, 60 injured in Iran military parade attack on Revolutionary Guards". english.alarabiya.net. 22 September 2018.
  20. ^ "پل سیاه اهواز / پل پیروزی در مسیر تاریخ + گزارش تصویری". 22 March 2015. Archived from the original on 22 March 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  21. ^ "Where is the world's hottest city?". the Guardian. 22 July 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  22. ^ "Temperatures in Iranian city of Ahvaz hit 129.2F (54C), near hottest on Earth in modern measurements". The Independent. 30 June 2017. Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  23. ^ *"Highest record temperature in Ahwaz by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  24. ^ *"Average Maximum temperature in Ahwaz by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 26 May 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  25. ^ "Monthly Total Precipitation in Ahwaz by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  26. ^ "Average relative humidity in Ahwaz by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 26 May 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  27. ^ "No. Of days with precipitation equal to or greater than 1 mm in Ahwaz by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  28. ^ "Monthly total sunshine hours in Ahwaz by Month 1951–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  29. ^ "40811: Ahwaz (Iran)". ogimet.com. OGIMET. 19 June 2022. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  30. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 January 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  31. ^ "Iran: Provinces, Major Cities & Towns - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". www.citypopulation.de.
  32. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" (Excel). Statistical Center of Iran. Archived from the original on 20 September 2011.
  33. ^ population amar.org.ir
  34. ^ فهرست نویسی پیش از انتشار کتابخانه ملی جمهوری اسلامی ایران * شماره کتاب شناسه ملّی:۲۸۹۰۶۹۰ *عنوان و نام پدیدآورنده:طرح بررسی و سنجش شاخص‌های فرهنگ عمومی کشور (شاخص‌های غیرثبتی){گزارش}:گزارش‌های پیشرفت طرح‌ها وکلان شهرها/به سفارش شورای فرهنگ عمومی کشور؛ مدیر طرح و مسئول سیاست گذاری:منصور واعظی؛ اجرا:شرکت پژوهشگران خبره پارس *بهاء:۱۰۰۰۰۰ ریال-شابک:۷-۶۸-۶۶۲۷-۶۰۰-۹۷۸ *وضعیت نشر:تهران-مؤسسه انتشارات کتاب نشر ۱۳۹۱ *وضعیت ظاهری:۲۹۵ ص:جدول (بخش رنگی)، نمودار (بخش رنگی)*یادداشت:عنوان دیگر:طرح و بررسی و سنجش شاخص‌های فرهنگ عمومی کشور (شاخص‌های غیرثبتی) سال ۱۳۸۹ *توصیفگر:شاخص‌های غیرثبتی+شاخص‌های فرهنگی+گزارش‌های پیشرفت طرح‌ها و کلان‌شهرها *توصیفگر:ایران ۳۸۶۲۸۹ *تهران۱۹۹۰۶۶ /مشهد۲۹۲۳۴۱ /اصفهان ۱۷۰۰۱۷/تبریز۱۸۴۸۱/کرج ۲۷۸۲۵۲/شیراز۲۵۱۷۰۳/اهواز۱۷۶۴۰۳/قم۲۷۰۸۷۷ *شناسنامه افزوده:واعظی، منصور، ۱۳۳۳–۷۳۵۰۶۸ *شناسنامه افزوده:شرکت پژوهشگران خبره پارس /شورای فرهنگ عمومی *مرکز پخش:خیابان ولیعصر، زرتشت غربی، خیابان کامبیز، بخش طباطبایی رفیعی، پلاک۱۸، تلفن:۷–۸۸۹۷۸۴۱۵ *لیتوگرافی، چاپ و صحافی:سازمان چاپ و انتشارات اوقاف
  35. ^ Iranian Arabs parsine.com Retrieved 24 June 2018
  36. ^ Khuzestani Arabs aparat.com Retrieved 24 June 2018
  37. ^ Khuzestani Arabic isna.ir Retrieved 24 June 2018
  38. ^ Bakhtiari tribes kojaro.com
  39. ^ Bakhtiari Archived 2018-07-25 at the Wayback Machine aparat.com
  40. ^ Arab Kamari/Arab-Bakhtiari Archived 2018-07-24 at the Wayback Machine rangvarehayeyekrang.ir
  41. ^ Walsh, Bryan (27 September 2011). "The 10 Most Air-Polluted Cities in the World". Time. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
  42. ^ "Pollution". Ahwaz, Iran. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  43. ^ Changing the name of Ahwaz international Airport to "Martyr Major-General Haj Qasem Soleimani" iribnews.ir Retrieved 27 March 2020
  44. ^ Ahwaz Urban & Suburban Railway Organization Archived 2018-11-16 at the Wayback Machine (in Persian)
  45. ^ "Soot - Cancer-Causing Substances - National Cancer Institute". www.cancer.gov. 20 March 2015.

External links[edit]